Königsberg

ÔĽŅ
Königsberg

Infobox Settlement
official_name = Königsberg in Preußen
settlement_type = City
nickname =


imagesize =
image_caption = Königsberg Castle before World War I


image_



mapsize =
map_caption =


mapsize1 =
map_caption1 =
subdivision_type = Former Country
subdivision_type1 =
subdivision_type2 =
subdivision_name = Prussia/German Reich
subdivision_name1 = East Prussia
subdivision_name2 =
government_type =
leader_title =
leader_name =
leader_title1 =
leader_name1 =
established_date = 1255
elevation_m =
elevation_ft =
timezone =
utc_offset =
timezone_DST =
utc_offset_DST =
latd = 54 |latm = 43 |lats = 00 |latNS = N
longd = 20 |longm = 31 |longs = 00 |longEW = E
footnotes =

K√∂nigsberg pronunciation|K√∂nigsberg.ogg ( _lt. Karaliauńćius; Low German: "K√∂nigsbarg"; _pl. Kr√≥lewiec; see also ) was until 1946 the name of Kaliningrad.

It was the capital of eastern Prussia from the Late Middle Ages until 1945. Founded by the Teutonic Knights just south of the Sambian peninsula in 1255 during the Northern Crusades, the city successively became the capital of their monastic state, the Duchy of Prussia, and East Prussia. The Baltic port developed into a German cultural center, being the residence of, among others, Immanuel Kant, E. T. A. Hoffmann, and David Hilbert.

K√∂nigsberg was heavily damaged by Allied bombing in 1944 during World War II, and was subsequently conquered by the Red Army after the Battle of K√∂nigsberg in 1945. The city was annexed by the Soviet Union according to the post-war Potsdam Agreement and largely repopulated with Russians. Briefly Russified as –ö—Ď–Ĺ–ł–≥—Ā–Ī–Ķ—Ä–≥ (Kyonigsberg), it was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946 after Soviet leader Mikhail Kalinin. The city is now the capital of Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast.

History

Teutonic Order

The later location of Königsberg was preceded by an Old Prussian fort known as "Twangste" ("Tuwangste", "Tvankste") as well as several Prussian settlements. During the conquest of the Prussian Sambians by the Teutonic Knights in 1255, Twangste was destroyed and replaced with a new fortress known as "Conigsberg". Its name meant "King's Mountain" ( _la. castrum Koningsberg, Mons Regius, Regiomonti), honoring King Ottokar II of Bohemia, who paid for the erection of the first fortress there during the Prussian Crusade. [Biskup] [Koch, p. 10] Near this new Königsberg Castle developed the towns of Altstadt (Old Town), Kneiphof, and Löbenicht along the Pregel River, roughly 4.5 miles from the Vistula Lagoon.Baedeker, p. 174] Altstadt was founded in 1256 on the Steindamm (now Leninprospekt), while Kneiphof developed on an island of the same name (now Kant Island) in the Pregel. To the east of the other two towns was Löbenicht, lying between the Schlossteich and the new Pregel.

The Teutonic Order used K√∂nigsberg to fortify their conquests in Samland and as a base for campaigns against pagan Lithuania. Under siege during the Prussian uprisings in 1262–63, K√∂nigsberg was relieved by the Master of the Livonian Order. [Seward, p. 107] [Turnbull, p. 13] After being destroyed by the Prussians during the rebellion, Altstadt was rebuilt in the valley below the castle hill. Altstadt received Culm rights in 1286, while Kneiphof received its charter in 1327.

Within the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, Königsberg was the residence of the marshal, one of the chief administrators of the military order. [Christiansen, p. 205] The city was also the seat of the Bishopric of Samland, one of the four dioceses into which Prussia had been divided in 1243 by the papal legate, William of Modena. Adalbert of Prague became the main patron saint of Königsberg Cathedral, a landmark of the city located in Kneiphof.

K√∂nigsberg became a member of the Hanseatic League in 1340 and developed into an important port for the southeastern Baltic region, trading goods throughout Prussia, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The chronicler Peter of Dusburg probably wrote his "Chronicon terrae Prussiae" in K√∂nigsberg from 1324–1330. [Christiansen, p. 224] After the Teutonic Order's victory over pagan Lithuanians in the 1348 Battle of Strawen, Grand Master Winrich von Kniprode established a Cistercian nunnery in the city. [Christiansen, p. 222] Aspiring students were educated in K√∂nigsberg before continuing on to higher education elsewhere, such as Prague or Leipzig. [Christiansen, p. 224]

Although the knights suffered a crippling defeat in the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg), K√∂nigsberg remained under the control of the Teutonic Knights throughout the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War. Livonian knights replaced the Prussian branch's garrison at K√∂nigsberg, allowing them to participate in the recovery of towns occupied by Jogaila's troops. [Urban, pp. 225–226]

The Prussian Confederation rebelled against the Teutonic Knights in 1454 and sought the assistance of Poland. Kneiphof supported the rebellion, although the rest of K√∂nigsberg reaffirmed its loyalty to the order. Grand Master Ludwig von Erlichshausen fled from the crusaders' capital at Castle Marienburg to K√∂nigsberg in 1457; the city's magistrate presented Erlichshausen with a barrel of beer out of compassion. [Koch, p. 19] When western Prussia was transferred to victorious Poland in the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), which ended the Thirteen Years' War, K√∂nigsberg became the new capital of the reduced monastic state, which became a fief of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom. [Christiansen, p. 243] The grand masters took over the quarters of the marshal. During the Polish-Teutonic War (1519‚Äď1521), K√∂nigsberg was unsuccessfully [Urban, p. 254] besieged by Polish forces led by Grand Crown Hetman MikoŇāaj Firlej.

Duchy of Prussia

Through the preachings of the Bishop of Samland, Georg von Polenz, Königsberg became predominantly Lutheran during the Protestant Reformation. [Koch, p. 33] After summoning a quorum of knights to Königsberg, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg from the Hohenzollern dynasty secularised the Teutonic Knights' remaining territories in Prussia in 1525 and converted to Lutheranism. [Christiansen, p. 247] By paying feudal homage to his uncle, King Sigismund I of Poland, Albert became the first duke of the new Duchy of Prussia, a fief of Poland. While the Prussian estates quickly allied with the duke, the Prussian peasantry would only swear allegiance to Albert in person at Königsberg, seeking the duke's support against oppressive nobility. After convincing the rebels to lay down their arms, Albert had several of their leaders executed. [Koch, p. 34]

Königsberg, the capital of the duchy, became one of the biggest cities and ports of Prussia, having considerable autonomy, a separate parliament and currency, and with German as its dominant language. The city flourished through the export of wheat, timber, hemp, and furs, [Koch, p. 44] as well as pitch, tar, and ash. [Kirby, "Northern Europe", p. 8] Königsberg was one of the few Baltic ports regularly visited by more than one hundred ships annually in the latter 16th century, the others being Danzig and Riga. [Kirby, "Northern Europe", p. 13] The University of Königsberg, founded by Albert in 1544, became a center of Protestant teachings.

The capable Duke Albert was succeeded by his feeble-minded son, Albert Frederick. Anna, daughter of Albert Frederick, married Elector John Sigismund of Brandenburg, who was granted the right of succession to Prussia on Albert Frederick's death in 1618. From this time the Duchy of Prussia and Königsberg were ruled by the Electors of Brandenburg, the rulers of Brandenburg-Prussia.

Brandenburg-Prussia

Because Brandenburg was overrun by Sweden during the Thirty Years' War, the Hohenzollern court fled to Königsberg. On 1 November 1641, Elector Frederick William persuaded the Prussian diet to accept an excise tax. [Koch, p. 46] In the Treaty of Königsberg of January 1656, the elector recognized his Duchy of Prussia as a fief of Sweden and allied with that country. In the Treaty of Wehlau in 1657, however, he negotiated the release of Prussia from Polish sovereignty in return for an alliance with Poland. The 1660 Treaty of Oliva confirmed Prussian independence from both Poland and Sweden.

In 1661 Frederick William informed the Prussian diet he possessed "jus supremi et absoluti domini", and that the Prussian Landtag could only be convened with his permission. The Königsberg burghers, led by Hieronymus Roth of Kneiphof, opposed "the Great Elector's" absolutist claims, but Frederick William succeeded in imposing his authority after arriving with 2,000 troops in October 1661. Refusing to request mercy, Roth was imprisoned in Peitz until his death in 1678.

The Prussian estates, which swore fealty to Frederick William in Königsberg on October 18 1663, [Clark, p. 53] refused the elector's requests for military funding, and Colonel Christian Ludwig von Kalckstein sought assistance from neighboring Poland. After Kalckstein was abducted by the elector's agents, he was executed in 1672. The Prussian estates' submission to Frederick William followed; in 1673 and 1674 the elector received taxes not granted by the estates and Königsberg received a garrison without the estates' consent. [Koch, p. 57] The economic and political weakening of Königsberg strengthened the power of the Junker nobility within Prussia. [Holborn, "1648-1840", p. 61]

Königsberg was for long a center of Lutheran resistance to Calvinism within Brandenburg-Prussia; Frederick William forced the city to accept Calvinist citizens and property-holders in 1668. [Clark, pp. 121-2]

Kingdom of Prussia

By the act of coronation in Königsberg Castle on 18 January 1701, Frederick William's son, Elector Frederick III, became Frederick I, King in Prussia. The elevation of the Duchy of Prussia to the Kingdom of Prussia was possible because the Hohenzollerns' authority in Prussia was independent of Poland and the Holy Roman Empire. Since "Kingdom of Prussia" was increasingly used to designate all of the Hohenzollern lands, former ducal Prussia became known as the Province of Prussia, with Königsberg as its capital. However, Berlin and Potsdam in Brandenburg were the main residences of the Prussian kings.

The city was wracked by plague and other illnesses from September 1709 to April 1710, losing 9,368 people, or roughly a quarter of its populace. [Kirby, "Northern Europe", p. 352] On June 13 1724, Altstadt, Kneiphof, and Löbenicht amalgamated to formally create the larger city Königsberg. Suburbs that later became city quarters included Sackheim, Rossgarten, and Tragheim.

Imperial Russian troops occupied eastern Prussia at the beginning of 1758 during the Seven Years' War. On December 31 1757, Empress Elizabeth I of Russia issued a "ukase" about the incorporation of K√∂nigsberg into Russia.Fact|date=December 2007 On January 24 1758, the leading burghers of K√∂nigsberg submitted to Elizabeth. [Holborn, "1648-1840", p. 245] Five Imperial Russian general-governors administered the city during the war from 1758–62; the Russian army did not abandon the town until 1763.Fact|date=December 2007

After the First Partition of Poland in 1772, Königsberg became the capital of the province of East Prussia in 1773, which replaced the Province of Prussia in 1773. By 1800 the city was approximately five miles in circumference and had 60,000 inhabitants, including a military garrison of 7,000, making it one of the most populous German cities of the time. [For comparison: Berlin ca. 170,000, Cologne and Frankfurt ca. 50,000 each, and Munich ca. 30,000.]

After Prussia's defeat at the hands of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1806 during the War of the Fourth Coalition, King Frederick William III of Prussia fled with his court from Berlin to Königsberg. [Koch, p. 160] The city was a center for political resistance to Napoleon. In order to foster liberalism and nationalism among the Prussian middle class, the "League of Virtue" was founded in Königsberg in April 1808. The French forced its dissolution in December 1809, but its ideals were continued by the "Turnbewegung" of Friedrich Ludwig Jahn in Berlin. [Koch, p. 192] Königsberg officials, such as Johann Gottfried Frey, formulated much of Stein's 1808 "Städteordnung", or new order for urban communities, which emphasized self-administration for Prussian towns. [Holborn, "1648-1840", p. 401] The East Prussian "Landwehr" was organized from the city after the Convention of Tauroggen. [Clark, p. 361]

In 1819 K√∂nigsberg had a population of 63,800. [Holborn, "1840-1945", p. 8] It served as the capital of the united Province of Prussia from 1824–1878, when East Prussia was merged with West Prussia. It was also the seat of the Regierungsbezirk K√∂nigsberg, an administrative subdivision.

Led by the provincial president Theodor von Schön and the "Königsberger Zeitung" newspaper, Königsberg was a stronghold of liberalism against the conservative government of King Frederick William IV. [Clark, pp. 440-2] During the revolution of 1848, there were 21 episodes of public unrest in the city; [Clark, p. 476] major demonstrations were suppressed. [Holborn, "1840-1945", p. 51] Königsberg became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the Prussian-led unification of Germany. A sophisticated for its time series of fortifications around the city that included fifteen forts was completed in 1888.

The extensive Prussian Eastern Railway linked the city to Breslau, Thorn, Insterburg, Eydtkuhnen, Tilsit, and Pillau. In 1860 the railroad connecting Berlin with St. Petersburg was completed and increased Königsberg's commerce. Extensive electric tramways were in operation by 1900; and regular steamers plied to Memel, Tapiau and Labiau, Cranz, Tilsit, and Danzig. The completion of a canal to Pillau in 1901 increased the trade of Russian grain in Königsberg, but, like much of eastern Germany, the city's economy was generally in decline. [Kirby, "The Baltic World", p. 303] By 1900 the city's population had grown to 188,000, with a 9,000-strong military garrison. By 1914 Königsberg had a population of 246,000; [Kirby, "The Baltic World", p. 205] Jews flourished in the culturally pluralistic city. [Clark, p. 584]

Weimar Republic

Following the defeat of the Central Powers in World War I, Imperial Germany was replaced with the democratic Weimar Republic. The Kingdom of Prussia ended with the abdication of the Hohenzollern monarch, William, and the kingdom was succeeded by the Free State of Prussia. Königsberg and East Prussia, however, were separated from the rest of Weimar Germany by the creation of the Polish Corridor. The Ostmesse (Eastern Fair) at the Königsberg Tiergarten was organized every year since 1920; it was intended to compensate for the geographical distance that handicapped the economic development of East Prussia and Königsberg. In 1922 the first permanent airport and commercial terminal solely for commercial aviation was built at Königsberg-Devau. In 1929, Königsberg amalgamated with some surrounding suburbs.

Nazi Germany

In 1932 Prussia's legal (Social Democratic) government under Otto Braun was ousted by the Reich Government, and Gauleiter Erich Koch replaced the elected local government during Nazi rule from 1933 to 1945.

In 1935, the Wehrmacht designated K√∂nigsberg as the Headquarters for Wehrkreis I, (under the command of General der Artillerie Albert Wodrig) which originally took in all of East Prussia. Wehrkreis I was extended in March 1939 to include the Memel area. In October 1939, it was extended again to include the Ciechan√≥w and SuwaŇāki areas. In 1942, the Wehrkreis was again expanded to include the BiaŇāystok district. Army units that called K√∂nigsberg home included the I Infantry Corps, which was part of the pre-Nazi era Standing Army, and the 61st Infanterie Division, which was formed upon mobilization from reservists from East Prussia. It took part in the invasion of Belgium, which was part of Case Yellow, and Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union. In Book XII of his "World War II", Winston Churchill referred to K√∂nigsberg as "a modernised heavily defended fortress".

According to the census of May 17 1939, Königsberg had a population of 372,164. [GRC, p. 37]

One-third of East Prussia's 13,000 Jews lived in Königsberg after World War I. The city's Jewish population shrank from 3,200 in 1933 to 2,100 in October 1938. The New Synagogue of Königsberg, constructed in 1896, was destroyed during Kristallnacht; 500 Jews left the city after November 9 1938. After the Wannsee Conference of January 20 1942, Königsberg's Jews began to be deported to camps such as Maly Trostenets, Theresienstadt, and Auschwitz.Ostpreussen.net]

World War II

The city hosted Radio Königsberg, a propaganda station, during World War II.

In 1944 Königsberg suffered heavy damage from British bombing attacks and burned for several days. The historic city center, especially the original quarters Altstadt, Löbenicht, and Kneiphof, was completely destroyed, among it the cathedral, the castle, all churches of the old city, the old and the new universities, and the old shipping quarters.

Many people fled Königsberg ahead of the Red Army's advance after October 1944, particularly after word spread of the alleged Soviet atrocities at Nemmersdorf and Gumbinnen. [ "Berlin ", Antony Beevor] ["A Writer at War" Vasily Grossman, Edited & Translated by Antony Beevor and Luba Vinoradova, Pimlico, 2006] Soviet forces under General Chernyakhovsky reached the city on January 13, 1945, and had encircled the city by the end of the month, but a temporary German breakout allowed many of the remaining civilians to escape via train and naval evacuation from the nearby port of Pillau. The siege of Königsberg, which had been declared a "fortress" ("Festung") by the Germans and fanatically defended, raged all through February and March.

On 21 January during the Red Army's East Prussian Offensive, mostly Polish and Hungarian Jews from Seerappen, Jesau, Heiligenbeil, Schippenbeil, and Gerdauen (subcamps of Stutthof concentration camp) were gathered in Königsberg. Up to 7,000 of them were forced on a death march to Samland; those that survived were subsequently executed at Palmnicken.

On April 9 — one month before the end of the war in Europe — the German military commander of K√∂nigsberg, General Otto Lasch, surrendered the remnants of his forces following a Red Army assault. At the time of the surrender, military and civilian dead in the city were estimated at 42,000, with the Red Army claiming over 90,000 prisoners. Lasch's subterranean command bunker has been preserved as a museum, with the rest of the 19th century fortification complex being abandoned after use by the Soviet Army until the 1980s as a storage facility.

About 120,000 survivors remained in the ruins of the devastated city. These survivors, mainly women, children and the elderly and a few others who returned immediately after the fighting ended, were held as virtual prisoners until 1949. The large majority of German citizens remaining in Königsberg after 1945 died of either disease, torture, mass rape or starvation. [de Zayas, Alfred-Maurice: A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the Eastern European Germans 1944-1950, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994 ] The remaining 20,000 German residents were expelled in 1949-50. [Michael Wieck: A Childhood Under Hitler and Stalin: Memoirs of a "Certified Jew," University of Wisconsin Press, 2003, ISBN 0-299-18544-3, Hans Lehndorff: East Prussian Diary, A Journal of Faith, 1945-1947 London 1963]

Russian Kaliningrad

At the end of World War II in 1945, the city was annexed by the Soviet Union pending the final determination of territorial questions at the peace settlement (as part of the Russian SFSR) as agreed upon by the Allies at the Potsdam Conference:

VI. CITY OF KOENIGSBERG AND THE ADJACENT AREA
The Conference examined a proposal by the Soviet Government that pending the final determination of territorial questions at the peace settlement the section of the western frontier of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which is adjacent to the Baltic Sea should pass from a point on the eastern shore of the Bay of Danzig to the east, north of Braunsberg and Goldap, to the meeting point of the frontiers of Lithuania, the Polish Republic and East Prussia.

The Conference has agreed in principle to the proposal of the Soviet Government concerning the ultimate transfer to the Soviet Union of the city of Koenigsberg and the area adjacent to it as described above, subject to expert examination of the actual frontier.

The President of the United States and the British Prime Minister have declared that they will support the proposal of the Conference at the forthcoming peace settlement. [http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1945/450802a.html]

After K√∂nigsberg's conquest by the Red Army, the city was briefly Russified as "Kyonigsberg" (–ö—Ď–Ĺ–ł–≥—Ā–Ī–Ķ—Ä–≥). It was renamed Kaliningrad on July 4 1946, after the death of the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Mikhail Kalinin, one of the original Bolsheviks. The German population was either deported to the Western Zones of occupied Germany, or deported into Siberian labor camps, where about half of them perished of hunger or diseases. [de Zayas, Alfred-Maurice: A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the Eastern European Germans 1944-1950, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994 ]

After the ethnic cleansing, the city's former population was entirely replaced with Russian citizens. Life changed dramatically: the city had a new name (Kaliningrad), and German was replaced by Russian as the language of everyday life. Parts of the city were rebuilt, although the former Altstadt remained an urban fallow with few buildings that survived the destruction. The city went through industrialisation and modernisation. As one of the westernmost territories of the Soviet Union, the Kaliningrad Oblast became a strategically important area during the Cold War. The Soviet Baltic Fleet was headquartered in the city in the 1950s. Because of its strategic importance, Kaliningrad was closed to foreign visitors.

Culture

Königsberg was the birthplace of the mathematician Christian Goldbach and the writer E.T.A. Hoffmann, as well as the home of the philosopher Immanuel Kant. In 1736, the mathematician Leonhard Euler used the arrangement of the city's bridges and islands as the basis for the Seven Bridges of Königsberg Problem, which led to the mathematical branches of topology and graph theory. In the 19th century Königsberg was the birthplace of the influential mathematician David Hilbert.

The dialect spoken by most citizens was Low Prussian. A popular dish from the city was Königsberger Klopse.

In the K√∂nig Strasse (King Street) stood the Academy of Art with a collection of over 400 pictures. About 50 works were by Italian masters; and some early Dutch paintings were also to be found there. [Baedeker, p. 176] At the K√∂nigs Tor (King's Gate) stood statues of King Ottakar I of Bohemia, Albert of Prussia, and Frederick I of Prussia. K√∂nigsberg had a magnificent Exchange (completed in 1875) with fine views of the harbor from the staircase. Along Bahnhof Strasse ("Railway Street") were the offices of the famous Royal Amber Works — Samland was celebrated as the "Amber Coast". There was also an observatory fitted up by the astronomer Friedrich Bessel, a botanical garden, and a zoological museum. The "Physikalisch", near the Heumarkt, contained botanical and anthropological collections and prehistoric antiquities. Two large theatres built during the Wilhelmine era were the Stadt (city) Theatre and the Appollo.

Königsberg Castle was one of the city's most notable structures. The former seat of the Grand Masters of the Teutonic Knights and the Dukes of Prussia, it contained the Schloßkirche, or palace church, where Frederick I was crowned in 1701 and William I in 1861. It also contained the spacious Moscowiter-Saal, one of the largest halls in the German Reich, and a museum of Prussian history.

K√∂nigsberg became a centre of education when the Albertina University was founded by Duke Albert of Prussia in 1544. The university was situated opposite the north and east side of the K√∂nigsberg Cathedral. Lithuanian scholar Stanislovas Rapalionis, one of founding fathers of the university, was the first professor of theology. [Zinkevińćius, p.32]

Numerous German and Polish publications were printed in Königsberg espousing the Protestant Reformation. [Kirby, "Northern Europe", p. 88] The city was a center for the publication of books in the Lithuanian language, especially by educated Prussian Lithuanians from Lithuania Minor. After the territory became Lutheran, prayer books were printed in the Lithuanian vernacular. The first non-religious Lithuanian books were published later as well. With the support of the government, Ruhig and Mielcke published Lithuanian dictionaries in 1747 and 1800, respectively. [Clark, p. 134]

Sports clubs which played in Königsberg included VfB Königsberg and SV Prussia-Samland Königsberg.

Notes

References

*cite book|last=Baedeker|first=Karl|authorlink=Karl Baedeker|title=Baedeker's Northern Germany|year=1904|publisher=Charles Scribner's Sons|location=New York|pages=395|isbn=

*Biskup, Marian. "K√∂nigsberg gegen√ľber Polen und dem Litauen der Jagiellonen zur Zeit des Mittelalters (bis 1525)" in Kr√≥lewiec a Polska Olsztyn 1993 de icon
*cite book|last=Christiansen|first=Erik|title=The Northern Crusades|year=1997|publisher=Penguin Books|location=London|pages=287|isbn=0-14-026653-4
*cite book|last=Clark|first=Christopher|authorlink=Christopher Clark|title=Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia 1600–1947|year=2006|publisher=Belknap Press of Harvard|location=Cambridge|pages=776|isbn=067402385-4
*cite book|last=Goettingen Research Committee|otherauthors=Translated by Helen Taubert and Anni M√ľckenheim|title=German Eastern Territories|year=1957|publisher=Holzner|location=W√ľrzburg|pages=196|isbn=
*cite book|last=Holborn|first=Hajo|authorlink=|title=A History of Modern Germany: 1648-1840|year=1964|publisher=Alfred A. Knopf|location=New York|pages=556|isbn=
*cite book|last=Holborn|first=Hajo|authorlink=|title=A History of Modern Germany: 1840-1945|year=1982|publisher=Princeton University Press|location=Princeton|pages=844|isbn=0-691-00797-7
*cite book|last=Kirby|first=David|title=Northern Europe in the Early Modern Period: The Baltic World, 1492-1772|publisher=Longman|location=London|year=1990|pages=|isbn=0582004101
*cite book|last=Kirby|first=David|title=The Baltic World, 1772-1993: Europe’s Northern Periphery in an Age of Change|publisher=Longman|location=London|year=1999|pages=|isbn=058200408X
*cite book|last=Koch|first=H. W.|title=A History of Prussia|publisher=Barnes & Noble Books|location=New York|year=1978|pages=326|isbn=0-88029-158-3
*cite web|publisher=Ostpreussen.net|title=Juden in Königsberg|work=|date=2006-12-12|url=http://www.ostpreussen.net/index.php?seite_id=12&bericht=04&kreis=38&stadt=01|format=|doi=|accessdate=2008-03-05 de icon
*cite book|last=Seward|first=Desmond|authorlink=|title=The Monks of War: The Military Religious Orders|year=1995|publisher=Penguin Books|location=London|pages=416|isbn=0-14-019501-7
*cite book|last=Turnbull|first=Stephen|title=Crusader Castles of the Teutonic Knights (1): The red-brick castles of Prussia 1230-1466|year=2003|publisher=Osprey Publishing|location=Oxford|pages=64|isbn=1-84176-557-0
*cite book|last=Urban|first=William|title=The Teutonic Knights: A Military History|year=2003|publisher=Greenhill Books|location=London|pages=290|isbn=1-85367-535-0
*cite book|last=Zinkevińćius|first=Zigmas|authorlink=Zigmas Zinkevińćius|title=MaŇĺosios Lietuvos indńólis ńĮ lietuviŇ≥ kultŇęrńÖ|year=2008|publisher=Mokslo ir enciklopedijŇ≥ leidybos institutas|location=Vilnius|pages=286|isbn=9785420016213

External links

* [http://www.swajdo.travel.pl/kaliningrad.html Kaliningrad Photo Gallery - Reisebilder aus Königsberg]
* [http://www.koenigsberg-is-dead.de The Film "Königsberg is dead", France/Germany 2004 by Max & Gilbert] de icon en icon
* [http://www.territorial.de/ostp/koen/koen.htm Territory's history from 1815 to 1945] de icon
* [http://home.tiscali.nl/robeam/koeningsberg/PLAN-ORTE-KOENIGSBERG.htm Interactive Map with photos of Königsberg and modern Kaliningrad]
* [http://home.tiscali.nl/floris5/album/index.html Direct link to photo album from above site]
* [http://www.kng750.kanet.ru/index.htm Site with 400+ side-by-side photos of 1939/2005 identical locations in Königsberg/Kaliningrad] ru icon de icon
* [http://www.euronet.nl/~jlemmens/ Northeast Prussia 2000: Travel Photos]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • K√∂nigsberg ‚ÄĒ ist oder war der Name von: Ortschaften: Kaliningrad, Hauptstadt der Oblast Kaliningrad in Russland K√∂nigsberg in Bayern, Stadt im Landkreis Ha√überge, Bayern K√∂nigsberg (Biebertal), Ortsteil der Gemeinde Biebertal, Landkreis Gie√üen, Hessen… ‚Ķ   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • K√∂nigsberg ‚ÄĒ Bandera ‚Ķ   Wikipedia Espa√Īol

  • K√∂nigsberg ‚ÄĒ K√∂nigsberg, 1) K. in Preu√üen (poln. Krolewiec, lat. Regiomontanum; hierzu der Stadtplan, mit Registerblatt), Festung und Hauptstadt der preu√ü. Provinz Ostpreu√üen und des gleichnamigen Regierungsbezirks, Kr√∂nungs und dritte Residenzstadt der… ‚Ķ   Meyers Gro√ües Konversations-Lexikon

  • K√∂nigsberg ‚ÄĒ K√∂nigsberg, 1) Regierungsbezirk der preu√üischen Provinz Ostpreu√üen, aus dem vormaligen Kammerdepartement Ostpreu√üen u. einen Theile von Lithauen gebildet; grenzt an Ru√üland den Regierungsbezirk Gumbinnen, Polen, die westpreu√üischen… ‚Ķ   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • K√∂nigsberg ‚ÄĒ K√∂nigsberg, Hauptst. Preu√üens an beiden Seiten des schiffbaren Pregel, der nicht weit von hier in s frische Haff f√§llt, mit 70,000 Ew. und einer Universit√§t. Der Kneiphof, ein auf einer Insel im Pregel befindlicher Stadttheil, ist sehr schon. Die ‚Ķ   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • K√∂nigsberg ‚ÄĒ K√∂nigsberg, 1) Spitze des Harzgebirgs, 3102 Fu√ü hoch, s.u. Harz 1); 2) Berg mit Marmordenkmal bei Pyrmont, s.d. 2) ‚Ķ   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • K√∂nigsberg ‚ÄĒ K√∂nigsberg. 1) K. in Preu√üen, Haupt und Residenzstadt, die Hauptstadt der preu√ü. Prov. Ostpreu√üen [Karte: Ostpreu√üen etc. I. 4] und des Reg. Bez. K. (14.008 qkm, 876.099 E., 1 Stadt , 14 Landkreise), Stadtkreis und Kreisstadt, am Pregel, besteht… ‚Ķ   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • K√∂nigsberg [2] ‚ÄĒ K√∂nigsberg, Stadt in B√∂hmen, an der Eger, (1900) 4534 E., Holzindustrieschule; Baumwollindustrie ‚Ķ   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • K√∂nigsberg ‚ÄĒ K√∂nigsberg, Hauptst. der Prov. Preu√üen, Festung, am schiffbaren Pregel, 1 St. von dessen M√ľndung, hat ohne Milit√§r 75500 E., ist Sitz der Regierungsbeh√∂rden, einer 1544 gestifteten Universit√§t, hat ein k√∂nigl. Schlo√ü, sehenswerthen Dom, ein f√ľr… ‚Ķ   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • K√∂nigsberg ‚ÄĒ V. Kaliningrad ‚Ķ   Encyclop√©die Universelle

  • K√∂nigsberg ‚ÄĒ [k√∂‚Ä≤niHs berkőĄ] former (Ger.) name for KALININGRAD ‚Ķ   English World dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
… Do a right-click on the link above
and select ‚ÄúCopy Link‚ÄĚ

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.