Intel Corporation


Intel Corporation

Infobox Company
company_name = Intel Corporation
company_
company_type = Public (nasdaq|INTC, hkex|4335)
slogan = "Leap Ahead"
foundation = 1968 1
location = Santa Clara, California (incorporated in Delaware) USA
key_people = Paul S. Otellini, CEO
Craig Barrett, Chairman
founders = Gordon E. Moore and Robert Noyce
num_employees = 86,300 (2007) cite web|url=http://money.cnn.com/quote/snapshot/snapshot.html?symb=INTC |title=Intel Corporation - company profile |accessdate=2007-10-17 |work=CNN |publisher=Time Warner]
industry = Semiconductors
products = Microprocessors
Flash memory
Motherboard Chipsets
Network Interface Card
Bluetooth Chipsets
revenue = gain $38.3 billion USD (2007) [cite web
url=http://www.edn.com/article/CA6424781.html
title=AMD wins 2006 revenue battle with Intel, iSuppli says
accessdate=2007-11-05
] [cite web
url=http://www.informationweek.com/news/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=198001312
title=Chipmaker Report: Intel's Revenue Sank In 2006
accessdate=2007-11-05
]
operating_income = gain $8.2 billion USD (2007) | net_income = gain $7.0 billion USD (2007) | homepage = [http://www.intel.com/ intel.com]
footnotes = 1Incorporated in California in 1968, reincorporated in Delaware in 1989. cite web|url=http://secfilings.nasdaq.com/edgar_conv_html%2f2006%2f02%2f27%2f0000891618-06-000089.html#FIS_BUSINESS |title=INTEL CORP (Form: 10-K, Received: 02/27/2006 06:02:42) |accessdate=2007-07-05 |date=2005-12-31 |work=United States Securities and Exchange Commission ]

Intel Corporation (nasdaq|INTC; hkex|4335) is the world's largest semiconductor company and the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers. Founded on July 18, 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation and based in Santa Clara, California, USA, Intel also makes motherboard chipsets, network cards and ICs, flash memory, graphic chips, embedded processors, and other devices related to communications and computing. Founded by semiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, and widely associated with the executive leadership and vision of Andrew Grove, Intel combines advanced chip design capability with a leading-edge manufacturing capability. Originally known primarily to engineers and technologists, Intel's successful "Intel Inside" advertising campaign of the 1990s made it and its Pentium processor household names.

Intel was an early developer of SRAM and DRAM memory chips, and this represented the majority of its business until the early 1980s. While Intel created the first commercial microprocessor chip in 1971, it was not until the success of the personal computer (PC) that this became their primary business. During the 1990s, Intel invested heavily in new microprocessor designs and in fostering the rapid growth of the PC industry. During this period Intel became the dominant supplier of microprocessors for PCs, and was known for aggressive and sometimes controversial tactics in defense of its market position, as well as a struggle with Microsoft for control over the direction of the PC industry.cite news |first=Dan |last=Goodin |coauthors= |title=Microsoft's holy war on Java |date=1998-09-23 |publisher=CNET News.com |url=http://www.news.com/2009-1001-215854.html |work=news.com |pages= |accessdate=2008-01-07 |language=] cite news |first=Lea |last=Graham |coauthors= |title=USA versus Microsoft: the fourth week |date=1998-12-14 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/04/98/microsoft/215645.stm |work=BBC News |pages= |accessdate=2008-01-07 |language=] The 2007 rankings of the world's 100 most powerful brands published by Millward Brown Optimor showed the company's brand value falling 10 places – from number 15 to number 25. cite web|url=http://www.millwardbrown.com/Sites/optimor/Content/KnowledgeCenter/BrandzRanking2007.aspx |title=Brandz Ranking 2007 |accessdate=2007-07-28 |date=2007 |publisher=Millward Brown Optimor ]

In addition to its work in semiconductors, Intel has begun research in electrical transmission and generation. [cite news|url=http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20080821/ts_afp/usitinternetenergychipcompanyintel|title=Intel cuts electric cords with wireless power system|last=AFP|date=2008-08-21|publisher=Yahoo! News|accessdate=2008-08-22] [cite news|url=http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/08/21/technology/21intel.php|title=Intel moves to free gadgets of their recharging cords|last=Markoff|first=John|date=2008-08-21|work=International Herald Tribune|publisher=The New York Times Company|accessdate=2008-08-22]

Corporate history

Intel was founded in 1968 by Gordon E. Moore (a chemist and physicist) and Robert Noyce (a physicist and co-inventor of the integrated circuit) when they left Fairchild Semiconductor. A number of other Fairchild employees also went on to participate in other Silicon Valley companies. Intel's third employee was Andy Grove, [The Andrew Grove article explains how a clerical error exchanged the employee ID numbers of Grove and the fourth employee, Leslie L. Vadász, whom Grove had hired.] (a chemical engineer), who ran the company through much of the 1980s and the high-growth 1990s. Grove is now remembered as the company's key business and strategic leader. By the end of the 1990s, Intel was one of the largest and most successful businesses in the world.Fact|date=September 2007 |Some statistics needed|date=September 2007

Origin of the name

At its founding, Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce wanted to name their new company "Moore Noyce". The name, however, sounded remarkably similar to "more noise" — an ill-suited name for an electronics company, since noise is typically associated with bad interference. They then used the name NM Electronics for almost a year, before deciding to call their company INTegrated ELectronics or "Intel" for short. However, Intel was already trademarked by a hotel chain, so they had to buy the rights for that name at the beginning. [web cite |url=http://www.theinquirer.net/default.aspx?article=42469 |title=Secret of Intel name revealed |publisher=The Inquirer |author=Theo Valich |date=2007-09-19 |accessdate=2007-09-19]

Company's evolution

Intel has grown through several distinct phases. At its founding, Intel was distinguished simply by its ability to make semiconductors, and its primary products were static random access memory (SRAM) chips. Intel's business grew during the 1970s as it expanded and improved its manufacturing processes and produced a wider range of products, still dominated by various memory devices.

While Intel created the first microprocessor (Intel 4004) in 1971 and one of the first microcomputers in 1972, cite web|url=http://www.old-computers.com/MUSEUM/computer.asp?c=754&st=1 |title=Intel Intellec Series |accessdate=2007-07-31 |last=Silberhorn |first=Gottfried |coauthors=Colin Douglas Howell |work=old-computers.com |publisher=OLD-COMPUTERS.COM ] cite web|url=http://download.intel.com/museum/research/arc_collect/timeline/TimelineDateSort7_05.pdf |title=A chronological list of Intel products. The products are sorted by date. |accessdate=2007-07-31 |date=2005-07 |format=PDF |work=Intel museum |publisher=Intel Corporation ] by the early 1980s its business was dominated by dynamic random access memory chips. However, increased competition from Japanese semiconductor manufacturers had by 1983 dramatically reduced the profitability of this market, and the sudden success of the IBM personal computer convinced then-CEO Grove to shift the company's focus to microprocessors, and to change fundamental aspects of that business model. By the end of the 1980s this decision had proven successful, and Intel embarked on a 10-year period of unprecedented growth as the primary (and most profitable) hardware supplier to the PC industry.

After 2000, growth in demand for high-end microprocessors slowed and competitors garnered significant market share, initially in low-end and mid-range processors but ultimately across the product range, and Intel's dominant position was reduced. In the early 2000s then-CEO Craig Barrett attempted to diversify the company's business beyond semiconductors, but few of these activities were ultimately successful.

In 2005, CEO Paul Otellini reorganized the company to refocus its core processor and chipset business on platforms (enterprise, digital home, digital health, and mobility) which led to the hiring of over 20,000 new employees. In September 2006 due to falling profits, the company announced a restructuring that resulted in layoffs of 10,500 employees or about 10 percent of its workforce by July 2006. Its research lab located at Cambridge University was closed at the end of 2006.

ale of XScale processor business

On June 27, 2006, the sale of Intel's XScale assets was announced. Intel agreed to sell the XScale processor business to Marvell Technology Group for an estimated $600 million in cash and the assumption of unspecified liabilities. The move is intended to permit Intel to focus its resources on its core x86 and server businesses. The acquisition was completed on November 9, 2006.cite news |first= |last= |coauthors= |title=Marvell buys Intel's handheld processor unit for $600 million |date=2006-06-27 |publisher=CMP Media LLC. |url=http://www.eetimes.com/news/latest/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=189601851 |work=eetimes.com |pages= |accessdate=2007-07-12 |language=]

Market history

RAMS and the microprocessor

The company's first products were shift register memory and random-access memory integrated circuits, and Intel grew to be a leader in the fiercely competitive DRAM, SRAM, and ROM markets throughout the 1970s. Concurrently, Intel engineers Marcian Hoff, Federico Faggin, Stanley Mazor and Masatoshi Shima invented the first microprocessor. Originally developed for the Japanese company Busicom to replace a number of ASICs in a calculator already produced by Busicom, the Intel 4004 was introduced to the mass market on November 15, 1971, though the microprocessor did not become the core of Intel's business until the mid-1980s. (Note: Intel is usually given credit with Texas Instruments for the almost-simultaneous invention of the microprocessor.)

From DRAM to microprocessors

In 1983, at the dawn of the personal computer era, Intel's profits came under increased pressure from Japanese memory-chip manufacturers, and then-President Andy Grove drove the company into a focus on microprocessors. Grove described this transition in the book "Only the Paranoid Survive". A key element of his plan was the notion, then considered radical, of becoming the single source for successors to the popular 8086 microprocessor.

Until then, manufacture of complex integrated circuits was not reliable enough for customers to depend on a single supplier, but Grove began producing processors in three geographically distinct factories, and ceased licensing the chip designs to competitors such as Zilog and AMD. When the PC industry boomed in the late 1980s and 1990s, Intel was one of the primary beneficiaries.

Intel, x86 processors, and the IBM PC

Despite the ultimate importance of the microprocessor, the 4004 and its successors the 8008 and the 8080 were never major revenue contributors at Intel. As the next processor, the 8086 (and its variant the 8088) was completed in 1978, Intel embarked on a major marketing and sales campaign for that chip nicknamed "Operation Crush", and intended to win as many customers for the processor as possible. One design win was the newly-created IBM PC division, though the importance of this was not fully realized at the time.

IBM introduced its personal computer in 1981, and it was rapidly successful. In 1982, Intel created the 80286 microprocessor, which, two years later, was used in the IBM PC/AT. Compaq, the first IBM PC "clone" manufacturer, in 1985 produced a desktop system based on the faster 80286 processor and in 1986 quickly followed with the first 80386-based system, beating IBM and establishing a competitive market for PC-compatible systems and setting up Intel as a key component supplier.

In 1975 the company had started a project to develop a highly-advanced 32-bit microprocessor, finally released in 1981 as the Intel iAPX 432. The project was too ambitious and the processor was never able to meet its performance objectives, and it failed in the marketplace. Intel extended the x86 architecture to 32 bits instead. [cite web
last=Maliniak
first=Lisa
title=Ten Notable Flops: Learning From Mistakes
work=Electronic Design Online
date=October 21, 2002
url=http://electronicdesign.com/Articles/Index.cfm?AD=1&ArticleID=2839
accessdate=2007-11-27
] [cite web
last=Dvorak
first=John C.
authorlink=John C. Dvorak
title=What Ever Happened to... Intel's Dream Chip?
work=
date=February 1997
url=http://www.brouhaha.com/~eric/retrocomputing/intel/iapx432/dreamchip.html
accessdate= 2007-11-27
]

386 microprocessor

During this period Andy Grove dramatically redirected the company, closing much of its DRAM business and directing resources to the microprocessor business. Of perhaps greater importance was his decision to "single-source" the 386 microprocessor. Prior to this, microprocessor manufacturing was in its infancy, and manufacturing problems frequently reduced or stopped production, interrupting supplies to customers. To mitigate this risk, these customers typically insisted that multiple manufacturers produce chips they could use to ensure a consistent supply. The 8080 and 8086-series microprocessors were produced by several companies, notably Zilog and AMD. Grove made the decision not to license the 386 design to other manufacturers, instead producing it in three geographically distinct factories in Santa Clara, CA; Hillsboro, OR; and the Phoenix, Arizona suburb of Chandler; and convincing customers that this would ensure consistent delivery. As the success of Compaq's Deskpro 386 established the 386 as the dominant CPU choice, Intel achieved a position of near-exclusive dominance as its supplier. Profits from this funded rapid development of both higher-performance chip designs and higher-performance manufacturing capabilities, propelling Intel to a position of unquestioned leadership by the early 1990s.

486, Pentium, and Itanium

Intel introduced the 486 microprocessor in 1989, and in 1990 formally established a second design team, designing the processors code-named "P5" and "P6" in parallel and committing to a major new processor every two years, versus the four or more years such designs had previously taken. The P5 was earlier known as "Operation Bicycle" referring to the cycles of the processor. The P5 was introduced in 1993 as the Intel Pentium, substituting a trademarked name for the former part number (numbers, like 486, cannot be trademarked). The P6 followed in 1995 as the Pentium Pro and improved into the Pentium II in 1997. New architectures were developed alternately in Santa Clara, California and Hillsboro, Oregon.

The Santa Clara design team embarked in 1993 on a successor to the x86 architecture, codenamed "P7". The first attempt was dropped a year later, but quickly revived in a cooperative program with Hewlett-Packard engineers, though Intel soon took over primary design responsibility. The resulting implementation of the IA-64 64-bit architecture was the Itanium, finally introduced in June 2001. The Itanium's performance running legacy x86 code did not achieve expectations, and it failed to effectively compete with 64-bit extensions to the original x86 architecture, first from AMD (the AMD64), then from Intel itself (the Intel 64 architecture, formerly known as EM64T). As of November 2007, Intel continues to develop and deploy the Itanium.

The Hillsboro team designed the Willamette processor (code-named P67 and P68) which was marketed as the Pentium 4, and later developed the 64-bit extensions to the x86 architecture, present in some versions of the Pentium 4 and in the Intel Core 2 chips. Many chip variants were developed at an office in Haifa, Israel.

Pentium flaw

In June 1994, Intel engineers discovered a flaw in the floating-point math subsection of the Pentium microprocessor. Under certain data dependent conditions, low order bits of the result of floating-point division operations would be incorrect, an error that can quickly compound in floating-point operations to much larger errors in subsequent calculations. Intel corrected the error in a future chip revision, but nonetheless declined to disclose it.Fact|date=July 2007

In October 1994, Dr. Thomas Nicely, Professor of Mathematics at Lynchburg College independently discovered the bug, and upon receiving no response from his inquiry to Intel, on October 30 posted a message on the Internet. cite web|url=http://www.emery.com/bizstuff/nicely.htm |title=Dr. Thomas Nicely's Pentium email |accessdate=2007-07-12 |last=Nicely |first=Dr. Thomas R. |date=1994-10-30 |publisher=Vince Emery Productions ] Word of the bug spread quickly on the Internet and then to the industry press. Because the bug was easy to replicate by an average user (there was a sequence of numbers one could enter into the OS calculator to show the error), Intel's statements that it was minor and "not even an erratum" were not accepted by many computer users. During Thanksgiving 1994, The New York Times ran a piece by journalist John Markoff spotlighting the error. Intel changed its position and offered to replace every chip, quickly putting in place a large end-user support organization. This resulted in a $500 million charge against Intel's 1994 revenue.

Ironically, the "Pentium flaw" incident, Intel's response to it, and the surrounding media coverage propelled Intel from being a technology supplier generally unknown to most computer users to a household name. Dovetailing with an uptick in the "Intel Inside" campaign, the episode is considered by some to have been a positive event for Intel, changing some of its business practices to be more end-user focused and generating substantial public awareness, while avoiding (for most users) a lasting negative impression. [Grove, Andrew and Burgleman, Robert; "Strategy Is Destiny: How Strategy-Making Shapes a Company's Future", 2001, Free Press]

Intel Inside, Intel Systems Division, and Intel Architecture Labs

During this period, Intel undertook two major supporting programs that helped guarantee their processor's success. The first is widely-known: the 1990 "Intel Inside" marketing and branding campaign. This campaign established Intel, which had been a component supplier little-known outside the PC industry, as a household name. The second program is little-known: Intel's Systems Group began, in the early 1990s, manufacturing PC "motherboards", the main board component of a personal computer, and the one into which the processor (CPU) and memory (RAM) chips are plugged. Shortly after, Intel began manufacturing fully-configured "white box" systems for the dozens of PC clone companies that rapidly sprang up. At its peak in the mid-1990s, Intel manufactured over 15% of all PCs, making it the third-largest supplier at the time. By manufacturing leading-edge PC motherboards systems, Intel enabled smaller manufacturers to compete with larger manufacturers, accelerating the adoption of the newest microprocessors and system architecture, including the PCI bus, USB and other innovations. This led to more rapid adoption of each of its new processors in turn.Fact|date=July 2007

During the 1990s, Intel's Architecture Lab (IAL) was responsible for many of the hardware innovations of the personal computer, including the PCI Bus, the PCI Express (PCIe) bus, the Universal Serial Bus (USB), Bluetooth wireless interconnect, and the now-dominant architecture for multiprocessor servers. IAL's software efforts met with a more mixed fate; its video and graphics software was important in the development of software digital video, but later its efforts were largely overshadowed by competition from Microsoft. The competition between Intel and Microsoft was revealed in testimony by IAL Vice-President Steven McGeady at the Microsoft antitrust trial.

Another factor contributing to rapid adoption of Intel's processors during this period were the successive release of Microsoft Windows operating systems, each requiring significantly greater processor resources. The releases of Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows 2000 provided impetus for successive generations of hardware.

Competition, antitrust and espionage

Two factors combined to end this dominance: the slowing of PC demand growth beginning in 2000 and the rise of the low cost PC. By the end of the 1990s, microprocessor performance had outstripped software demand for that CPU power. Aside from high-end server systems and software, demand for which dropped with the end of the "dot-com bubble", consumer systems ran effectively on increasingly low-cost systems after 2000. Intel's strategy of producing ever-more-powerful processors and obsoleting their predecessors stumbled, leaving an opportunity for rapid gains by competitors, notably AMD. This in turn lowered the profitability of the processor line and ended an era of unprecedented dominance of the PC hardware by Intel.Fact|date=July 2007

Intel's dominance in the x86 microprocessor market led to numerous charges of antitrust violations over the years, including FTC investigations in both the late 1980s and in 1999, and civil actions such as the 1997 suit by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) and a patent suit by Intergraph. Intel's market dominance (at one time it controlled over 85% of the market for 32-bit PC microprocessors) combined with Intel's own hardball legal tactics (such as its infamous 338 patent suit versus PC manufacturers) [cite news |first=Richard |last=McCausland |coauthors= |title=Counterpunch: Amx86 buyers get 'legal aid.' - Advanced Micro Devices offers legal aid to manufactures of Amx86-based machines warned by Intel Corp. to take out patent licenses |date=1993-05-24 |publisher=LookSmart Ltd. |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EKF/is_n1964_v39/ai_13901771 |work=FindArticles |pages= |accessdate=2007-07-12 |language=] made it an attractive target for litigation, but few of the lawsuits ever amounted to anything.

A case of industrial espionage arose in 1995 that involved both Intel and AMD. Guillermo Gaede, an Argentine formerly employed both at AMD and at Intel's Arizona plant, was arrested for attempting in 1993 to sell the i486 and Pentium designs to AMD and to certain foreign powers.cite news |first= |last= |coauthors= |title=Worker Pleads Not Guilty in Intel Spy Case |date=1995-10-20 |publisher=The New York Times Company |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=990CE7D81239F933A15753C1A963958260 |work=The New York Times |pages= |accessdate=2007-07-12 |language=] Gaede videotaped data from his computer screen at Intel and mailed it to AMD, which immediately alerted Intel and authorities, resulting in Gaede's arrest. Gaede was convicted and sentenced to 33 months in prison in June 1996.cite news |first= |last= |coauthors= |title=Ex-Intel Engineer Sentenced to Prison Term |date=1996-06-25 |publisher=The New York Times Company |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E01E0DE1239F936A15755C0A960958260 |work=The New York Times |pages= |accessdate=2007-07-12 |language=] cite news |first= |last= |coauthors= |title=Ex-Intel employee pleads guilty - Guillermo Gaede pleads guilty to stealing Intel trade secrets - Industry Legal Issue |date=1996-03-25 |publisher=LookSmart, Ltd. |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EKF/is_n2109_v42/ai_18135525 |work=findarticles.com |pages= |accessdate=2007-07-12 |language=]

Partnership with Apple

On June 6 2005, Apple CEO Steve Jobs announced that Apple would be transitioning from its long favored PowerPC architecture to the Intel x86 architecture, because the future PowerPC road map was unable to satisfy Apple's needs. The first Macintosh computers containing Intel CPUs were announced on January 10, 2006, and Apple had its entire line of consumer Macs running on Intel processors by early August 2006. The Apple Xserve server was updated to Intel Xeon processors from November 2006, and is offered in a configuration similar to Apple's Mac Pro. [http://news.com.com/Jobs+New+Intel+Macs+are+screamers/2100-7354_3-6025409.html Jobs: New Intel Macs are 'screamers'] news.com]

Core 2 Duo advertisement controversy

In 2007, the company released a print advertisement for its Core 2 Duo processor featuring six African American runners appearing to bow down to a Caucasian male inside of an office setting (due to the posture taken by runners on starting blocks). According to Nancy Bhagat, Vice President of Intel Corporate Marketing, the general public found the ad to be "insensitive and insulting". cite web|url=http://blogs.intel.com/views/2007/07/sprinter_ad.html |title=Views@Intel - Sprinter Ad (Blog post) |accessdate=2007-08-09 |last=Bhagat |first=Nancy |date=2007-07-31 |work=blogs.intel.com |publisher=Intel Corporation ] The campaign was quickly pulled and several Intel executives made public apologies on the corporate website. cite web|url=http://www.intel.com/news/sprintad.htm?iid=search |title=Apologies from Intel for Sprinter Ad |accessdate=2007-08-09 |last=MacDonald |first=Don |work=Intel Corporation ]

Corporate affairs

In September 2006, Intel had nearly 100,000 employees and 200 facilities world wide. Its 2005 revenues were $38.8 billion and its Fortune 500 ranking was 49th. Its stock symbol is INTC, listed on the NASDAQ.

Leadership and corporate structure

Robert Noyce was Intel's CEO at its founding in 1968, followed by co-founder Gordon Moore in 1975. Andy Grove became the company's President in 1979 and added the CEO title in 1987 when Moore became Chairman. In 1997 Grove succeeded Moore as Chairman, and Craig Barrett, already company president, took over. On May 18 2005, Barrett handed the reins of the company over to Paul Otellini, who previously was the company president and was responsible for Intel's design win in the original IBM PC. The board of directors elected Otellini CEO, and Barrett replaced Grove as Chairman of the Board. Grove stepped down as Chairman, but is retained as a special adviser.

Current members of the board of directors of Intel are Craig Barrett, Charlene Barshefsky, Susan Decker, James Guzy, Reed Hundt, Paul Otellini, James Plummer, David Pottruck, Jane Shaw, John Thornton, and David Yoffie. [cite web |url=http://www.intel.com/pressroom/bod.htm |title=Intel Board of Directors |accessdate=2007-09-15]

Employment

Unlike its Silicon Valley counterparts, Intel has a fairly strict meritocracy that rewards work generously and does not keep underperforming employees around for very long. However, the workplace environment is fairly casual and the company heavily promotes a Work/Life balance. Employees tend to dress casually and speak precisely. The core Intel values include customer orientation, discipline, results orientation, risk taking, quality, and great place to work.

The firm promotes very heavily from within, most notably in its executive suite. The company has resisted the trend toward outsider CEOs. Paul Otellini was a 30-year veteran of the company when he assumed the role of CEO. All of his top lieutenants have risen through the ranks after many years with the firm. In many cases, Intel's top executives have spent their entire working careers with Intel, a very rare occurrence in volatile Silicon Valley.

Intel has a mandatory retirement policy for its CEO when they reach age 65, but only one CEO, Barrett, has actually retired at 65. Previous CEOs all retired before reaching that age; Grove retired at 62, while both Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore retired at 58. At 57, Otellini has a long career at the helm ahead of him, assuming he goes until age 65 and performs satisfactorily.

No one has an office; everyone, even Otellini, sits in a cubicle. This is designed to promote egalitarianism among employees, but some new hires have difficulty adjusting to this change. Intel is not alone in this policy. Hewlett-Packard has a similar no-office policy, as does NVIDIA.

Outside of California, the company has facilities in China, Costa Rica, Malaysia, Mexico, Israel, Ireland, India, Philippines, Russia, and Vietnam internationally. In the U.S. Intel employs significant numbers of people in California, Colorado, Massachusetts, Arizona, New Mexico, Oregon, Texas, Washington, and Utah. [cite web|title=Intel Communities|url=http://www.intel.com/community/selectacommunity.htm?iid=intel_comm+comm_select|work=Intel|accessdate=2008-01-23] In Oregon, Intel is the state's largest employer with over 16,000 employees, primarily in Hillsboro.Suh, Elizabeth. [http://www.oregonlive.com/special/oregonian/index.ssf?/base/news/1192589730189230.xml&coll=7 Home of Oregon's largest employer and much more.] "The Oregonian", October 28 2007.] The company is the largest industrial employer in New Mexico while in Arizona the company has over 10,000 employees.

Diversity Initiative

Intel has a Diversity Initiative, including employee diversity groups as well as supplier diversity programs. cite web|url=http://www.intel.com/jobs/diversity/index.htm |title=Jobs at Intel - Diversity |accessdate=2007-07-28 |work=intel.com |publisher=Intel Corporation ] Like many companies with employee diversity groups, they include groups based on race and nationality as well as sexual identity and religion. In 1994, Intel sanctioned one of the earliest corporate Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender employee groups, [http://www.intelglbt.org/ Intel Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual or Transgender Employees Home Page] ] and supports a Muslim employees group, cite web|url=http://www.intel.com/jobs/diversity/people/emplgroups.htm?grp=13 |title=Jobs at Intel - Diversity, Employee Groups (Intel Muslim Employee Group) |accessdate=2007-07-28 |work=Intel Corporation] a Jewish employees group, cite web|url=http://www.intel.com/jobs/diversity/people/emplgroups.htm?grp=11 |title=Jobs at Intel - Diversity, Employee Groups (Intel Jewish Community) |accessdate=2007-07-28 |work=Intel Corporation ] and a Bible-based Christian group. cite web|url=http://www.intel.com/jobs/diversity/people/emplgroups.htm?grp=7 |title=Jobs at Intel - Diversity, Employee Groups (Intel Bible-Based Christian Network) |accessdate=2007-07-28 |work=Intel Corporation ] [http://ibcn.org/ Intel Bible-Based Christian Network (IBCN) website] ]

Intel received a 100% rating on the first Corporate Equality Index released by the Human Rights Campaign in 2002. It has maintained this rating in 2003 and 2004. In addition, the company was named one of the 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers in 2005 by Working Mother magazine. However, Intel's working practices still face criticism, most notably from Ken Hamidi, cite web|url=http://www.faceintel.com/ |title=FACE Intel Index |accessdate=2007-07-28 |last=Hamidi |first=Ken |work=faceintel.com ] a former employee who has been subject to multiple unsuccessful lawsuits from Intel.

Finances

Intel's market capitalization is $129.34 billion (June 17, 2008). It publicly trades on NASDAQ with the symbol INTC. A widely-held stock, the following indices comprise Intel shares: Dow Jones Industrial Average, S&P 500, NASDAQ-100, SOX (PHLX Semiconductor Sector), and GSTI Software Index.

On July 15, 2008, Intel announced that it had achieved the highest earnings in the history of the company during Q2 2008. [ [http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20080715-intel-posts-record-breaking-q2-earnings.html Intel posts record-breaking Q2 earnings ] ]

Advertising and brand management

Intel has become one of the world's most recognizable computer brands following its long-running "Intel Inside" campaign. The campaign, which started in 1991, [citeweb|title=Intel Inside Program: Anatomy of a Brand Campaign|url=http://www.intel.com/pressroom/intel_inside.htm|publisher="Intel"|accessdate=2008-05-12] was created by Intel marketing manager Dennis Carter. [cite web|title=Intel Inside Program|url=http://www.intel.com/pressroom/intel_inside.htm|work=Intel] The five-note jingle was introduced the following year and by its tenth anniversary was being heard in 130 countries around the world.

The "Intel Inside" program was supportive of advertisers and further served to broaden the company's awareness as a key ingredient inside PCs. Intel paid some of the advertiser's costs for an ad that used the "Intel Inside" logo. If the ads did not meet agreed upon requirements, Intel was not obligated to reimburse costs. PC companies advertising products containing Intel chips include the jingle in their film and television advertisements in order to receive the reimbursement.

The Centrino advertising campaign has been hugely successful, leading to the ability to access wireless internet from a laptop becoming linked in consumers' minds to Intel chips.Fact|date=July 2007 In the UK this has caused some controversy, as the ASA upheld complaints that this was a misleading advert.cite news |first=Tony |last=Smith |coauthors= |title=PC World notebook ad 'misleading', ASA rules |date=2005-11-29 |url=http://www.theregister.co.uk/2005/11/29/asa_misleading_pcworld_ad/ |work=The Register |pages= |accessdate=2008-01-07 |language=]

In December 2005, Intel phased out the "Intel Inside" campaign in favor of a new logo and the slogan, "Leap ahead". The new logo is clearly inspired by the "Intel Inside" logo.

In 2006, Intel expanded its promotion of open specification platforms beyond Centrino, to include the Viiv media centre PC and the business desktop Intel vPro.

In mid January 2006, Intel announced that they were dropping the long running "Pentium" name from their processors. The Pentium name was first used to refer to the P5 core Intel processors (Pent refers to the 5 in P5,) and was done to circumvent court rulings that prevent the trademarking of a string of numbers, so competitors could not just call their processor the same name, as had been done with the prior 386 and 486 processors. (Both of which had copies manufactured by both IBM and AMD). They phased out the Pentium names from mobile processors first, when the new Yonah chips, branded Core Solo and Core Duo, were released. The desktop processors changed when the Core 2 line of processors were released.

In March 2007, the Intel logo was shown briefly in one of the scenes of the movie, "The Last Mimzy."

As from 2008, Intel plans to shift the emphasis of its "Intel Inside" campaign from traditional media such as television and print to newer media such as the Internet. Intel will require that a minimum of 35% of the money it provides to the companies in its co-op program be used for online marketing.cite news |first=Stuart |last=Elliott |coauthors= |title='Intel inside' ad campaign shifts focus to the Web |date=2007-10-11 |publisher=The New York Times Company |url=http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/10/11/business/adco.php?WT.mc_id=atomtechnology |work=International Herald Tribune |accessdate=2007-10-12]

Intel's "Intel Inside" campaign has generally been considered to be world class marketing. However, over the years there have been several plays on the Intel branding scheme which have appeared on the web. While such jabs at Intel are obviously beyond the company's ability to control, they do tend to show that not everyone believes that Intel's programs and policies are always world class. For example, there is the popular "evil inside" logo, [ [http://www.stickergiant.com/Merchant2/merchant.mvc?Screen=PROD&Product_Code=rst105 Evil Inside Stickers : Vinyl Sticker ] ] the ubiquitous picture of a tombstone with "R.I.P Intel Inside"cite news |first= |last= |coauthors= |title=IBM leads semiconductor plot against Intel |date=2006-04-11 |publisher=The Inquirer |url=http://www.theinquirer.net/?article=30912 |work=theinquirer.net |pages= |accessdate=2008-01-07 |language=]

onic logo

The famous "D♭ D♭ G♭ D♭ A♭" jingle, sonic logo, tag, audio mnemonic "( [http://www.uspto.gov/go/kids/soundex/75332744.mp3 MP3 file of sonic logo] )" was written by Walter Werzowa from the Austrian 1980s sampling band Edelweiss. [http://observer.guardian.co.uk/print/0,3858,4774366-111639,00.html Paul Morley on the Intel Pentium ad jingle] Guardian Online]

Open source support

Intel has a significant participation in the open source communities. For example, in 2006 Intel released MIT-licensed X.org drivers for their integrated graphic cards of the i965 family of chipsets. On other occasions, Intel released FreeBSD drivers for some networking cards, [ cite web|url=http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=em |title=FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual |accessdate=2007-08-05 |date=2005-11-27 |work=freebsd.org |publisher=The FreeBSD Project ] available under a BSD-compatible licence, which were also ported to OpenBSD. Intel also released its EFI core named as EDK under a BSD-compatible licence. Intel runs Moblin project and "LessWatts.org" campaigns. [ [http://www.lesswatts.org/about.php About LessWatts.org] ]

However, after the release of the wireless products called Intel Pro/Wireless 2100, 2200BG/2225BG/2915ABG and 3945ABG in 2005, Intel was criticized for not granting free redistribution rights for the firmwares that are necessary to be included in the operating systems for the wireless devices to operate. [cite news |first=Sam |last=Varghese |coauthors= |title=OpenBSD to support more wireless chipsets |date=2005-03-01 |publisher=The Age Company Ltd |url=http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2005/03/01/1109546842718.html |work=theage.com.au |pages= |accessdate=2007-08-05 |language=] As a result of this, Intel became a target of campaigns to allow free operating systems to include binary firmwares on terms acceptable to the open source community. Linspire-Linux creator Michael Robertson outlined the difficult position that Intel was in releasing to Open Source, as Intel did not want to upset their large customer Microsoft. cite web|url=http://www.michaelrobertson.com/archive.php?minute_id=56 |title=Is Intel's "Centrino" Techno-Latin for "No Linux?" |accessdate=2007-08-05 |last=Robertson |first=Michael |date=2003-03-19 |work=michaelrobertson.com ] Theo de Raadt of OpenBSD also claimed that Intel is being "an Open Source fraud" after an Intel employee presented a distorted view of the situation on an open-source conference. cite web|url=http://www.undeadly.org/cgi?action=article&sid=20060930232710&mode=expanded |title=Intel: Only "Open" for Business |accessdate=2007-08-05 |first=Theo de Raadt |date=2006-09-30 |work=undeadly.org |publisher=OpenBSD Journal ] In spite of the significant negative attention Intel received as a result of the wireless dealings, the binary firmware still has not gained a license compatible with free software principles.

Competition

During the 1980s, Intel was among the top ten worldwide semiconductor sales leaders (10th in 1987), dominated by Japanese chip makers. In 1991, Intel achieved the number one ranking and has held it ever since. Other top semiconductor companies include AMD, Samsung, Texas Instruments, Toshiba and STMicroelectronics. see|Semiconductor sales leaders by year

Competitors in PC chipsets include VIA Technologies, SiS, ATI, and Nvidia. Intel's competitors in networking include Freescale, Infineon, Broadcom, Marvell Technology Group and AMCC, and its competitors in flash memory include Spansion, Samsung, Qimonda, Toshiba, STMicroelectronics, and Hynix.

The only major competitor to Intel on the x86 processor market is Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), with which Intel has had full cross-licensing agreements since 1976: each partner can use the other's patented technological innovations without charge after a certain time.cite news |first=Ian |last=Fried |coauthors= |title=Intel, AMD sign new licensing deal |date=2001-04-04 |publisher=CNET Networks, Inc |url=http://news.com.com/2100-1040-257059.html |work=news.com.com |pages= |accessdate=2007-07-28 |language=] However, the cross-licensing agreement is canceled in the event of an AMD bankruptcy or takeover.cite news |title=Patent Cross License Agreement - Advanced Micro Devices Inc. and Intel Corp. |publisher=Findlaws, Inc |url=http://contracts.corporate.findlaw.com/agreements/amd/intel.license.2001.01.01.html |pages= |accessdate=2007-09-15 |language=] Some smaller competitors such as VIA and Transmeta produce low-power processors for small factor computers and portable equipment.

Lawsuits

In September 2005, Intel filed its response to an ,cite news |first= |last= |coauthors= |title=Intel Files Response To AMD Complaint |date=2005-09-01 |publisher=Intel Corporation |url=http://www.intel.com/pressroom/archive/releases/20050901corp.htm |work=intel.com (Press release) |pages= |accessdate=2007-07-28 |language=] disputing AMD's claims, and stating that its business practices are fair and lawful. In its rebuttal, Intel laid out the skeleton of its legal defense, which included a deconstruction of AMD's offensive strategy and levied the charge that AMD's long struggling market position is largely a result of bad business decisions and management incompetence, including underinvestment in essential manufacturing capacity and over-reliance on contracting out chip foundries.cite news |first=David |last=Whelan |coauthors= |title=Intel's Legal Strategy Takes Shape |date=2005-09-02 |url=http://www.forbes.com/technology/2005/09/02/intel-amd-antitrust-cz_dw_0902intel.html |work=Forbes |pages= |accessdate=2007-07-28]

Legal experts predict the lawsuit will most likely drag out for a number of years, since Intel's response indicates they are not likely to try to settle with AMD. [ cite web|url=http://www.amd.com/us-en/assets/content_type/DownloadableAssets/AMD_Intel_Battle.pdf |title=AMD, Intel Battle Wages On As EU Decision Nears |accessdate=2008-01-07 |date=2006-03-20 |format=PDF |work=amd.com |publisher=Portfolio Media, Inc ] cite news |first=Tom |last=Krazit |coauthors= |title=Update: Intel issues formal response to AMD's antitrust lawsuit |date=2005-09-01 |publisher=IDG News Service |url=http://www.infoworld.com/article/05/09/01/HNintelresponse_1.html |work=infoworld.com |pages= |accessdate=2008-01-07 |language=] A court date has been granted in 2010. [ citeweb|title=Intel, AMD Lawsuit Pushed Off to 2010|url=http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Desktops-and-Notebooks/Intel-AMD-Lawsuit-Pushed-Off-to-2010/|publisher="eWeek"|accessdate=2008-06-12]

In October 2006, a Transmeta lawsuit was filed against Intel for patent infringement covering computer architecture and power efficiency technologies.cite news |first= |last= |coauthors= |title=Transmeta Announces Patent Infringement Lawsuit Against Intel Corporation |date=2006-10-11 |publisher=Transmeta Corporation |url=http://investor.transmeta.com/ReleaseDetail.cfm?ReleaseID=214275 |work=investor.transmeta.com (Press release) |pages= |accessdate=2007-07-28 |language=] In October 2007, the Transmeta-Intel lawsuit was settled, with Intel agreeing to pay an initial US$150 million and US$20 million per year for the next 5 years. Both companies agreed to drop lawsuits against each other while Intel was granted a perpetual non-exclusive license to use current and future patented Transmeta technologies in its chips for 10 years.cite news |first= |last= |coauthors= |title=Transmeta settles patent suit with Intel |date=2007-10-24 |publisher= |url=http://www.reuters.com/article/technology-media-telco-SP/idUSWNAS782620071024 |work=Reuters|pages= |accessdate=2007-10-25 |language=]

Anti-competitive allegations by regulatory bodies

Japan

In 2005, the company violated Japanese Antimonopoly Act, local Fair Trade Commission concluded. The commission ordered Intel to eliminate discounts that discriminated its competitor Advanced Micro Devices. To avoid a trial, Intel agreed to comply with the order. [ [http://uk.reuters.com/article/technologyNews/idUKL1730607220080718?pageNumber=3&virtualBrandChannel=0 EU files new competition charges against Intel | Technology | Reuters ] ] [ [http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/europe-files-more-antitrust-complaints/story.aspx?guid={6B204911-970B-468B-9E40-09787DDB4345}&dist=msr_4 Europe files more antitrust complaints against Intel - MarketWatch ] ] [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/06/20/business/wbjoe21.php Predatory pricing or old-fashioned competition? - International Herald Tribune ] ] [ [http://news.cnet.com/Intel-to-abide-by-Japan-FTC-recommendations/2100-1014_3-5649589.html Intel to abide by Japan FTC recommendations - CNET News.com ] ]

European Union

In July 2007, the European Commission formally accused Intel of anti-competitive practices, mostly against its main competitor AMD.cite news |first= |last= |coauthors= |title=Competition: Commission confirms sending of Statement of Objections to Intel |date=2007-07-27 |publisher= |url=http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/07/314& |work=Official website of the European Union |pages= |accessdate=2007-07-28] The allegations, going back to 2003, include giving preferential prices to computermakers getting most or all chips from Intel, paying computer makers to delay or cancel the launch of products using AMD chips and providing chips at below cost to governments and educational institutions.cite news |first=David |last=Lawsky |coauthors= |title=UPDATE 4-EU says Intel tried to squeeze out Advanced Micro Devices|date=2007-07-27 |publisher=Reuters |url=http://www.reuters.com/article/governmentFilingsNews/idUSL2783620520070727?sp=true |work=reuters.com |pages= |accessdate=2007-07-28 |language=] Intel responded that the allegations were unfounded and instead qualified its market behavior as consumer-friendly. General counsel Bruce Sewell also responded that the Commission had misunderstood some factual assumptions concerning price and manufacturing costs.cite news |first=David |last=Lawsky |coauthors= |title=Intel says EU made errors in antitrust charges |date=2007-07-27 |url=http://www.reuters.com/article/technology-media-telco-SP/idUSL2788098920070727?sp=true |work=Reuters |pages= |accessdate=2007-07-28 |language=]

In February 2008, a spokesman for the company announced that Intel's office in Munich had been raided by European Union competition regulators investigating its business practices. Intel reported that it was cooperating with investigators. [cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7241022.stm |date=2008-02-12 |accessdate=2008-02-12 |publisher=BBC News |title=EU regulator raids Intel offices] If found guilty of stifling competition, Intel could be fined up to 10% of its annual revenue.cite news |first= |last= |coauthors= |title=EU outlines Intel 'market abuse' |date=2007-07-27 |publisher=The BBC |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/6918975.stm |work=BBC News |pages= |accessdate=2007-07-28 |language=] Rival AMD also subsequently launched a website focusing on these allegations. [cite news |first=Peter |last=Clarke |coauthors= |title=AMD sets up website to tell "the truth about Intel" |date=2007-08-08 |publisher=CMP Media LLC |url=http://www.eetimes.com/news/latest/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=201303681 |work=eetimes.com |pages= |accessdate=2007-08-09 |language=] [ cite web|url=http://breakfree.amd.com/en-us/default.aspx |title=AMD Break Free |accessdate=2007-08-09 |date=2007-07-31 |work=breakfree.amd.com |publisher=Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ] In June 2008 EU has filed new competition charges against Intel. [cite web|title=EU files new competition charges against Intel|url=http://uk.reuters.com/article/technologyNews/idUKL1730607220080718|work=Reuters|date=2008-07-17|accessdate=2008-09-10]

outh Korea

In September 2007, South Korean regulators formally accused Intel of breaking antitrust law. The inquiry began in February 2006 when officials raided Intel's South Korean offices. The company risked being fined up to 3% of its annual sales if found guilty.cite news |first= |last= |coauthors= |title=Intel facing antitrust complaint in Korea |date=2007-09-11 |publisher=The New York Times Company |url=http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/09/11/business/chip.php?WT.mc_id=atomtechnology |work=International Herald Tribune |pages= |accessdate=2007-09-13 |language=] In June 2008, the South Korea's Fair Trade Commission ordered Intel to pay a fine of $25.5 million for taking advantage of its dominant position to offer incentives to major Korean PC manufacturers on the condition of not buying products from rival AMD.cite news |first=Benjamin |last=Pimentel|coauthors= |title=Intel fined $25.5 million by South Korea |date=2008-06-05 |publisher=MarketWatch |url=http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/intel-fined-255-million-south/story.aspx?guid={5E548C55-0A59-47BA-8910-96F61A8C23E0}&dist=msr_2 |work=marketwatch.com |pages= |accessdate=2008-07-05 |language=]

United States

New York started an investigation of Intel in January 2008 on whether the company violated antitrust laws in pricing and sales of its microprocessors. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/10/technology/10cnd-chip.html?_r=4&ref=technology&oref=slogin&oref=slogin&oref=slogin&oref=slogin NY Times Advertisement ] ] In June 2008 Federal Trade Commission opened a formal antitrust investigation for this case. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/07/technology/07chip.html?_r=1&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&oref=slogin In Turnabout, Antitrust Unit Looks at Intel - NYTimes.com ] ]

Environmental record

In 2003 there were 1.4 tons of carbon tetrachloride measured from one of Intel's many acid scrubbers. However, Intel reported zero release of carbon tetrachloride for all of 2003. [ [http://www.swop.net/2007/04/4807-corrales-comment-intel-air.html SWOPblogger: 4/8/07 Corrales Comment - Intel Air Pollution Permit Revision Expected ] ] Intel's facility in Rio Rancho, New Mexico overlooks a nearby village, and the hilly contours of its location create a setting for chemical gases heavier than air to move along arroyos and irrigation ditches in that village. This has reportedly led to adverse affects in both animals and humans. Examinations of deceased dogs from the area have returned reports of high levels of toluene, hexane, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers in their lungs. [ [http://www.corralescomment.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=594&Itemid=2 Corrales Comment - Local Village News, Issues, Events & Ads - Intel Pollution Unresolved ] ]

In the June-July time frame of 2006, Intel reported that there were VOC releases of more than 1580 pounds. [ [http://www.swop.net/2006/12/intel-pollution-control-shut-down.html SWOPblogger: Intel Pollution Control Shut Down Probed ] ]

Classmate PC

As its contribution to the development of low-cost Netbook computers, Intel is involved with the development of the Classmate PC.

See also

*Advanced Micro Devices (AMD)
*Cyrix
*x86 architecture
*Transmeta
*Intel graphics media accelerator
*Comparison of Nvidia graphics processing units
*Comparison of ATI Graphics Processing Units
*Intel Museum
*Intel Science Talent Search
*ASCI Red
*Justin Rattner
*List of Intel microprocessors
*List of Intel chipsets
*List of Intel Pentium 4 microprocessors
*List of Intel Pentium D microprocessors
*List of Intel Celeron microprocessors
*List of Intel Pentium M microprocessors
*List of Intel Pentium Dual-Core microprocessors
*List of Intel Xeon microprocessors
*List of Intel Core microprocessors
*List of Intel Core 2 microprocessors
*List of Intel codenames
*List of Intel manufacturing sites

References

External links

* [http://www.intel.com/ Intel website]
* [http://iinnovate.blogspot.com/2007/03/andy-grove-former-ceo-and-chairman-of.html Andy Grove interview by iinnovatecast]
* [http://www.youtube.com/channelintel YouTube Intel Channel]
*dmoz|Computers/Companies/Product_Support/Intel/
* [http://www.cogmap.com/chart/intel-corporation Intel Organizational Chart Wiki]

Finance links
name = INTEL CORP.
symbol = INTC
sec_cik = 50863
hoovers = 13787


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