Metropolitan Thesis in Canadian History
The Metropolitan Thesis, also known as the Laurentian thesis, is one of the dominant schools in Canadian historical thought. The basic argument of the school states that the driving force in Canadian History has been the nation's metropolitan areas. These originally included
Paris, London(after 1763), and finally Montrealand Torontoin the modern era.
The roots of the metropolitan thesis are found in the writing of
Harold Innis, one of Canada's most respected historians. Innis' The Fur Trade in Canada[Innis, Harold (1927). "The Fur Trade in Canada." Toronto: University of Toronto Press.] , as well as his work on the Canadian Pacific Railway[Innis, Harold (1923). "A History of the Canadian Pacific Railway." Toronto: McClelland and Stewart] , put forward the idea that geography, commerce, and resource-exploitation were the driving forces of Canadian history. The urban centres of Montrealand Torontoprovided the impetus for the growth and formation of the Canadian nation.
Donald Creightonin his The Empire of the St. Lawrence[Creighton, Donald (1956). "The Empire of the St. Lawrence." Toronto: Macmillan.] argued that the massive waterway of the St. Lawrence Riverand its connections across the continent "became the basis of an extensive communication system around which Canada itself took shape." [Careless, J. M. S (March 1964) "Frontierism, Metropolitanism, and Canadian History" The Canadian Historical Review 35 No 1 pp. 14] The common trend in the historical roots of the metropolitan thesis is its opposition to the Frontier Thesisput forth by Frederick Jackson Turnerto explain the forces behind American History.
The Metropolitan Thesis
The first articulation of the metropolitan thesis occurred in 1954, with an article in the
Canadian Historical Reviewby historian J. M. S. Carelessentitled " Frontierism, Metropolitanism, and Canadian History". Careless argues that the developing eastern centres of commerce and industry controlled and oversaw the development of the Canadian nation. The metropolitan school studied "the effects of the East on the West, and largely regarded businessmen and conservative urban political elements as agents of national expansion who might well be more far-sighted in their outlook than were their agrarian opponents." [Careless, J. M. S (March 1964) "Frontierism, Metropolitanism, and Canadian History" The Canadian Historical Review 35 No 1 pp. 16]
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