- Shomer Shabbat
A shomer Shabbat or shomer Shabbos (plural "shomrei Shabbat" or "shomrei Shabbos"; _he. שומר שבת) is a person who observes the
mitzvot(commandments) associated with Judaism's Shabbat("Sabbath", Friday evening until Saturday night.)
In particular, under Jewish law (
halakhah), the shomer Shabbat is expected to conform to the prohibitions against certain forms of work. The observant Jew does not cook, spend money, write, turn on or off electrical devices, or do other activities prohibited on Shabbat. In addition, a variety of positive Sabbath commandments are expected to be fulfilled, such as Sabbath meals and prayers.
Orthodox Judaism, the shomer Shabbat would typically strive to follow all the rules associated with the sabbath. Within the liberal movements of Judaism, the phrase may signify a person who takes seriously the observance of the core mitzvot.
The shomer Shabbat is an
archetypementioned in Jewish songs (e.g., "Baruch El Elyon") and the intended audience for various treatises on Jewish law and practice for the Sabbath day (e.g., "Shmirat Shabbat ke-Hilkhata"). In 2000, the media took note that the candidate for U.S. Vice President, Senator Joseph Lieberman, is a shomer shabbat. [ Judith Shulevitz. "Former Toronto rabbi says Lieberman has found a way to observe the laws of Orthodox Judaism throughout his entire political career." "Toronto Star". August 12, 2000]
Origin and Usage
The term "shomer Shabbat" is derived from the wording of one of the
Ten Commandmentsin Deuteronomy (5:14-15), which instructs the Hebrewsto "observe" the Sabbath day and sanctify it. (In Exodus, the Decaloguestates that they should "remember" the Sabbath.) The term appears in the Hebrew Bibleonly in Isaiah56:2,6. Shomer Shabbat is not used in the Mishnahor Talmud, it occurs a handful of times in the midrashic literature. Similarly, the term is used infrequently in medieval and early modern rabbinic literature: for example, once in Maimonides, never in the Shulchan Aruchand rarely in responsaprior to the 20th century. The term has been used frequently, though, during the last 100 years. It is also used to name shuls, such as a predecessor to Machzike Hadathin London, a Gateshead synagogue (founded in 1897), and one in Boro Park.
Over the years, shomer Shabbat readers have been offered specialized manuals on
halakhah, including a popular book by Rabbi Yehoshua Neuwirthand "Sefer Shomer Shabbat" by David ben Aryeh Leibof Lida(ca. 1650-1696), pictured.
A shomer Shabbat may be contrasted with the person who desecrates the Shabbat ("mekhallel shabbat"), a status of serious deviance when done in public. [p.41f., Hartman Donniel. "The Boundaries of Judaism". Continuum: 2007.]
In the past, it was relatively uncommon to be shomer Shabbat in the
United States, even among the Orthodox. Emanuel Feldmanwrites that it was a “rarity” in the American Orthodoxy of the 1950’s. Overall, political scientist Charles Liebmanestimated that about 4% of American Jews were shomer shabbos in the 1960s. [ Liebman, Charles. 1965 p.127. “Orthodoxy in American Jewish Life” in American Jewish Yearbook 1966.] Among other factors, Saturday had not yet been established as a day off from work, and many American Jews found that insistence on Shabbat observance would cost them their livelihood. During this period, to improve observance, Flatbushrabbis operated a Shomer Shabbat council and ran a Shomer Shabbat parade. [ “Rav Simcha Weissman — Torah Pioneer and Innovator in America: First Yahrtzeit: 12 Cheshvan 5767” by M. Samsonowitz. October 25, 2006 "Dei'ah Vedibur - Information & Insight" [http://chareidi.shemayisrael.com/archives5767/NCH67features2.htm] ]
According to the National Jewish Population Survey (2000-2001), about 50% of affiliated Jews (versus 8% of unaffiliated) light Sabbath candles. The first
mitzvahin shomer Shabbat home each Friday evening, candle-lighting is performed by 85% of Orthodox, 50% of Conservative and 25% of Reform Jews(Ament 2005:31). [Data only includes synagogue members. NJPS [http://www.ujc.org/page.html?ArticleID=46228] ] In total, Sabbath candle-lighting is practiced by 28% of NJPS survey respondents representative of 4.3 million Jews (United Jewish Communities 2003:7).
With the increasing observance among Orthodox Jews, the status of shomer Shabbat has become more important. For example, one of the key questions asked about Orthodox
Jewish day schools is whether it allows children who are not shomer Shabbat. [Schnaidman, Mordecai (1979) “Integration in Centrist Jewish Day Schools,” "Journal of Jewish Education", 47:3, 11 – 18] The shomer shabbat distinction has been found to be a factor in the social integrationof children and families. [“Another parent also described how she had originally sent her young son to a central Orthodox Jewish school, but found it extremely awkward when it came to socialising with other children: ‘I didn’t want my child to feel different at parties, at homes where the kids weren’t kosher, parties at McDonald’s. At one school where he went for a time, there was only one other shomer shabbat person’.” Oliver Valins. “Defending identities or segregating communities? Faith-based schooling and the UK Jewish community” in "Geoforum" V. 34:2, May 2003, pp. 235-247] Sabbath observance is a major priority among Orthodox Jewish families [ p.125 Faranak Margolese. "Off the Derech: Why Observant Jews Leave Judaism--How to Respond to the Challenge". Devora Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1932687432] and one scholar contends that shomer Shabbat status is the “functional equivalent” of Orthodox Jewish identity. [p.65, Ginsburg, Elliot Kiba. "The Sabbath in the Classical Kabbalah". SUNY Press, 1989. ISBN 0887067786]
Various organizations have accommodated the religious observance requirements of shomer Shabbat Jews. For example, after extensive appeals on their behalf, the U.S.
National High School Mock Trial Championshipmade adjustments for observant Jews from the Torah Academy of Bergen Countywho were the 2005 state champions representing New Jersey. [ [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1P1-107274658.html "US mock trial competition decides to accommodate 'shomer Shabbat' team"] , " The Jerusalem Post", April 10, 2005. Accessed January 26, 2008.] Similarly, hospitals may allow a shomer Shabbat program for residents in medical training. Many municipalities have cooperated with observant Jews in creating a symbolic boundary for a neighborhood (" eruv"), in which a shomer Shabbat is permitted to carry or move items that would otherwise be prohibited, such as a baby stroller. In sports, observant Jews may be accommodated along with Seventh Day Adventists. Alternatively, groups like Tzivos Hashemhas set up its own shomer Shabbat baseball Little League.
Sabbath observance is also important for Jewish businesses. For example, a paper factory in
Kiryat Gatwas publicized in 2000 as a shomer Shabbat factory. [Rabinowitz, B . Shomer Shabbos Paper Factory Dedicated in Kiryat Gat’” in Dei'ah Vedibur - Information & Insight September 6, 2000 [http://chareidi.shemayisrael.com/archives/KSTafactory.htm] [http://chareidi.shemayisrael.com/archives/KSTafactory.htm] ] More critically, the observance of kashrut, Jewish dietary laws, depends strongly nowadays on people who are shomer Shabbat. The mashgiachor supervisor of kashrut must be shomer Shabbat. In addition, it may be helpful if the owner is also shomer Shabbat, although this status does not necessarily mean they may be trusted with the oversight of their own establishment (Ament 2007). Conversely, a person who is not shomer Shabbat is not trusted for kashrut supervision, according to the Orthodox Union, based on a responsumof Rabbi Moshe Feinstein(Ament 2007). However, such rules do not impinge on employees or customers who may not be shomer shabbat.
consumer, the shomer Shabbat helps create a market demandfor a range of specialty products. These products include electric timers, the blech(to keep food warm), clocks (such as "KosherClock: The Shomer Shabbat Alarm Clock with 5 Alarms"), and a Dutch ovenor slow cooking pots for cholent. To avoid turning electricity on or off, the shomer Shabbat may utilize a Sabbath lamp that remains lit, yet may be covered to darken a room during Shabbat.
Driving during Shabbat
*Ament, Jonathan. "American Jewish Religious Denominations," Report series on the National Jewish Population Survey (2000-2001), United Jewish Communities. February 2005.
Yehoshua Neuwirth. "Shemirat Shabat ke-hilkhatah". Jerusalem: Mekhon Nishmat Aharon ve-Ya'akov, 1993. (Rabbi Neuwirth often cites his teacher, Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Auerbach.)
David ben Aryeh Leibof Lida, (ca. 1650-1696). " Shomer Shabbat: bo mevoʾar kol hilkhot Shabat bi-khelal uvi-feraṭ." (Early manual for Sabbath observance). Balḳani: Yitsḥaḳ Aiziḳ Hais, 695, 1935. Originally published in 1687. (1911 edition pictured)
*Luban, Yaakov. “Current Issues Facing the Local Vaad HaKashruth.” A position paper presented by Rabbi Luban,
Orthodox Union(OU), New York City, May 1, 2007. Published on the OU website as "OU Recommendations for Vaad HaKashrus Supervision." [http://oukosher.org/index.php/articles/single/ou_recommendations_for_vaad_hakashrus_supervision/]
*Pimental, Abraham Cohen. "Sefer Minchat Kohen". (Early manual for Sabbath observance). Amsterdam: David de Castro Tartas, 1668.
*Soae, Rafael Abraham, Cohen. 2004. "Practical laws of Shabbat: a detailed halachic guide for the
shomer ShabbatJew." Jerusalem: Bene Aharon. ( [http://hollis.harvard.edu HOLLIS] Number: 009507867)
United Jewish Communities. "National Jewish Population Survey 2000-2001: Strength, Challenge and Diversity in the American Jewish Population". New York: United Jewish Communities, 2003. [http://www.ujc.org/local_includes/downloads/3905.pdf]
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