Indiana Jones


Indiana Jones
Henry "Indiana" Jones, Jr.
Indiana Jones character
Indiana Jones in Raiders of the Lost Ark.jpg
Harrison Ford as Indiana Jones in Raiders of the Lost Ark
First appearance Raiders of the Lost Ark
Created by George Lucas
Steven Spielberg
Portrayed by Films:
Harrison Ford (ages 36–58)
River Phoenix (age 13)
TV series:
Neil Boulane (baby)
Corey Carrier (ages 8–10)
Sean Patrick Flanery (ages 16–21)
George Hall (age 93)
Video games:
Doug Lee (voice)
David Esch (voice)
Information
Nickname(s) Indiana
Indy
Henri Defense[1]
Mungo Kidogo[2]
Captain Dynamite, Scourge of the Kaiser[3]
Jonesy[4][5][6]
Occupation Archaeologist
Associate dean
College professor
Soldier
Spy
Title Doctor
Colonel
Family Henry Walton Jones, Sr. (father, deceased)
Anna Mary Jones (mother, deceased)
Susie Jones (sister, deceased)[7]
Spouse(s) Deirdre Campbell Jones (1926)[8]
Marion Ravenwood Jones (1957–present)
Children Henry Walton "Mutt" Jones III
Son[9]
Relatives Pete (uncle)[7]
Fred (uncle)[10]
Grace Jones (aunt)[11]
Frank (cousin)[12]
Caroline (granddaughter, probably via his daughter)[7]
Henry Walton "Spike" Jones IV (grandson, probably via Mutt)[13]
Lucy (granddaughter, probably via his daughter)[9]
Annie Jones (great-granddaughter, probably via Mutt)[7]
Henry Walton "Harry" Jones V (great-grandson, probably via Mutt)[7]
Religion Christian[14]
Nationality American

Colonel Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr., Ph.D.[15] is a fictional character and the protagonist of the Indiana Jones franchise. George Lucas and Steven Spielberg created the character in homage to the action heroes of 1930s film serials. The character first appeared in the 1981 film Raiders of the Lost Ark, to be followed by Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom in 1984, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade in 1989, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles from 1992 to 1996, and Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull in 2008. Alongside the more widely known films and television programs, the character is also featured in novels, comics, video games, and other media. Jones is also featured in the theme park attraction Indiana Jones Adventure, which exists in similar forms at Disneyland and Tokyo DisneySea.

Jones is most famously played by Harrison Ford and has also been portrayed by River Phoenix (as the young Jones in The Last Crusade), and in the television series The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles by Corey Carrier, Sean Patrick Flanery, and George Hall. Doug Lee has supplied Jones's voice to two LucasArts video games, Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis and Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine, while David Esch supplied his voice to Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb.

Particularly notable facets of the character include his iconic look (bullwhip, fedora, and leather jacket), sense of humor, deep knowledge of many ancient civilizations and languages, and fear of snakes.

Indiana Jones remains one of cinema's most revered movie characters. In 2003, he was ranked as the second greatest movie hero of all time by the American Film Institute.[16] He was also named the sixth greatest movie character by Empire magazine.[17] Entertainment Weekly ranked Indy 2nd on their list of The All-Time Coolest Heroes in Pop Culture.[18] Premiere magazine also placed Indy at number 7 on their list of The 100 Greatest Movie Characters of All Time.[19] Since his first appearance in Raiders of the Lost Ark, he has become a worldwide star. On their list of the 100 Greatest Fictional Characters, Fandomania.com ranked Indy at number 10.[20] In 2010, he ranked #2 on Time Magazine's list of the greatest fictional characters of all time, surpassed only by Sherlock Holmes.[citation needed]

Contents

Appearances

Young Indiana Jones in The Last Crusade

Indiana Jones, played by Harrison Ford, was first introduced in the 1981 film Raiders of the Lost Ark, set in 1936. The character is presented as an adventurer reminiscent of the 1930s film serial treasure hunters and pulp action heroes, whose research is funded by Marshall College (named after producer Frank Marshall)[21] a fictional college in Connecticut, where he is a professor of archaeology. In this first adventure, he is pitted against the Nazis, traveling the world to prevent them from recovering the Ark of the Covenant (see also Biblical archaeology). He is aided by Marion Ravenwood and Sallah. The Nazis are led by Jones's archrival, a Nazi-sympathizing French archaeologist named René Belloq, and Arnold Toht, a sinister Gestapo agent.

The 1984 prequel, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, set in 1935, took the character into a more horror-oriented story, skipping his legitimate teaching job and globe trotting, and taking place almost entirely in India. This time, Jones attempts to recover children and the Sankara stones from the bloodthirsty Thuggee cult. He is aided by Short Round and accompanied by Willie Scott (Kate Capshaw).

The third film, 1989's Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, set in 1938, returned to the formula of the original, reintroducing characters such as Sallah and Marcus Brody, a scene from Professor Jones's classroom (he now teaches at Barnett College), the globe trotting element of multiple locations, and the return of the infamous Nazi mystics, this time trying to find the Holy Grail. The film's introduction, set in 1912, provided some back story to the character, specifically the origin of his fear of snakes, his use of a bullwhip, the scar on his chin, and his hat; the film's epilogue also reveals that "Indiana" is not Jones's first name, but a nickname he took from the family dog. The film was a buddy movie of sorts, teaming Jones with his father, often to comical effect. Although Lucas intended at the time to do five films, this ended up being the last for over eighteen years, as Lucas could not think of a good plot element to drive the next installment.[22]

The 2008 film, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, became the latest film in the series. Set in 1957, 19 years after the third film, it pits an older, wiser Indiana Jones against Soviet agents bent on harnessing the power of a crystal skull discovered in South America by his former colleague Harold Oxley (John Hurt). He is aided in his adventure by an old lover, Marion Ravenwood (Karen Allen), and her son—a young greaser named Henry "Mutt" Williams (Shia LaBeouf), later revealed to be his biological child, Henry Jones III. There were rumors that LaBeouf will take over the Indy franchise.[23] This film also reveals that Jones was recruited by the Office of Strategic Services (a predecessor department to the CIA) during World War II, attaining the rank of Colonel and running covert operations with MI6 agent George McHale on the Soviet Union.

Television

From 1992 to 1996, George Lucas executive-produced a television series named The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, which was designed as an educational program for children, spotlighting historical figures and important events, using the concept of a prequel to the films as a draw. The show featured a standard formula of a 93-year-old Jones (George Hall), wearing an eye patch, introducing a story, and then an adventure with either a 17-year-old Jones (Sean Patrick Flanery) or a 10-year-old Jones (Corey Carrier), and even a baby Indy (Neil "Boulie" Boulane). Historical figures featured on the show include Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Leo Tolstoy, Pancho Villa, Charles de Gaulle, Mata Hari, Elliot Ness, Ernest Hemingway, Patrick Pearse, Vladimir Lenin, T. E. Lawrence, Winston Churchill, Herman Göring, Theodore Roosevelt, Manfred von Richthofen, and John Ford, in such diverse locations as Egypt, Austria-Hungary, India, China, and the whole of Europe.

One episode, "Young Indiana Jones and the Mystery of the Blues", is bookended by Harrison Ford, reprising his role as the character. Indiana loses one of his eyes sometime between 1957 and when the "Old Indy" segments take place.

The show provided some backstory for the films, as well as new information regarding the character. He was born July 1, 1899, and his middle name is Walton (Lucas's middle name). It is also mentioned that he had a sister called Suzie who died as an infant of fever, and that he eventually has a daughter and grandchildren who appear in some episode introductions and epilogues. His relationship with his father, first introduced in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, was further fleshed out with stories about his travels with his father as a young boy. A large portion of the series centered around his activities during World War I.

In 1999, Lucas removed the episode introductions and epilogues by George Hall for the VHS and DVD releases, as he re-edited the episodes into chronologically ordered feature-length stories. The series title was also changed to The Adventures of Young Indiana Jones.

Video games

The character has appeared in several officially licensed games, including LEGO Indiana Jones video games, beginning with adaptations of Raiders of the Lost Ark, Temple of Doom, two adaptations of The Last Crusade (one with purely action mechanics, one with an adventure and puzzle based structure) and Indiana Jones' Greatest Adventures which included the storylines from all three of the original films.

Following this, the games branched off into original storylines with Indiana Jones in the Lost Kingdom, Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis, Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine, Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb and Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings.[24] Emperor's Tomb sets up Jones's companion Wu Han and the search for Nurhaci's ashes seen at the beginning of Temple of Doom. The first two games were developed by Hal Barwood and starred Doug Lee as the voice of Indiana Jones; Emperor's Tomb had David Esch fill the role and Staff of Kings starred John Armstrong.

Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine The Infernal Machine was the first Indy-based game presented in three dimensions, as opposed to 8-bit graphics and side-scrolling games before.

There is also a small game from Lucas Arts Indiana Jones and His Desktop Adventures. A video game was made for young Indy called Young Indiana Jones and the Instruments of Chaos, as well as a video game version of The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles.

Two Lego Indiana Jones games have also been released. Lego Indiana Jones: The Original Adventures was released in 2008[25] and follows the plots of the first three films. It was followed by LEGO Indiana Jones 2: The Adventure Continues in late 2009. The sequel includes an abbreviated reprise of the first three films, but focuses on the plot of Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull.

Indiana Jones has also made cameo appearances as an unlockable character in the games Mercenaries: Playground of Destruction and Lego Star Wars: The Complete Saga.

Theme parks

Indiana Jones is featured at several Walt Disney theme park attractions. The Indiana Jones Adventure attractions at Disneyland and Tokyo DisneySea ("Temple of the Forbidden Eye" and "Temple of the Crystal Skull," respectively) place Indy at the forefront of two similar archaeological discoveries. These two temples each contain a wrathful deity who threatens the guests who ride through in World War II troop transports. The attractions, some of the most expensive of their kind at the time, opened in 1995 and 2001, respectively, with sole design credit attributed to Walt Disney Imagineering. Disney did not license Harrison Ford's likeness for the North American version; nevertheless, a differentiated Indiana Jones audio-animatronic character appears at three points in both attractions. However, the Indiana Jones featured in the DisneySea version does use Harrison Ford's likeness but uses Japanese audio for all of his speaking parts. In 2010, some of the Indy audio-animatronics at the Disneyland version have been replaced and now resemble Ford.[26]

Disneyland Resort Paris also features an Indiana Jones-titled ride where people speed off through ancient ruins in a runaway mine wagon similar to that found in Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom. Indiana Jones and the Temple of Peril is a looping roller coaster engineered by Intamin AG, designed by Walt Disney Imagineering, and opened in 1993.

The Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular! is a live show that has been presented in the Disney's Hollywood Studios theme park of the Walt Disney World Resort with few changes since the park's 1989 opening under a different name. The 25-minute show presents various stunts framed in the context of a feature film production, and recruits members of the audience to participate in the show. Stunt artists in the show re-create and ultimately reveal some of the secrets of the stunts of the Raiders of the Lost Ark films, including the well-known "running-from-the-boulder" scene. Stunt performer Anislav Varbanov was fatally injured in August 2009, while rehearsing the popular show.[27] Also at Disney's Hollywood Studios, an audio-animatronic Indiana Jones appears in another attraction; during the The Great Movie Ride's Raiders of the Lost Ark segment.

Character description and formation

In his role as a college professor of archaeology, Henry Jones Jr. is scholarly and learned in a tweed suit, lecturing on ancient civilizations. In Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, it is revealed that Jones is influenced by the Marxist Archaeologist, Vere Gordon Childe, whose qualified acceptance of cultural diffusionism theory he propounds. Ironically, though Childe loathes fieldwork,[28] Indy goes on to say, "If you want to be a good archaeologist, you gotta get out of the library." This is in tongue-in-cheek contrast to the previous film's comment, "Seventy percent of all archaeology is done in the library."

However, at the opportunity to recover important artifacts, Dr. Jones transforms into "Indiana," a "non-superhero superhero" image he has concocted for himself.[29] Producer Frank Marshall said, "Indy [is] a fallible character. He makes mistakes and gets hurt. [...] That's the other thing people like: He's a real character, not a character with superpowers."[30] Spielberg said there "was the willingness to allow our leading man to get hurt and to express his pain and to get his mad out and to take pratfalls and sometimes be the butt of his own jokes. I mean, Indiana Jones is not a perfect hero, and his imperfections, I think, make the audience feel that, with a little more exercise and a little more courage, they could be just like him."[31] According to Spielberg biographer Douglas Brode, Indiana created his heroic figure so as to escape the dullness of teaching at a school. Both of Indiana's personas reject one another in philosophy, creating a duality.[29] Harrison Ford said the fun of playing the character was because Indiana is both a romantic and a cynic,[32] while scholars have analyzed Indiana as having traits of a lone wolf; a man on a quest; a noble treasure hunter; a hardboiled detective; a human superhero; and an American patriot.[33]

Like many characters in his films, Jones has some autobiographical elements of Spielberg. Indiana lacks a proper father figure because of his strained relationship with his father, Henry Senior. His own contained anger is misdirected at the likes of Professor Abner Ravenwood, his mentor at the University of Chicago, leading to a strained relationship with Marion Ravenwood.[29] The teenage Indiana bases his own look on a figure from the prologue of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, after being given his hat.[34] Marcus Brody acts as Indiana's positive role model at the college.[34] Indiana's own insecurities are made worse by the absence of his mother.[35] In Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, the character becomes the father in a temporary family unit with Willie Scott and Short Round to survive. Indiana is rescued from the evil of Kali by Short Round's dedication. Indiana also saves many children from slavery.[35]

Because of Indiana's strained relationship with his father, who was absent much of Indiana's youth searching for the Holy Grail, the character does not pursue the more spiritual aspects of the cultures he studies. Indiana uses his knowledge of Shiva to ultimately defeat Mola Ram.[35] In Raiders, however, he is wise enough to close his eyes in the presence of God in the Ark of the Covenant. By contrast, his rival Rene Belloq dies horribly for having the audacity to try to communicate directly with God.[29]

In Crusade's prologue, Indiana's intentions are revealed as prosocial, as he believes artifacts "belong in a museum." In the film's climax, Indiana undergoes "literal" tests of faith to retrieve the Grail and save his father's life. He also remembers Jesus as a historical figure – a humble carpenter – rather than an exalted figure when he recognizes the simple nature and tarnished appearance of the real Grail amongst a large assortment of much more ornately decorated ones. Henry Senior rescues his son from falling to his death when reaching for the fallen Grail, telling him to "let it go," overcoming his mercenary nature.[34] The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles explains how Indiana becomes solitary and less idealistic after fighting in World War I.[36] In Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, Jones is older and wiser, whereas his sidekicks Mutt and Mac are youthfully arrogant and greedy, respectively.[37]

Origins and inspirations

Indiana Jones is modeled after the strong-jawed heroes of the matinée serials and pulp magazines that George Lucas and Steven Spielberg enjoyed in their childhoods (such as the Republic Pictures serials, and the Doc Savage series). Sir H. Rider Haggard's safari guide/big game hunter Allan Quatermain of King Solomon's Mines, who dates back to 1885, is a notable template for Jones.[38] The two friends first discussed the project in Hawaii around the time of the release of the first Star Wars film.[39] Spielberg told Lucas how he wanted his next project to be something fun, like perhaps a James Bond film. According to sources, Lucas responded to the effect that he had something "even better,"[39] or that he "got that beat."[40]

Two of the possible bases for "Indiana" Jones are Professor Challenger, created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in 1912 for his novel, The Lost World, who was in turn based on his Doyle physiology professor, Sir William Rutherford, an adventuring academic, albeit a zoologist/anthropologist, or Charlton Heston's character of Harry Steele in 1954 Secret of the Incas.[citation needed]

The character was originally named "Indiana Smith" (perhaps in a nod to the 1966 Western film Nevada Smith), after an Alaskan Malamute Lucas owned in the 1970s ("Indiana"); however, Spielberg disliked the name "Smith," and Lucas casually suggested "Jones" as an alternative based on the archaeologist Vendyl Jones.[39] Costume designer Deborah Nadoolman Landis said the inspiration for Indiana's outfit was Charlton Heston's Harry Steele in Secret of the Incas: "We did watch this film together as a crew several times, and I always thought it strange that the filmmakers did not credit it later as the inspiration for the series."[41]

Upon requests by Spielberg and Lucas, the costume designer gave the character a distinctive silhouette through the styling of the hat; after examining many hats, the designers chose a tall-crowned, wide-brimmed fedora. As a documentary of Raiders pointed out, the hat served a practical purpose. Following the lead of the old "B"-movies that inspired the Indiana Jones series, the fedora hid the actor's face sufficiently to allow doubles to perform the more dangerous stunts seamlessly. Examples in Raiders include the wider-angle shot of Indy and Marion crashing a statue through a wall, and Indy sliding under a fast-moving vehicle from front to back. Thus it was necessary for the hat to stay in place much of the time.

The hat became so iconic that the filmmakers could only come up with very good reasons or jokes to remove it. If it ever fell off during a take, filming would have to stop to put it back on. In jest, Ford put a stapler against his head to stop his from falling off when a documentary crew visited during shooting of The Last Crusade. This created the urban legend that Ford stapled the hat to his head.[42] Although other hats were also used throughout the movies, the general style and profile remained the same. Elements of the outfit include:

  • The fedora was supplied by Herbert Johnson Hatters in England for the first three films. It was referred to as "The Australian Model" by costume designer Deborah Nadoolman Landis and was fitted with a Petersham bow.[43] Indy's fedora for Crystal Skull was made by Steve Delk and Marc Kitter of the Adventurebilt Hat Company.
  • The leather jacket, a hybrid of the "Type 440" and the A-2 jacket, were made by Leather Concessionaires (now known as Wested Leather Co) for Raiders of the Lost Ark and The Last Crusade. For Temple of Doom, jackets were made in-house at Bermans & Nathans in London based on a stunt jacket they provided for Raiders of The Lost Ark. Tony Nowak made the jacket in Kingdom of the Crystal Skull.
  • The bag was a modified Mark VII British gas mask bag, usually worn under the jacket with the exception of Crystal Skull where the bag was worn over the jacket.
  • The whip was a 8 to 10 foot (2.4 to 3.0 m) bullwhip crafted by David Morgan for the first three films. The whips for Crystal Skull were crafted by a variety of people, including Terry Jacka, Joe Strain and Morgan (different lengths and styles were likely used in specific stunts).
  • The pistol was usually a World War I-era revolver, including the Webley Government (Last Crusade and Crystal Skull), or a .45 ACP Smith & Wesson Hand Ejector 2nd model revolver (Raiders). He has also used an M1917 revolver (Temple of Doom), a Nagant M1895 (Young Indiana Jones), and a 9 mm Browning Hi-Power (Raiders).[44] The weapon is carried in a military pattern flap holster.
  • The shoes were made by Alden. A stock style (model 405) that had been a favorite of Ford's before the movies, they are still sold today (though in a redder (brick) shade of brown than seen in the movies) and are popularly known as "Indy Boots."[45]

Jones's fedora and leather jacket (as used in The Last Crusade) are on display at the Smithsonian's American History Museum in Washington, D.C.[46] The collection of props and clothing from the films has become a thriving hobby for some aficionados of the franchise.[47] Jones' whip was the third most popular film weapon, as shown by a 2008 poll held by 20th Century Fox, which surveyed approximately two thousand film fans.[48]

Casting

Originally, Spielberg suggested Harrison Ford; Lucas resisted the idea, since he had already cast the actor in three of his movies (American Graffiti, Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, and Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back), and did not want Ford to become known as his "Bobby De Niro" (in reference to the fact that fellow director Martin Scorsese regularly cast Robert De Niro in his films).[39] During an intensive casting process, Lucas and Spielberg auditioned many actors, and finally cast then little-known actor Tom Selleck as Indiana Jones. Shortly afterward pre-production began in earnest on Raiders of the Lost Ark.[39] However, CBS refused to release Selleck from his contractual commitment to Magnum, P.I. (which was gradually gaining momentum in the ratings), forcing him to turn down the role.[39] One of CBS's concerns was that shooting for Magnum P.I. conflicted with shooting for Raiders, both of which were to begin about the same time. However, Selleck was to say later in an interview that shooting for Magnum P.I. was delayed and did not actually begin until shooting for Raiders had concluded. Sadly for Selleck, he could have finished his participation in Raiders and still had time to return for Magnum.

After Spielberg suggested Ford again, Lucas gave in, and Ford was cast in the role less than three weeks before filming of Raiders began.[39]

Models

Many people are said to be the real-life inspiration of the Indiana Jones character—although none of the following have been confirmed as inspirations by George Lucas or Steven Spielberg. There are some suggestions, listed here In alphabetical order by last name:

George Lucas has said on various occasions that Sean Connery's portrayal of British secret agent James Bond was one of the primary inspirations for Jones, a reason Connery was chosen for the role of Indiana's father in the third film, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade.[59][60]

Influence

Though some archaeologists criticize Indy's methods as befitting a "looter" rather more than a careful worker of precious sites, many have adopted the popular figure as something of a standard-bearer for their profession.[61] The industry magazine Archaeology, believing that Jones, as one editor said, was "a horrible archaeologist but a great diplomat for archaeology,"[61] named eight past and current archaeologists who they felt "embodied [Jones'] spirit" as recipients of the "Indy Spirit Awards" in 2008.[62] That same year Ford himself was elected to the Board of Directors of the Archaeological Institute of America. Commenting that "understanding the past can only help us in dealing with the present and the future," Ford was praised by the association's president for his character's "significant role in stimulating the public's interest in archaeological exploration."[63]

While himself a homage to various prior adventurers, aspects of Indiana Jones also directly influenced some subsequent characterizations:

  • Lara Croft, the female archaeologist of the Tomb Raider franchise, was originally designed as a man, but was changed to a woman, partly because the developers felt that the original design was too similar to Indiana Jones.[64] Paramount Pictures, which distributed the Indiana Jones film series, would later make two films based on the Tomb Raider games.
  • Nathan Drake, The main protagonist of the Uncharted Video game series.
  • Prince of Persia producer Ben Mattes explained that their "inspiration was anything Harrison Ford has ever done: Indiana Jones, Han Solo."[65]
  • The video game series Uncharted is also very heavily influenced by Indiana Jones,[66] as well as some of the influences that led to Indiana Jones himself, such as pulp magazines and movie serials.[67] The design team felt the sources shared themes of mystery and "what-if scenarios" that romanticized adventure and aimed to include those in Uncharted.[68]
  • Jack West Jr, a character featured in 3 Matthew Reilly books, (Seven Ancient Wonders, The Six Sacred Stones and The Five Greatest Warriors) is heavily influenced by Indiana Jones. Reilly himself is a big fan of George Lucas.
  • Rick O'Connell of The Mummy and its sequels.
  • Ben Franklin Gates of the National Treasure film series.
  • In the game World of Warcraft there is an NPC named Harrison Jones, a reference to Indiana Jones and the actor Harrison Ford. This NPC teaches Archaeology to the character, making them able to find ancient treasures around the world. Furthermore, the game area Uldum has numerous playable quests with Harrison Jones as the main character, which contain a number of lines and references from Raiders of the Lost Ark.
  • The Tia Carrere television show Relic Hunter.
  • Robert Langdon from such Dan Brown novels as Angels & Demons, The Da Vinci Code, and The Lost Symbol, adapted for cinema.

References

  1. ^ The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, American Broadcasting Company, "London, May 1916", 1992-03-11.
  2. ^ The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, American Broadcasting Company, "Congo, January 1917", 1992-04-08.
  3. ^ The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, American Broadcasting Company, "Congo, January 1917", 1992-04-08.
  4. ^ The Adventures of Young Indiana Jones: Chapter 19 – Winds of Change, American Broadcasting Company.
  5. ^ The Adventures of Young Indiana Jones: Chapter 20 – Mystery of The Blues, American Broadcasting Company.
  6. ^ Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008).
  7. ^ a b c d e The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, American Broadcasting Company, "Peking, March 1910", 1993-06-26
  8. ^ a b Rob MacGregor (November 1991). Indiana Jones and the Seven Veils. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-29035-6. http://www.randomhouse.com/bantamdell/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780553293340. 
  9. ^ a b The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, American Broadcasting Company, "Ireland, April 1916", 1993-06-12
  10. ^ The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, American Broadcasting Company, "Mexico, March 1916", 1992-03-04
  11. ^ The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, American Broadcasting Company, "Mexico, March 1916", 1992-03-04
  12. ^ The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, American Broadcasting Company, "Mexico, March 1916", 1992-03-04
  13. ^ The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, American Broadcasting Company, "Chicago, April 1920".
  14. ^ The Adventures of Young Indiana Jones: Chapter 5 – Journey of Radiance, American Broadcasting Company
  15. ^ The character's full name is stated in the Corey Carrier narration of the feature-length episode My First Adventure from The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles.
  16. ^ "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains". afi.com. http://connect.afi.com/site/DocServer/handv100.pdf?docID=246. Retrieved 2010-05-21. 
  17. ^ "Empire's The 100 Greatest Movie Characters". Empire Magazine. http://www.empireonline.com/100-greatest-movie-characters/default.asp?c=6. Retrieved 2010-05-21. 
  18. ^ "Entertainment Weekly's 20 All Time Coolest Heroes in Pop Culture". Entertainment Weekly. http://www.ew.com/ew/gallery/0,,20268279_19,00.html. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  19. ^ "Premiere's The 100 Greatest Movie Characters". Filmsite.org. http://www.filmsite.org/100characters4.html. Retrieved 2010-05-21. 
  20. ^ "The 100 Greatest Fictional Characters". Fandomania.com. http://fandomania.com/100-greatest-fictional-characters-10-6/. Retrieved 2010-05-21. 
  21. ^ Fulks, Tricia (2008-05-26). "Indiana Jones teaches at Marshall". Charleston Daily Mail. Archived from the original on 2008-05-26. http://web.archive.org/web/20080528045617/http://www.dailymail.com/News/statenews/200805260088. Retrieved 2010-06-20. 
  22. ^ Nick de Semlyen, Ian Freer, Chris Hewitt, Ian Nathan, Sam Toy (2006-09-29). "A Race Against Time: Indiana Jones IV". Empire. pp. 100. 
  23. ^ "My Indiana Jones Crackpot Theory". http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/features/2008/02/indy_update200802. Retrieved January 2, 2011. 
  24. ^ "Indiana Jones". Lucas Arts. http://lucasarts.com/games/indianajones/. Retrieved 2007-12-11. 
  25. ^ "LEGO Indiana Jones". Lucas Arts. http://lucasarts.com/games/legoindianajones/. Retrieved 2007-12-11. 
  26. ^ http://www.disunplugged.com/2010/02/08/disneyland-resort-whats-worth-seeing-in-2010/
  27. ^ Willoughby Mariano (2009-08-18). "Disney performer dies during rehearsal". Orlando Sentinel. http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/2009-08-18/news/disney_1_epic-stunt-spectacular-indiana-jones-cast-member. 
  28. ^ Green, Sally (1981). Prehistorian: A Biography of V. Gordon Childe. Moonraker Press. p. 64. ISBN ISBN 0-239002067. 
  29. ^ a b c d Douglas Brode (1995). The Films of Steven Spielberg. Citadel. pp. 90–98. ISBN 0-8065-1540-6. 
  30. ^ Anthony Breznican (2007-12-09). "First look: Whip cracks over new 'Indiana Jones' movie". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/movies/news/2007-12-09-indiana-jones_N.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  31. ^ Jim Windolf (2007-12-02). "Q&A: Steven Spielberg". Vanity Fair. http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/features/2008/02/spielberg_qanda200802?currentPage=3. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  32. ^ Shinji Hata (interviewer) (1994). From Star Wars to Indiana Jones: The Best of the LucasFilm Archives. LucasFilm. 
  33. ^ Maria Puente (2008-05-22). "Indiana Jones: He's Everyman, with wit and a whip". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/movies/news/2008-05-22-indiana-jones-cover_N.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  34. ^ a b c Douglas Brode (1995). The Films of Steven Spielberg. Citadel. pp. 174, 176–187. ISBN 0-8065-1540-6. 
  35. ^ a b c Douglas Brode (1995). The Films of Steven Spielberg. Citadel. pp. 141–43. ISBN 0-8065-1540-6. 
  36. ^ Travis Fickett (2008-05-22). "Indiana Jones and the Small Screen". IGN. http://uk.tv.ign.com/articles/875/875720p3.html. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  37. ^ "News, Etc.". Empire. March 2008. pp. 17. 
  38. ^ http://www.superheroflix.com/news/NE0ab607ewPH26 "Based on a 1885 novel by Henry Rider Haggard, exploits of Allan Quartermain have long served as a template for the Indiana Jones character. King Solomon's Mines (1950), Quartermain finds himself unwillingly thrust into a worldwide search for the legendary mines of King Solomon. The look and feel of Indiana and his past adventures are quite apparent. Both Quartermain and Jones are confronted by angry villagers and a myriad of dangerous booby traps. Look to King Solomon's Mines for a good idea on the feel and tone Lucas and Spielberg are after with their latest Indiana Jones outing".
  39. ^ a b c d e f g "Making Raiders of the Lost Ark". IndianaJones.com. 2003-09-23. Archived from the original on 2003-12-07. http://web.archive.org/web/20031207015023/http://www.indianajones.com/raiders/bts/news/news20030923.html. 
  40. ^ Nashawaty, Chris; "National Treasure"; Entertainment Weekly; March 14, 2008.
  41. ^ Mike French & Gilles Verschuere (2005-09-14). "Debora Nadoolman interview". TheRaider.net. http://www.theraider.net/features/interviews/deborah_nadoolman.php. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  42. ^ "Hat and Jacket featurette". Official site. 2008-02-08. http://www.indianajones.com/site/?deeplink=videos/1/v28. Retrieved 2008-02-08. 
  43. ^ "The Indiana Jones Fedora". Indy Gear. http://www.indygear.com/igfedora.html. 
  44. ^ "Indiana Jones Guns". IndyGear.com. http://www.indygear.com/igguns.html. Retrieved 2008-07-02. 
  45. ^ "Indiana Jones Boots". IndyGear.com. http://www.indygear.com/igboots.html. Retrieved 2007-12-11. 
  46. ^ "Shrine to the Famous: Indiana Jones's hat and jacket, 1980s". Smithsonian Institution. http://smithsonianlegacies.si.edu/objectdescription.cfm?ID=125. Retrieved 2007-12-11. 
  47. ^ "IndyGear.com". http://www.indygear.com/. Retrieved 2007-12-11. 
  48. ^ Sophie Borland (2008-01-21). "Lightsabre wins the battle of movie weapons". London: The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/01/21/nweapon121.xml. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  49. ^ Preston, Douglas J. (1993). Dinosaurs in the Attic: An Excursion Into the American Museum of Natural History. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-10456-1. , pp. 97–98, "Andrews is allegedly the real person that the movie character of Indiana Jones was patterned after... crack shot, fighter of Mongolian brigands, the man who created the metaphor of 'Outer Mongolia' as denoting any exceedingly remote place."
  50. ^ "Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)". Filmsite.org. http://www.filmsite.org/raid.html. Retrieved 2007-12-11. 
  51. ^ Gene Sloan (2005-09-22). "The trail less trampled on". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/travel/destinations/2005-09-22-peru_x.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-11. 
  52. ^ "Lost City of the Incas". United States Senate. http://www.senate.gov/reference/reference_item/LostCity.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-11. 
  53. ^ Molly Schranz (2003-12-21). "Obituary: Robert and Linda Braidwood". Chicago Maroon. http://maroon.uchicago.edu/news/articles/2003/01/21/obituary_robert_and_.php. Retrieved 2006-09-21. "Some say he was the real life inspiration for Indiana Jones." 
  54. ^ "Oriental Institute Tour". The University of Chicago. https://collegeadmissions.uchicago.edu/archived/tour/oriental.html. Retrieved 2009-07-11.  "Some sources say that Breasted was the inspiration for Indiana Jones; others say it was Robert Braidwood."
  55. ^ French, Mike. "Lawrence of Arabia". TheRaider.net. http://www.theraider.net/information/influences/lawrence_of_arabia.php. Retrieved 2009-07-11. 
  56. ^ "Keeper of the Past". 1999-09-21. http://www.northwestern.edu/magazine/northwestern/fall1999/quinn.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  57. ^ "Nazi treasure, giant scorpions... and a crystal skull: The adventures of the REAL Indiana Jones". Daily Mail (London). 2008-04-28. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/news.html?in_article_id=562487&in_page_id=1770. Retrieved 2008-05-14. 
  58. ^ Preston, John (2008-05-22). "The original Indiana Jones: Otto Rahn and the temple of doom". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2008/05/22/sv_rahn125.xml. Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  59. ^ Bond Inspiration For Indiana Jones
  60. ^ Fleurier, Nicolas (2006). James Bond & Indiana Jones. Action figures. Histoire & Collections. ISBN 2-35250-005-2. 
  61. ^ a b Mike Peed (2008-06-09). "Digging". The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/talk/2008/06/09/080609ta_talk_peed. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 
  62. ^ Eti Bonn-Muller and Eric A. Powell (May / June 2008). "Indy Spirit Awards". Archaeology. http://www.archaeology.org/0805/trenches/indy.html. Retrieved 2007-07-17. 
  63. ^ "Harrison Ford Elected to AIA Board" (Press release). Archaeological Institute of America. 2008-06-09. http://www.archaeological.org/webinfo.php?page=10477. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
  64. ^ Toby Gard, Jeremy Heath Smith, Ian Livingston (interviews); Keeley Hawes (narrator) (2007). Ten Years of Tomb Raider: A GameTap Retrospective. Eidos Interactive / GameTap. 
  65. ^ As quoted in Gary Steinman, "Prince of Persia: Anatomy of a Prince," PlayStation: The Official Magazine 13 (December 2008): 50.
  66. ^ http://www.industrygamers.com/news/interview-amy-hennig-on-making-uncharted-2-maximizing-ps3-and-more/
  67. ^ Game Informer Staff (April 2007). "Uncharted: Drake's Fortune". Game Informer (Cathy Preston) (168): 44–53. 
  68. ^ Nelson, Randy (November 2007). "Off The Chart – Uncharted: Drake's Fortune". PlayStation Magazine (Future plc) (129): 26–33. 

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