Missing years (Hebrew calendar)
The missing years in the
Hebrew calendarrefer to a discrepancy of some 165 years between the traditional Hebrew dating for the destruction of the First Templeand the modern secular dating for it (586 BCE) that results if its traditional date 3338 AM ( Anno Mundi) is interpreted according to the standard Hebrew calendar.
Misconceptions regarding the missing years
Differences between the standard Hebrew and Gregorian calendars
The traditional dates of events in Jewish history are often used interchangeably with the modern secular dates according to the Gregorian calendar. For example, year 3338 AM on the Hebrew calendar is typically equated to 586 BCE. Implicit in this practice is the view that if all the differences in structure between the Hebrew and Gregorian calendars are taken into consideration, the two dates can be derived from each other. This is not the case. If the traditional dates of events before the Second Temple era are assumed to be using the standard Hebrew calendar, they refer to different objective years than those of the secular dates. The discrepancy is some 165 years.
The conflict does not necessarily imply that either the traditional dates or the secular dates must be objectively wrong. It is possible that the traditional dates did not use a consistent calendar matching the year count of the standard Hebrew calendar. For instance, it could be that one or more substantial calendar shifts have occurred, or the years counted might in certain periods have differed from astronomical years. Taking into account the possibility of a changing structure of the Hebrew calendar, theoretically, both the traditional dates and those of secular scholars could be correct.
Two-year difference within the Hebrew calendar
Today, Hebrew dating places the creation of the world near the end of "Year One" AM and afterwards the first year of Adam's life as "Year Two" AM. However,
Seder Olam Rabbashows that the Hebrew dating originally counted the first year of Adam's life as "Year Zero" AM. This may mean that the Hebrew dating has shifted in the course of history such that traditional dating of ancient events appears two years earlier than the modern Hebrew dating would be (Edgar Frank, Talmudic and Rabbinic Chronology, 1956). Alternatively, it could be that there was no calendar shift, or a shift of only one year, as the discrepancies regarding Adam's year of birth may only, or partially, reflect different views of the process of Creation.
Rabbinic tradition  says that the First Temple was destroyed in "year 3338" AM and the Second Temple in "year 3828" AM. If there was no calendar shift, the Common Era equivalents would be 423 BCE and 68 CE, respectively. If there was a calendar shift, the destructions would have taken place in our years 3339 and 3829 AM, or in 3340 and 3830 AM, and the Common Era equivalents would be 422 BCE and 69 CE, respectively, or 421 BCE and 70 CE.
If there was no calendar shift, the length of the missing-years period would be 163 years (586 minus 423). If there was a calendar shift, the length of the missing-years period would be 164 or 165 years.
The missing years and Daniel
A popular explanation for the missing years suggests that the Jewish sages interpreted the prophecy in Daniel 9:24–27 as meaning that there would be 490 years from the destruction of the
First Templeto the destruction of the Second Templeand, working backwards from the destruction of the Second Temple(in 3828 AM), wrongly dated the destruction of the First Temple(in 3338 AM).
A variation on this argument states that the Jews deliberately altered the dating so that the true date of the "anointed one" mentioned in Daniel 9:25 would be hidden. One version of the argument states that the Jews deliberately distorted the dating to hide that the prophecy refers to the messiah. Other apologists have countered with claims that the dating was indeed altered for one or another reason and should be understood as fable, not history.
However, these explanations are problematic as the verse in question refers to a period of "70 weeks," that is, 490 days, not years. The traditional Jewish understanding is that the prophecy relates to the Persian king Cyrus who is also called the "anointed one" in Isaiah 45:1. The interpretation of the verses as years between the destructions of the temples is due to the 11th century commentator
Rashiwriting long after the chronicles giving this difference as 490 years. Christians also interpreted these verses as years in order to connect them to Jesus although Rashi's interpretation is such that it upholds the tradition that the anointed one in question is Cyrus. The confusion may also be because the Hebrew word for "week" was spelled the same way as (and comes from the same root as) the word for "seven", hence "70 sevens" instead of "70 weeks". See Prophecy of Seventy Weeks.
Resolving the discrepancy
Mistakes in the Hebrew or secular dating
If traditional dates are assumed to be based on the standard Hebrew calendar, then the differing traditional and modern secular dating of events cannot both be correct. Attempts to reconcile the two systems must show one or both to have errors.
Missing reign lengths in the Hebrew dating
Those supporting the modern secular dating reject the
Hebrew Bibleas a historical source as many of its claims have no independent corroborating sources. Later Jewish chronicles and commentaries are dismissed on the grounds that they were written centuries after the events they date and are based either directly on the Hebrew Bibleor on oral traditions.
The modern secular dating of the Babylonian and Persian periods is therefore reconstructed using the following sources:
* Greek sources: The historians
Herodotus, Ctesias, Thucydides, Xenophon, Dinonand Diodorus Siculusas well as the philosopher Aristotle, the playwriter Aeschylusand the Egyptian priest Manetho.
Royal Canonof the astronomer Claudius Ptolemy, which provides astronomically tabulated dates of the kings of the period.
* Persian sources, including king lists like the
Saros Canon, as well as other inscriptions such as the Behistun inscriptionor the Cyrus Cylinder, and administrative records as the Persepolis Fortification Tablets, and the Persepolis Treasury Tablets.
* Babylonian sources such as astronomical records recording
eclipses, temple inscriptions and various royal documents including the Nabonidus Chronicle, as well as business documents as the Marashu Archive.
Secular scholars see the discrepancy between the traditional and secular date of the destruction of the First Temple arising as a result of Jewish sages missing out the reign lengths of several Persian kings during the Persian Empire's rule over Israel. Modern secular scholars tally ten Persian kings whose combined reigns total 208 years. By contrast, ancient Jewish sages only mention four Persian kings totaling 52 years. The reigns of several Persian kings appear to be missing from the traditional calculations.
Missing years in Jewish tradition
Azariah dei Rossi, in his magnum opus, "Me'or Einayim" (circa 1573), was likely the first Jewish authority to claim that the traditional Hebrew dating is not historically precise regarding the years before the Second Temple.
Nachman Krochmalin "Guide to the perplexed of our times" (Hebrew, 1851) points to the Greek name Antigonos mentioned in the beginning of Avot as proof that there must have been a longer period to account for this sign of Hellenic influence. He posits that certain books of the Bible such as Kohelet and Isaiah were written or redacted during this period.
David Zvi Hoffman(1843–1921) points out that the Mishna in Avot (1:4) in describing the chain of tradition uses the plural "accepted from them" even though the previous Mishna only mentions one person. He posits that there must have been another Mishna mentioning two sages that was later removed.
It has been noted that the traditional account of Jewish history shows a discontinuity in the beginning of the 35th century: The account of
Seder Olam Rabbahis complete only until this time. It has been postulated that this work was written to complement another historical work, about subsequent centuries until the time of Hadrian, which is no longer extant. It appears that Jewish dating systems only arose in the 35th century, so that precise historical records would naturally have existed only from that time onwards. The Minyan Shtarot system, used to date official Jewish documents, started in the year 3449. According to Lerman's thesis, the year-count "from Creation" was established around the same time.
It has also been pointed out that certain calculations in the Talmud compute better according to the secular dating (Y2K solution to the Chronology Problem, Hakirah Vol. 3).
Two reasons are given as to why the Rabbis may have deliberately removed years from the timeline.
Shimon Schwabpoints to the words "seal the words and close the book" in the book of Daniel as a positive commandment to obscure the calculations for the Messiah mentioned within.
*2. The Y2K solution proposed in the Hakirah article suggests that the sages were concerned with the acceptance of the
Mishna. There existed a Rabbinical tradition that the year 4000 marked the close of the "era of Torah". They therefore arranged the chronology so that the redaction of the Mishna should coincide with that date and thus have a better chance of acceptance.
Critiques of secular dating
Those supporting the traditional dating point out that many statements made by classical historians, as well as those contained in ancient inscriptions, are also made without corroborating sources. In addition the Greek sources are based largely on hearsay and oral tradition. Thus the systematic ignoring of the
Hebrew Bibleand other Jewish sources on such grounds is unjustified bias.Fact|date=February 2007
It is emphasized that key events in the period, such as the destruction of the
First Temple, the assassination of Gedaliahand the foiled extermination of Jews at the time of Purim, were events that have been commemorated every year by Jews since their occurrence and thus account of their dates have always been kept.Fact|date=February 2007
The astronomical data used by the secular historians has been criticized. Physicist and science historian Robert R. Newton has found [book "The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy", 1977, Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0801819903,reviewed by [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,919182,00.html |TIME Magazine]
] Ptolemy's work to contain errors and fraudulent observations. (Bickerman questions if the Royal Canon is actually the work of Ptolemy.) Dolan notes that Babylonian records of astronomical events are subject to interpretation as they do not clearly distinguish between eclipses and weather phenomena; moreover eclipses may have been missed or their extent misrecorded as a result of observation conditions. Dolan also notes that the dates of ancient texts have also been the subject of interpretation due to broken texts and uncertainty about ordering. Aaronson points out that the Persian inscriptions consist only of names and titles with virtually no explanatory content, and that the identification of the individuals mentioned is also a matter of interpretation. (Aaronson also notes that some ancient Persian sources, such as two of the inscriptions of Arsames and Ariaramnes, have subsequently been revealed to be forgeries.)
Aaronson and Heifetz note that the Greek sources contradict each other and the archaeological sources and reconciling the difference involves additional interpretation. They argue that the sources can be interpreted in a manner consistent with the traditional dating as well as with the secular dating. They consider the reigns of certain Median and Persian monarchs to have been overlapping whereas the secular dating counts them as non-overlapping. They also argue that certain kings named in Greek sources who have been counted as separate monarchs are in fact the same individual - in particular they argue that only one Alexander of Macedonia fought a king Darius of Persia, not two Alexanders as the secular dating requires.
The following sources are thus taken into consideration in support of the traditional dating:
* The internal chronology of the
* Transmitted tradition regarding the dates of annually commemorated events.
* The Tannaitic chronicle
Seder Olam Rabbaand later chronicles such as the Seder Olam Zuta, Seder_Ha-Dorot and Toldot Am Olam [by the late Rabbi Shlomo Rottenberg, of Antwerp] .
* Comments on historical events in other Jewish writings such as the
Talmudand the commentaries of Rashi.
* The secular Greek writings of the Jewish historian
Josephusand the national traditions preserved by the Persian historian Firdausi.
* The Greek, Babylonian and Persian sources cited by those supporting the secular dating, but interpreted in a manner consistent with the traditional dating.
This approach to the discrepancy is the most problematic. The reinterpretation of the Greek, Babylonian and Persian sources that is required to support the traditional dating has been achieved only in parts and has not yet been achieved in its entirety. Similar problems face other attempts to revise secular dating (such as those of
Peter Jamesand David Rohl) and mainstream scholarship rejects such approaches.
* "Jewish History in Conflict: A Study of the Major Discrepancy between Rabbinic and Conventional Chronology", by Mitchell First (Jason Aronson, 1997)
* "Talmudic and Rabbinic Chronology", by Edgar Frank (New York: Feldheim 1956)
* "Chronology of the Ancient World", by E.J. Bickerman (Cornell University Press, 1968, 1982)
* "The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy". Robert R. Newton (The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 1977)
* "Daniel 9" in "You Take Jesus and I'll Take God" by S. Levine, revised edition, Hamoroh Press, Los Angeles, 1980 - explains the Jewish understanding of "Daniel" 9:24-27
* " [http://www.preteristarchive.com/Books/1913_anstey_romance.html The Romance of Biblical Chronology] ", by Martin Anstey (London: Marshall Brothers, 1913) - interprets Daniel as prophesying the crucifixion of Jesus, so the Temple as having been destroyed in 502 BCE
* R' Shimon Schwab in “Comparative Jewish Chronology in Jubilee Volume for Rav Yosef Breuer” pp. 177-197.
* David Zvi Hoffman "Ha'mishna Rishona" (Heb.)
* [http://www.starways.net/lisa/essays/heifetzfix.html Fixing the History Books, Dr. Chaim S. Heifetz's Revision of Persian History, by Brad Aaronson] - Jewish scholarly critique of secular dating
* [http://www.talkreason.org/articles/fixing1.cfm Fixing the Mind by Alexander Eterman] - a refutation of Heifetz's critique.
* [http://becomingone.org/cp/cp3.htm Secular Chronology by Walter R. Dolen] - Christian scholarly critique of secular dating
* [http://groups.msn.com/JudaismFAQs/history.msnw Jewish Dating System] - defense of modern secular dating
* [http://www.jewishamerica.com/ja/timeline/adm2abr.cfm Significant Events In Jewish And World History] - timeline based on traditional Jewish sources
* [http://www.hakirah.org/Vol%203%20Epstein.pdf A Y2K solution to the Chronology Problem] - theory based on calculations in the Talmud
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