Saint Jacob's Church
Arguably the most central church in the Swedish capital, surrounded by the popular park
Kungsträdgården, the Royal Opera, the square Gustaf Adolfs torg; and near Sergels torg, the Royal Palace, and governmental office Rosenbad, the parish of the church was limited to 150 souls in the late 1980s, and was thus merged into the parish of the Stockholm Cathedral in 1989."S:t Jacobs kyrkas historia"]
The church took a long time to complete and as a consequence include a wide range of architectonic styles, such as Late Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque, the design of architects:
Willem Boy(1580-93), Hans Ferster(1635-43), Göran Joshuae Adelcrantzand Carl Hårleman(1723-35), Carl Möllerand Agi Lindegren(1893-94)."Guide till Stockholms arkitektur", p 11.]
The origin of the church dates back to a
chapelbelonging to the Solna parish (Solna Municipality now being one of the suburbs of Stockholm) and at the time built on the outskirts of the parish. It is first mentioned in 1311, and archaeological excavations in 1948 and one more recently documented its location just south of the present church and reconstructions showed its extent was limited to 8×13 meters.Stockholm City Museum] The parish itself is believed to be a century or so younger than the chapel as the church is first mentioned as "ecclesia parrochialis" in the 1430s. For defensive purposes the demolition of the church, together with other churches on the ridges surrounding the medieval city, was ordered by King Gustav Vasa following the Reduction in 1527. It is therefore believed the church was built in brick rather than wood, since the king needed bricks for his defensive structures.
However, in 1580 King John III ordered a church to be rebuilt on the same location, as part of his attempt to incorporate the urban conglomeration on the northern ridges into the city. Construction on the present church was lead by master-builder
Heinrich van Huwenand started in 1588. As completed by the time for the death of John III, the design of Willem Boy(c. 1520-1592) included a central naveflanked by two tall aisles resting on sandstonecolumns.
Charles IX's intentions to make the northern subsurbs (today's
Norrmalm) an independent city motivated him to order the church to be lengthen by two bays in 1630. The first Over-Governor of Stockholm("överståthållare") Klas Flemmingemployed master mason Hans Fersterand stone-cutter Heinrich Blumein 1633, which resulted in the star-ribbed vaults completed in 1642. The following year the southern portico was begun by Blume together with the Renaissance gables of the transepts later destroyed in the fire of 1723. The church could finally be inaugurated November 26, 1643, in the presence of Queen Christina. At that time, the northern ridges had been divided into to parishes (the other being that of Klara Church) separated by the northbound esker Brunkebergsåsen. However, the church interior was only partly completed and a sacristywas added in 1698.
A fire destroyed the roof in 1723. A new central tower designed by
Göran Joshuae Adelcrantzwas inaugurated in 1739 The many steeples of the church was designed by Carl Hårleman. The exterior was repainted in a grey-white colour in the 1770s.
During the 19th century, most of the 17th century interior was hastily replaced, including both the southern and northern galleries, the
retable, and the organ gallery. Complaints from the parish regarding the now dark church, caused the galleries to be rebuilt again in 1825. The church started using central heatingin 1850 and gas lightingin 1862 — the 1.450 flames exceeding any other church in Stockholm. All these modifications were, however, restored by the work of Carl Möllerwho favoured a Romantic Nationalistic Neo-Renaissancestyle in Sweden called "Vasa-renässans" and Agi Lindegrenwho worked in a multitude of styles adopted to various contexts. The galleries were thus reshaped into Neo-Baroqueand the church furnished with electric light.
An exterior restoration in 1910 gave the church a new copper roof and a sandstone socle. A new restoration in 1932-37 resulted in the present rather bare interior, with no changes since except a minor restoration in 1969.
History of Stockholm
Religion in Sweden
Church of Sweden
* cite web
url = http://www.stockholmsdomkyrkoforsamling.se/page.php?p=401
title = S:t Jacobs kyrkas historia
publisher = Stockholm domkyrkoförsamling
accessdate = 2008-01-24 | language = Swedish
* cite web
url = http://www.stadsmuseum.stockholm.se/kma.php?artikel=119&visa=utskrift&sprak=svenska
title = 1300-tals kyrka påträffad vid Kungsträdgården
Stockholm City Museum
accessdate = 2008-01-24
* cite book
author = Mårtelius, Johan | title = Guide till Stockholms arkitektur
edition = 2nd ed. | year = 1999 | publisher = Arkitektur förlag
location = Stockholm | id = ISBN 91 86050-41-9
chapter = Norra Innerstaden | language = Swedish
* cite web
url = http://www.stockholmsdomkyrkoforsamling.se/page.php?p=421
title = Stockholms domkyrkoförsamling
publisher = Stockholm Cathedral Parish
language = English | accessdate = 2008-01-24 - Official site
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