Saint Jacob's Church

Saint Jacob's Church ( _sv. Sankt Jacobs kyrka) is a church in central Stockholm, Sweden, dedicated to apostle Saint James the Greater, patron saint of travellers.

Arguably the most central church in the Swedish capital, surrounded by the popular park Kungsträdgården, the Royal Opera, the square Gustaf Adolfs torg; and near Sergels torg, the Royal Palace, and governmental office Rosenbad, the parish of the church was limited to 150 souls in the late 1980s, and was thus merged into the parish of the Stockholm Cathedral in 1989."S:t Jacobs kyrkas historia"]

The church took a long time to complete and as a consequence include a wide range of architectonic styles, such as Late Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque, the design of architects: Willem Boy (1580-93), Hans Ferster (1635-43), Göran Joshuae Adelcrantz and Carl Hårleman (1723-35), Carl Möller and Agi Lindegren (1893-94)."Guide till Stockholms arkitektur", p 11.]

History

The origin of the church dates back to a chapel belonging to the Solna parish (Solna Municipality now being one of the suburbs of Stockholm) and at the time built on the outskirts of the parish. It is first mentioned in 1311, and archaeological excavations in 1948 and one more recently documented its location just south of the present church and reconstructions showed its extent was limited to 8×13 meters.Stockholm City Museum] The parish itself is believed to be a century or so younger than the chapel as the church is first mentioned as "ecclesia parrochialis" in the 1430s. For defensive purposes the demolition of the church, together with other churches on the ridges surrounding the medieval city, was ordered by King Gustav Vasa following the Reduction in 1527. It is therefore believed the church was built in brick rather than wood, since the king needed bricks for his defensive structures.

However, in 1580 King John III ordered a church to be rebuilt on the same location, as part of his attempt to incorporate the urban conglomeration on the northern ridges into the city. Construction on the present church was lead by master-builder Heinrich van Huwen and started in 1588. As completed by the time for the death of John III, the design of Willem Boy (c. 1520-1592) included a central nave flanked by two tall aisles resting on sandstone columns.

Charles IX's intentions to make the northern subsurbs (today's Norrmalm) an independent city motivated him to order the church to be lengthen by two bays in 1630. The first Over-Governor of Stockholm ("överståthållare") Klas Flemming employed master mason Hans Ferster and stone-cutter Heinrich Blume in 1633, which resulted in the star-ribbed vaults completed in 1642. The following year the southern portico was begun by Blume together with the Renaissance gables of the transepts later destroyed in the fire of 1723. The church could finally be inaugurated November 26, 1643, in the presence of Queen Christina. At that time, the northern ridges had been divided into to parishes (the other being that of Klara Church) separated by the northbound esker Brunkebergsåsen. However, the church interior was only partly completed and a sacristy was added in 1698.

A fire destroyed the roof in 1723. A new central tower designed by Göran Joshuae Adelcrantz was inaugurated in 1739 The many steeples of the church was designed by Carl Hårleman. The exterior was repainted in a grey-white colour in the 1770s.

During the 19th century, most of the 17th century interior was hastily replaced, including both the southern and northern galleries, the retable, and the organ gallery. Complaints from the parish regarding the now dark church, caused the galleries to be rebuilt again in 1825. The church started using central heating in 1850 and gas lighting in 1862 — the 1.450 flames exceeding any other church in Stockholm. All these modifications were, however, restored by the work of Carl Möller who favoured a Romantic Nationalistic Neo-Renaissance style in Sweden called "Vasa-renässans" and Agi Lindegren who worked in a multitude of styles adopted to various contexts. The galleries were thus reshaped into Neo-Baroque and the church furnished with electric light.

An exterior restoration in 1910 gave the church a new copper roof and a sandstone socle. A new restoration in 1932-37 resulted in the present rather bare interior, with no changes since except a minor restoration in 1969.

See also

* History of Stockholm
* Religion in Sweden
* Church of Sweden

Notes

References

* cite web
url = http://www.stockholmsdomkyrkoforsamling.se/page.php?p=401
title = S:t Jacobs kyrkas historia
publisher = Stockholm domkyrkoförsamling
accessdate = 2008-01-24 | language = Swedish

* cite web
url = http://www.stadsmuseum.stockholm.se/kma.php?artikel=119&visa=utskrift&sprak=svenska
title = 1300-tals kyrka påträffad vid Kungsträdgården
publisher = Stockholm City Museum
accessdate = 2008-01-24

* cite book
author = Mårtelius, Johan | title = Guide till Stockholms arkitektur
edition = 2nd ed. | year = 1999 | publisher = Arkitektur förlag
location = Stockholm | id = ISBN 91 86050-41-9
chapter = Norra Innerstaden | language = Swedish

External links

* cite web
url = http://www.stockholmsdomkyrkoforsamling.se/page.php?p=421
title = Stockholms domkyrkoförsamling
publisher = Stockholm Cathedral Parish
language = English | accessdate = 2008-01-24
- Official site


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