Armstrong Whitworth 12 inch /40 naval gun

Infobox Weapon
name= Type 41 12-inch (305 mm) /40 caliber naval gun


caption=
origin= United Kingdom, later license-produced in Japan
type= Naval gun
is_ranged=YES
is_bladed=
is_explosive=
is_artillery=YES
is_vehicle=
is_UK=YES
service=1900-1945
used_by=Royal Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
wars= Russo-Japanese War
World War I
designer=Elswick Ordnance Company
design_date=1898
manufacturer=Elswick Ordnance Company
Vickers
Woolwich Arsenal
production_date=
number=
variants=
weight= 49 tons
length=
part_length=convert|485|in|m|3|adj=on bore (40 calibres)
width=
height=
crew=
cartridge=convert|850|lb|kg|sigfig=4 separate charges and shell
caliber=convert|12|in|mm|sing=on|sigfig=4
action=
rate= 1 round per minute
velocity=Japanese service : 2,400 f/s (732 m/s)
UK service : 2481 f/s [2481 ft/second, 850-pound projectile, with 211 lb cordite Mk I size 50 & 3¾. Text Book of Gunnery, 1902.] , 2612 f/s (King Edward VII class)
range= convert|15000|yd|m|0|adj=on; 15° elevation
max_range=
feed=
sights=
breech=welin
recoil=
carriage=
elevation=-5 / +15 degrees
traverse=+150 / -150 degrees

The Armstrong Whitworth 12 inch naval gun of 40-calibre length was designed by, and manufactured mainly by, Armstrong's ordnance branch, Elswick Ordnance Company. It was intended for the Royal Navy’s "Royal Sovereign" class battleships, but budgetary constraints delayed their introduction. The first units were instead supplied to Japan. It later entered service with the RN as the 12 inch Mark IX

As the Type 41 12-inch (305 mm) /40 caliber naval gun it was the standard main battery on several early United Kingdom-built pre-dreadnought battleships of the Imperial Japanese Navy.

Design and development

The Type 41 12-inch naval gun was produced by Armstrong Whitworth, Elswick, Newcastle upon Tyne, as a slightly modified version of the “EOC G pattern” 12-inch guns used on contemporary Royal Navy battleships. Japan purchased a total of 44 of these weapons for use of the "Fuji" and "Shikishima" class battleships, and the "Mikasa".

Japanese Service

In combat at the Battle of the Yellow Sea in the Russo-Japanese War, Japanese battleships "Asahi", "Shikishima" and "Mikasa" all had one of their main guns taken out of action due to bore prematures. The cause was traced to faulty fuses, and the problem was rectified prior to the Battle of Tsushima.

The gun was officially designated as “Type 41” from the 41st year of the reign of Emperor Meiji on 1908-12-25. It was further re-designated in centimeters on 1917-10-05 as part of the standardization process for the Imperial Japanese Navy to the metric system.

The Type 41 12-inch gun fired an convert|850|lb|kg|1|adj=on shell, with either an armor piercing, high explosive or general purpose warhead.

United Kingdom Service

Royal Navy service

The gun entered service with the Royal Navy as BL 12 inch gun Mark IX on the following ships :
*Formidable class battleships laid down 1898
*Duncan class battleships laid down 1899
*King Edward VII class battleships of 1904 "King Edward VII", "Commonwealth", "Hindustan", "Dominion" and "New Zealand".

M class submarine mounting

The gun was in service mounted on the 3 M class submarines from 1920 - 1932.


Railway gun

4 guns were mounted on railway carriages and used by the British army in World War I on the Western Front.

United Kingdom ammunition

ee also

Notes

References

* [http://cgsc.cdmhost.com/u?/p4013coll11,230 Text Book of Gunnery, 1902. LONDON : PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, BY HARRISON AND SONS, ST. MARTIN'S LANE]
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*cite web
last = DiGiulian
first = Tony
url = http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNBR_12-40_mk9.htm
title = Japanese 30.5 cm/40 (12") Type 41
work = NavWeaps.com

External links

*cite web
last = DiGiulian
first = Tony
url = http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNJAP_12-40_EOC.htm
title = Japanese 30.5 cm/40 (12") Type 41
work = NavWeaps.com


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