World YWCA

: For other uses, see Young Women's Christian AssociationThe World YWCA is the umbrella organization of the global network of the YWCA - a movement of women working for social and economic change around the world. It advocates for young women’s leadership, peace, justice, human rights and sustainable development, both on a grassroots and global scale. It is the oldest and one of the largest women’s organizations in the world. [ [http://www.worldywca.info/index.php/ywca/world_ywca/about_us/our_history World YWCA | World YWCA | About us | Our History ] ] The full name of the organization is the World Young Women's Christian Association and is currently based in Geneva, Switzerland.

The original Christian focus is still strong in many of the national associations, but some have changed their focus to social programs and services and mission-based topics.

The YWCA is independent of the YMCA, though many local YMCA and YWCA associations have amalgamated into YM/YWCAs or YMCA-YWCAs, and belong to both organizations while providing the programs of each.

1855-1930

The movement that resulted in the World YWCA began in Britain in 1855 in the midst of the Industrial Revolution and the Crimean War. Founded through the convergence of social activist Lady Mary Jane Kinnaird’s General Female Training Institute, and committed Christian Emma Robarts’ Prayer Union, it sought to be a social and spiritual support system for young British women.

Due to the nature of Kinnaird’s interest in work abroad and the expansiveness of the British Empire, the initiative spread rapidly to western and northern Europe, India, and the United States [Anna Rice, A History of the World’s Young Women’s Christian Association (New York: Woman’s Press 1947)] . The pace and success of the World YWCA movement spoke of a considerable need for the services provided by the association, primarily access to educational and religious classes, hostels for young women, and opportunities for both service and recreation.

The first world conference of the YWCA was held in 1898 in London, with 326 participants from seventeen countries [Carole Seymour-Jones, Journey of Faith: The History of the World YWCA 1945-1994 (London: Allison & Busby 1994)] from around the world. It was a pivotal point in the founding of the World YWCA, cementing the principles of unity based on service and faith on a global scale.

In the beginning of the twentieth century, a profound shift began to occur within the YWCA. While industrialization had been a founding concern of the association, it had sought primarily to insulate women morally and socially from urban life. During the 1910 World YWCA conference in Berlin, however, the voices of thousands of working women from the United States were heard, and these objectives began to change. A resolution was passed requiring the association to study social and industrial problems, and to educate working women about the ‘social measures and legislation enacted in their behalf.’ [Dorothea Browder, A Christian Solution of the Labor Situation: How Workingwomen Reshaped the YWCA's Religious Mission and Politics (Journal of Women’s History, Vol 19, Summer 2007)] Thus the social conscience of the YWCA was born into the form that it maintains today.

Until 1930, the headquarters of the World YWCA were located in London. The executive committee was entirely British, with an American General Secretary. This policy resulted in a resolutely Anglo-Saxon lens through which the association viewed the world. In 1930, however, the World YWCA headquarters were moved to Geneva, Switzerland, the same city as the newly formed League of Nations. This was both symbolic of the drive to become a more diverse association, and to enable itself to fully participate with other organizations in Geneva (such as the International Committee of the Red Cross and the YMCA.)

World War II

The Second World War both strengthened the YWCAs of the world, and left its mark. Many of its members found themselves in situations where they were forced to choose between their conscience and the safety of themselves and their families. In several countries, particularly in Eastern Europe, YWCAs were suppressed and disbanded. Throughout occupied Europe, however, women worked relentlessly to construct support systems for their neighbours and refugees, often with exceedingly limited resources. [Karen Garner, Global Feminism and Postwar Reconstruction: The World YWCA Visitation to Occupied Japan, 1947 (Journal of World History, Vol. 15, June 2004)]

Shortly after the end of the war, the YWCA worked to fortify the bonds of women throughout the world by holding the first World Council meeting in nearly a decade in Hangzhou in 1947. This was significant in the fact that it was the first World Council held outside of the West5, and further voiced the desire to be an inclusive, worldwide movement [Karen Garner, Global Feminism and Postwar Reconstruction: The World YWCA Visitation to Occupied Japan, 1947 (Journal of World History, Vol. 15, June 2004)] . It also served to bring together women who lived in countries that had been enemies during the war, and to raise awareness among the western YWCAs that the ruin of war was not limited to Europe.

During the following decades, the World YWCA spent much time researching and working with the issues of refugees, health, HIV and AIDS, literacy, the human rights of women and girls, the advancement of women and the eradication of poverty; mutual service, sustainable development and the environment; education and youth, peace and disarmament, and young women’s leadership. These issues continue to play an integral role in the World YWCA movement.

YWCAs around the world

The YWCA is present in over 120 countries.

A [http://www.worldywca.info/index.php/ywca/world_ywca/national_ywcas full list of YWCA ] around the world.

UK

In the United Kingdom, the name has been truncated to YWCA England & Wales [http://www.ywca.org.uk/] as Christianity no longer plays an integral part in the organisation. YWCA England & Wales concentrates on informal education (youth work), information and signposting for young women growing up in disadvantaged areas. It also campaigns on issues that affect young women. YWCA's most recent campaign was called [http://www.ywca.org.uk/youngmums Respect young mums] , and was about getting better support for teenage mothers.

Jury's Hotel, Great Russell Street, London, was originally built by Sir Edwin Lutyens as the YWCA headquarters - the railings at the entrance still bear the YWCA monogram.

US

Founded in 1858, YWCA USA has nearly 300 associations nationwide at close to 1,100 sites serving 2.6 million members and participants. Associations are configured into 9 regions. Regions vary in size from 19 associations (New England) to 60 associations (Great Lakes). Average of the other regions is 32 associations. The associations employ about 14,000 staff members - 44% are full-time and 56% part-time. In 2004, the YWCA USA utilized 75,225 volunteers to deliver our services. A YWCA logo was created in 1988 by Saul Bass.Fact|date=October 2007

In 2004, YWCA USA associations registered 2.6 million people in programs for children, youth and adults, of which 22% were helped with domestic violence programs, 8% were involved in economic empowerment & leadership development programs, 10% participated in racial justice programs, 7% were served by housing and shelter programs, 24% experienced child, youth and teen programs, 24% enjoyed the benefits of health, fitness and aquatic programs. The majority of the YWCA USA associations publicly advocate on Racial Justice, Violence Against Women, Early Childhood Education and Increasing Women's Income issues.

The YWCA of The City of New York, the oldest of all of the YWCAs in the United States, is 150 years old. They are unique in that the organization is guided purely by human service-oriented programs rather than physical services. Such programs include their "Early Learning Centers, Family Resource Center, Out-of-School Programs, Professional Development Programming," and "Women's Employment Programming" to name a few and still guided by the YW mission of eliminating racism and empowering women. They are a major component of the non-profit community in New York City. They produce several fundraising events annually including the "Salute to Women Leaders Luncheon", the "YWCA-NYC Theatre Benefit" (featuring the broadway hit "The Color Purple" in 2005 and the revival of Michael Bennett's "A Chorus Line" in 2006). Their annual "Summer Soirée" (held at the W Hotel in 2005 and Cipriani 23rd Street in 2006) at which they present their "W" award. This award is presented to a woman who is a visionary, an innovator, trend-setter, a woman who gives back to her community and helps those the YW serves daily: the women, girls and families of New York City. In 2005, this award was given to Marian McEvoy and in 2006 to Star Jones-Reynolds.

Prior to the U.S. civil rights movement, some YWCA facilities were segregated or operated as separate organizations. Advocates like Helen L. Seaborg in Washington, D.C. worked successfully to mediate mergers between the segregated groups. Today the YWCA works worldwide to eliminate racism.

The YWCA USA is a preeminent provider of domestic violence programs and shelters in the United States, serving well over ½ million women and children. As comparison, the largest national hotline averages 192,000 calls per year. They are one of the largest providers of child care in the United States with nearly 350,000 children cared for, possibly more children than the largest for-profit center chain. The total income per year is almost $650 million - ($649,500,430). Of this amount, 49% is from government grants, 23% from public support (individuals, foundations, corporations) and membership fees, and 21% from program service fees.

The YWCA USA is an organizational member of the Coalition to Stop Gun Violence, which advocates gun control.

Advocacy

Although 'YWCA' is often associated with hostels and fitness centres - the World YWCA see itself as a human right's based organization. Many association around the world run hostels, gyms, swimming pools and sports facilities, these activities form part of a strategy to prepare women - particularly young women for leadership. The World YWCA sates its purpose as: "develop the leadership and collective power of women and girls around the world to achieve human rights, health, security, dignity, freedom, justice and peace for all people". [ [http://www.worldywca.info/index.php/ywca/world_ywca/about_us/strategic_directions World YWCA | World YWCA | About us | Strategic directions ] ] Providing women with shelter, either from abusive partners or as they migrate to the city, and building young women's confidence through sports and fitness is one of the strategies used in the YWCA movement to build leadership in women.

Since the 1940s the World YWCA has focused on specific global issues including:

Refugees

While the YWCAs had, on various levels, been active with refugees for some time, the issue took a central focus during the beginning of the invasion of Palestine, which left hundreds of thousands of people homeless. The movement officially stated in 1949 that it would ‘maintain its impartial character, meeting human needs without respect to nationality, race, creed or political conviction’ in regard to the need to work with all peoples. Since then there have been programs to provide income and to meet the basic needs of those living in refugee camps, such as adequate healthcare, education and literacy programs, and childcare.

Underpinning refugee work has been the movement for peace and justice. With its policy rooted in the 1920s, the World YWCA has emphasized peace education and justice as an integral part of the movement’s promotion of human rights. The movement officially recognized these concepts as enmeshed during the conference in Singapore in 1983, wherein the statement was made, “No solution can be found for one people at the expense of another,” [Carole Seymour-Jones, Journey of Faith: The History of the World YWCA 1945-1994 (London: Allison & Busby 1994)] in regard to Israel’s occupation of Palestine.

HIV and AIDS

During the World YWCA Council in Phoenix, Arizona in 1987, the World YWCA passed a resolution urging the national organizations to implement programs for education for the prevention of the spread of HIV. Today, YWCAs in 70 countries have programs related to HIV, including prevention, advocacy, treatment, care and support, and addressing stigma. The YWCA works closely with HIV positive women on a grassroots level. Initiatives within the YWCA by HIV-positive women have allowed for the tailoring of programs to meet the specific needs of their communities. Hand in hand with the prevention of HIV, the World YWCA has strongly promoted access to the female condom. According to a statement made by Dr. Musimbi Kanyoro, former General Secretary of the World YWCA (1998 - 2007) “Accelerated female condom distribution and education is essential. HIV infection rates among women are rising disproportionately to men in every region of the world, and young women and girls account for 76 percent of infections among African youth. And when AIDS affects women, it affects entire families and communities, tearing apart social safety nets and fuelling instability and conflict.” [PRNewswire (November 21, 2005). Statement of Dr. Musimbi Kanyoro http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musimbi_Kanyoro, General Secretary, World YWCA. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-08-03]

In 2005, the World AIDS day statement issued by the World YWCA strongly urged national health ministries, other aid agencies, and international NGOs to purchase a minimum of 180 million second-generation female condoms for annual global distribution. Additionally, the movement called on governments to ensure that the female condom is marketed to women in local communities and promoted as an effective method to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. [ [http://www.femalehealth.com/InvestorRelations/investor_pressreleases/press_2005_11_22_YMCAPartnership.pdf Microsoft Word - 11_22_05 YMCA Partner-2_r.doc ] ]

The World YWCA recently held the first international conference on Women and HIV and AIDS. [ [http://www.kaisernetwork.org/health_cast/hcast_index.cfm?display=detail&hc=2104 International Women's Summit: Women's Leadership on HIV and AIDS - Day 2 - Kaisernetwork.org ] ] The International Women's Summit on HIV and AIDS featured speakers from UNAIDS, YWCAs and other global leaders. The Positive Women's Forum, held on the first day, was organised by and for HIV-positive women; over 300 women attended.

Sustainable Development

Sustainable development has also been a characterizing priority for the YWCA. In 1987, the World YWCA stated its “extensive commitment to development that empowers women to become decision-makers and community leaders.” [World YWCA Annual Report, 1987-88. (Geneva: World YWCA 1988)] The movement has emphasized a gender and human rights approach, acknowledging the exploitative and exclusionary factors that perpetuate the feminisation of poverty.

The World YWCA has been involved in recent global forums on sustainable development and related issues, and is an active member of the Ecumenical Advocacy Alliance, a network of churches and ecumenical organisations working for recognition of international human rights, social, and environmental agreements as a priority over trade agreements and policies. [ [http://www.worldywca.info/index.php/ywca/world_ywca/our_priorities/sustainable_development/development_programmes World YWCA | World YWCA | Our Priorities | Sustainable development | Development Programmes ] ] There are YWCA programs for sustainable development in 40 countries, ranging from literacy and awareness building of environmental issues in Papua New Guinea to skills building and job training in Peru.

Partner organizations

As a principle of young women’s leadership, the World YWCA is involved with other youth organizations, such as Youth Employment Net, European Youth Forum, and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. It is also a member of CONGO, Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations in a Consultative Relationship with the United Nations.

Programmes

YWCA Week Without Violence

Each year during the third week in October, YWCAs around the world focus on raising awareness on violence against women. The YWCA Week Without Violence was launched in 1995 and has grown from a grassroots initiative into a global movement with women, men and children participating in events in over 20 countries. The Canadian YWCA in particular has a strong program for working with domestic violence. The YWCA is Canada’s largest national network of shelter (45 facilities at 24 sites) and subsidized housing for homeless women and women escaping violence. [ [http://www.ywcacanada.ca/ Welcome to YWCA Canada ] ]

YWCA Week of Prayer

Starting in 1904, the World YWCA and the World Alliance of YMCAs have issued a joint call to prayer during the Week of Prayer and World Fellowship. During this week, the two movements pray and act together on a particular theme in solidarity with members and partners around the world. The week-long event is a Bible study based on that year’s theme.

World YWCA Day

At the World Council meeting in Hangzhou, China in 1947, the decision was made to establish an Annual YWCA Membership Celebration. The 1947 Council asked the Executive Committee to assume responsibility for the design of the celebration and in 1948, an Advisory Group of the Executive Committee conducted a survey among nation associations and defined the name, aim and timing of the soon-to-be annual event. World’s YWCA Observance Day was born and its aim was to help each individual member to see how she could act locally in relation to the theme for the year. The Wednesday or Thursday of the last week of April was chosen as the date for the Observance Day each year. In 1949, a Planning Group was made, representing national associations, members of the Executive Committee and the World YWCA staff. Some chosen themes for the Observance Day have been: My Faith and My Work, My Place in the World, My Contribution to World Peace, I Confront a Changing World, Toward One World and My Task in Family Life Today. In 1972, it was decided at an Executive Committee meeting that the event name would be changed to World YWCA Day and that the theme would be chosen by the Executive Committee from among various programmes decided by the World Council. At an Executive Committee Task Force meeting in 1989, it was decided that the date of celebration for World YWCA Day would be April 24.

World YWCA Councils

The most recent World YWCA Council took place in Nairobi, Kenya in July 2007, where Susan Brennan, an Australian barrister and former co-president of the YWCA of Australia succeeded Mónica Zetzsche, and Nyaradzai Gumbonzvanda, a UNIFEM programme director and human rights lawyer from Zimbabwe succeeded General Secretary Dr. Musimbi Kanyoro.

Notably during this council, the Constitution was revised to offer a more inclusive interpretation of the YWCA’s founding principles.

The first international conference on Women and AIDS was held during the World YWCA Council 2007. The International Women’s Summit on HIV and AIDS discussed women's leadership in HIV and AIDS and featured speakers such as Dr Peter Pito, UNAIDS and Mary Robinson. The conference was organized in partnership with the International Community of Women living with HIV (ICW). A ten-point Call to Action was launched at the end of the conference [ [http://www.google.ch/url?sa=t&ct=res&cd=5&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.worldywca.info%2Findex.php%2Fywca%2Fworld_council_iws%2Fiws_women_s_summit&ei=T7eoR4H-K5mE-AKFp7XjAg&usg=AFQjCNHnrnCUrBgYtfv0J93L8VpqGnPbJg&sig2=mjCpPB9QqI8BzVdwCnbOMw World YWCA | World Council & IWS | IWS - Women’s Summit ] ] .

Controversy

In 1978, during the presidency of Nita Barrow, Elizabeth Palmer, the World YWCA’s General Secretary of twenty-two years retired. The candidate for her replacement seemed obvious; the highly qualified Brigalia Bam, a South African YWCA Programme Secretary for Natal and Zululand, and Assistant National Executive Secretary of the World Affiliated YWCA of South Africa, the creator of the Women’s Unit at the World Council of Churches and Moderator on Education and Renewal. As the World Executive Committee convened for elections, however, an unwillingness to accept black leadership became apparent. Bam was overlooked in favour of Erica Brodie, the former National Executive Director of the YWCA of New Zealand and two year member of the World staff. Overwhelmed and unable to coordinate the World staff, Brodie resigned in 1982.

Bibliography

*Mary S. Sims, The YWCA: An Unfolding Purpose (New York: Woman's Press, 1950)
*Mary S. Sims, The Purpose Widens, 1947-1967 (New York: YWCA, 1969)
*Anna Rice, A History of the World’s Young Women’s Christian Association (New York: Woman’s Press 1947)
*Karen Garner, Global Feminism and Postwar Reconstruction: The World YWCA Visitation to Occupied Japan, 1947
*Carole Seymour-Jones, Journey of Faith: The History of the World YWCA 1945-1994 (London: Allison & Busby 1994)
*Dorothea Browder, A Christian Solution of the Labor Situation: How Workingwomen Reshaped the YWCA's Religious Mission and Politics (Journal of Women’s History, Vol 19, Summer 2007)

See also

*YMCA
*92nd Street Y

References


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