Hafrada

Hafrada ( _he. הפרדה) is the English transliteration of the Hebrew word for separation.cite web|title= Republished as an excerpt of the original 28 October 2000 article in the Courrier International, under the title "Au fil des jours, Périphéries explore quelques pistes - chroniques, critiques, citations, liens pointus : Israël-Palestine, revue de presse"|author=Gideon Levy|publisher=Périphéries|date=4 November 2000|url=http://www.peripheries.net/article142.html] According to the Milon and Masada dictionaries, hafrada translates into English as "separation", "segregation", "division", "severance", "disassociation" or "divorce". [http://www.milon.co.il/dictionary/english-to-hebrew.php?term=%D7%94%D7%A4%D7%A8%D7%93%D7%94 Milon: English Hebrew Dictionary] cite book | last = Alcalai | first = Reuben | title = The Complete Hebrew-English Dictionary | publisher = Masada | year = 1981]

In Israel, the term is used to refer to the concept of separation,cite web|title=Surroundings: Separation Seems to Have Spread Everywhere|author=Esther Zandberg|publisher=Ha'aretz|date=28 July 2005|accessdate=2007-03-20|url=http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=605608] and to the general policy of separation the Israeli government has adopted and implemented over the Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.cite web|title=Today's Arab Israelis, Tomorrow's Israel: Why "Separation" Can’t Be the Answer for Peace in "Policy Review"|author=Eric Rozenman|publisher=Hoover Institution|date=April & May 2001|accessdate=2007-03-17|url=http://www.hoover.org/publications/policyreview/3478092.html] cite web|title=Nishul (Displacement): Israel’s form of Apartheid|author=Jeff Halper, Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions (ICAHD)|accessdate=2007-03-17|url= http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:pDgzm2bT7P4J:www.sipa.columbia.edu/REGIONAL/IAS/documents/apartheid.doc] cite web|title=Further footnotes on Zionism, Yoder, and Boyarin|author=Alain Epp Weaver|publisher=Cross Currents|date=1 January 2007|accessdate=2007-03-18|url=http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Further+footnotes+on+Zionism,+Yoder,+and+Boyarin-a0160168125] cite web|title=Discussion on: Searching for Peace in the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict|author=Mazin B. Qumsiyeh|publisher=Institute of Strategic and Development Studies, Andreas Papandreou, University of Athens|date=28 June 2006|accessdate=2007-03-18|url=http://www.istame-apapandreou.gr/files/pdf/praktiko-palestinis.pdf] cite web|title=Transcript from broadcast of The McLaughlin Group|publisher=The McLaughlin Group|date=Taped 24 May 2002 & broadcast 1 to 2 June 2002|accessdate=2007-03-22|url= http://www.mclaughlin.com/library/transcript.asp?id=289] cite web|title="The Result of the Hafrada Policy is Quiet in Hebron, But All Await the Storm" (Hebrew)|author=Ben Shani |publisher=Nana.co.il Magazine (original from Channel 10 News)|date=19 January 2007|url=http://www.nana.co.il/article/?articleID=423192&sid=126] cite web|title=Nishul (Displacement): Israel’s form of Apartheid|author=Jeff Halper, Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions (ICAHD)|accessdate=2007-03-17|url= http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:pDgzm2bT7P4J:www.sipa.columbia.edu/REGIONAL/IAS/documents/apartheid.doc] cite web|title=Toward a Third Intifada|author=Fred Schlomka|publisher=Common Dreams "(originally published in The Baltimore Sun)"|date=28 May 2006|url=http://www.commondreams.org/views06/0528-27.htm] cite web|title=Making Israel Take Responsibility|author=James Bowen|date=28 September 2006|accessdate=2007-03-22|url=http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/762933.html] The Israeli West Bank barrier, (in Hebrew, "Geder Ha'hafrada" or "separation fence") the associated controls on the movement of Palestinians posed by West Bank Closures;cite web|title=Today's Arab Israelis, Tomorrow's Israel: Why "Separation" Can’t Be the Answer for Peace|author=Eric Rozenman|publisher=Hoover Institution|journal=Policy Review|date=April & May 2001|accessdate=2007-03-17|url=http://www.hoover.org/publications/policyreview/3478092.html] cite web|title=Israel: A Saudi Peace Proposal Puts Sharon in a Bind|author=Neil Sandler|publisher=Business Week Online|date=11 March 2002|url=http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/02_10/b3773086.htm] and Israel's unilateral disengagement from Gaza have been cited as examples of hafrada.cite web|title=Israeli policy in Gaza: Sharon's Disengagement|author=Tanya Reinhart|publisher=Center for Research on Globalization|22 March 2004|url=http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/REI403A.html] Other names for hafrada when discussed in English include unilateral separationcite web|title=Israel's Road to "Convergence" Began with Rabin: A Short History of Unilateral Separation|author=Jonathan Cook|publisher=Counterpunch|date=May 11, 2006|url=http://www.counterpunch.org/cook05112006.html] or unilateral disengagement.cite web|title=The Left Regroups on the Fence|author=Rochelle Furstenberg|publisher=Hadassah Magazine|date=November 2002|accessdate=2007-03-22|url=http://www.hadassah.org/news/content/per_hadassah/archive/2002/Nov_02/isr_life.htm] cite web|title=Transcript from broadcast of The McLaughlin Group|publisher=The McLaughlin Group|date=Taped 24 May 2002 & broadcast 1 to 2 June 2002|accessdate=2007-03-22|url= http://www.mclaughlin.com/library/transcript.asp?id=289] cite web|title=The Many Faces of Unilateral Disengagement in "Strategic Assessments"|author=Shlomo Brom|publisher=The Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies at Tel Aviv University|volume=Volume 4, No. 3|date=November 2001|url=http://www.tau.ac.il/jcss/sa/v4n3p3Bro.html] cite book|title=Unspeak:How Words Become Weapons, How Weapons Become a Message, and How That Message Becomes Reality|author=Steven Poole|publisher=Grove Press|year=2006|isbn=0802118259|page=87] [ Aaron Klieman has distinguished between partition plans based on "hafrada", which he translated as "detachment"; and "hipardut", translated as "disengagement." cite book|title="Compromising Palestine: A Guide to Final Status Negotiations"|author=Aaron S. Klieman|publisher=Columbia University Press|date=2000-01-15|isbn=0-231-11789-2|page=1]

Since its first public introductions, the concept-turned-policy or paradigm has dominated Israeli political and cultural discourse and debate.cite web|title=Today's Arab Israelis, Tomorrow's Israel: Why "Separation" Can’t Be the Answer for Peace in "Policy Review"|author=Eric Rozenman|publisher=Hoover Institution|date=April & May 2001|accessdate=2007-03-17|url=http://www.hoover.org/publications/policyreview/3478092.html] cite web|title= Republished as an excerpt of the original 28 October 2000 article in the Courrier International, under the title "Au fil des jours, Périphéries explore quelques pistes - chroniques, critiques, citations, liens pointus : Israël-Palestine, revue de presse"|author=Gideon Levy|publisher=Périphéries|date=4 November 2000|url=http://www.peripheries.net/article142.html]

Hafrada: Origins and Public Discourse

The adoption by the Israeli government of a policy of separation is generally credited to the ideas and analysis of Daniel Schueftan as expressed in his 1999 book, "Korah Ha'hafrada: Yisrael Ve Harashut Ha'falestinit" or "Disengagement: Israel and the Palestinian Entity".cite web|title=Book Review of "Korah Ha'hafrada: Yisrael Ve Harashut Ha'falestinit", Disengagement: Israel and the Palestinian Authority|author=Meyrav Wurmser|publisher=Middle East Quarterly|date=Fall 2002|accessdate=2007-03-17|url=http://www.meforum.org/article/1488] An alternate translation for the title in English reads, "The Need for Separation: Israel and the Palestinian Authority."cite web|title=Gaza: The Doomed Experiment (Reprinted at the website of the Australian/Israel & Jewish Affairs Council|author=Leslie Susser|publisher=The Jerusalem Report|date=19 September 2005|url=http://www.aijac.org.au/updates/Sep-05/130905.html]

In it, Schueftan reviews new and existing arguments underlying different separation stances, in order to make the case for separation from the Palestinians, beginning with those in the West Bank and Gaza. Schueftan favours the "hard separation" stances of politicians like Yitzhak Rabin and Ehud Barak, while characterizing the stance of politicians like Shimon Peres, as "soft separation".cite web|title=The New Walls and Fences:Consequences for Israel and Palestine|author=Gershon Baskin & Sharon Rosenberg|publisher=Centre for European Policy Studies|date=June 2003|url=http://shop.ceps.be/free/1037.pdf]

Yitzhak Rabin was the first to propose the creation of a physical barrier between the Israeli and Palestinian populations in 1992, and by 1994, construction on the first barrier - the Israeli Gaza Strip barrier - had begun. Following an attack on Bet Lid, near the city of Netanya, Rabin specified the objectives behind the undertaking, stating that,

"This path must lead to a separation, though not according to the borders prior to 1967. We want to reach a separation between us and them. We do not want a majority of the Jewish residents of the state of Israel, 98% of whom live within the borders of sovereign Israel, including a united Jerusalem, to be subject to terrorism."cite web|title=How to Build a Fence|author=David Makovsky|url=http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20040301faessay83206/david-makovsky/how-to-build-a-fence.html]

The first Israeli politician to campaign successfully on a platform based explicitly on separation, under the slogan of "Us here. Them there," was Ehud Barakcite web|title=Barak's Separate Peace|author=David Makovsky|publisher=Washington Post|date=16 July 2000|page=B01|accessdate=2007-03-23|url=http://search.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/2000-07/16/120l-071600-idx.html]

In the U.S.-based journal "Policy Review", Eric Rozenman writes:

"Barak explained hafrada — separation — this way in 1998: 'We should separate ourselves from the Palestinians physically, following the recommendation of the American poet Robert Frost, who once wrote that good fences make good neighbors. Leave them behind [outside] the borders that will be agreed upon, and build Israel.'"cite web|title=Barak's Separate Peace|author=David Makovsky|publisher=Washington Post|date=16 July 2000|page=B01|accessdate=2007-03-23|url=http://search.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/2000-07/16/120l-071600-idx.html]

After assuming office in 1999, Barak moved to "stimulate cabinet discussion of separation" by distributing copies of Haifa University Professor Dan Schueftan’s manifesto, "Disengagement", to his ministers. The separation policy was subsequently adopted by Israel's National Security Council, where Schueftan has also served as an advisor. According to Gershon Baskin and Sharon Rosenberg, Schueftan's book appears to be "the working manual for the IDF and wide Israeli political circles" for the implementation and "unilateral construction of walls and fences."

In October 2000, Ha’aretz journalist Gideon Levy commented in the Courrier International that public support by an overwhelming majority for "hafrada" was an outgrowth of the average Israeli's indifference to the history and lot of the Palestinians - which he contrasted with Israel's demand that Palestinians study the Holocaust to understand Jewish motivations.

In "Mapping Jewish Identities", published that same year (2000), Adi Ophir submitted that support for what he calls "the major element of the apartheid system – the so-called separation (hafrada) between Israelis and Palestinians," among Zionists who speak in favor of human rights is attributable to internal contradictions in Zionist ideology.cite book|title="Mapping Jewish Identities"|author=Adi Ophir|chapter=The Identity of the Victims and the Victims of Identity: A Critique of Zionist Ideology for a Post-Zionist Age|editor=Laurence Jay Silberstein|publisher=NYU Press|page=196|date=2000| isbn=0814797695|url= http://www.google.ca/books?id=pmr_BIVo7esC&pg=PA196&ots=5ButwMjcyM&dq=hafrada&sig=4Q4N7pdE6zpS2uK0HY8PiB7dY0Y#PPA196,M1]

In February 2001, Meir Indor, Lieutenant Colonel in the Israeli army submitted that "hafrada (separation) – they are there and we are here" had become the "new ideology" and "new word for those who fantastize about peace."cite web|title=Waiting To See Which Sharon We'll Get After The Elections|author=Interview by Shai Gefen|publisher=Beis Moschiach Online Edition|url=http://beismoshiach.org/Shleimus%20HaAretz/shleimus_haaretz311.htm] Indor aimed strong criticism toward Ariel Sharon's proposed peace agreement put forward during the 2001 elections in which Sharon claimed he would provide "peace and security" by making "a hafrada the length and breadth of the land."cite web|title=Waiting To See Which Sharon We’ll Get After The Elections|author= Interview by Shai Gefen|publisher= Beis Moschiach Online Edition|url= http://beismoshiach.org/Shleimus%20HaAretz/shleimus_haaretz311.htm] Indor stated that in his opinion, "If it were possible to make a hafrada, it would have been done a long time ago." He also noted that, "Binyamin Ben Eliezer himself said hafrada is impossible to implement."cite web|title=Waiting To See Which Sharon We’ll Get After The Elections|author= Interview by Shai Gefen|publisher= Beis Moschiach Online Edition|url= http://beismoshiach.org/Shleimus%20HaAretz/shleimus_haaretz311.htm]

At an International Seminar and Conference on the Balkans and the Middle East in March 2001, Yossi Schwartz criticized those who supported hafrada and singled out Peace Now for being, "a Zionist movement that upholds the existence of the Jewish state and gives its support to the racist solution of partition (the Hebrew word hafrada can also be translated as 'separation' and in practical terms means Apartheid)."cite web|title=The Three Intifadas and the Crisis of the Israeli Left|author=Yossi Schwartz|publisher=REDS – Die Roten|date=15 – 19 March 2001|accessdate=2007-03-23|url=http://www.marxists.de/middleast/current/3intifadas.htm]

Unilateral separation and unilateral disengagement

In 2002, Rochelle Furstenberg of Hadassah Magazine reported that the term "unilateral disengagement" or "Hafrada Had Tzdadit" had been unknown to the public eight months previous, but that the notion had gained momentum.cite web|title=The Left Regroups on the Fence|author=Rochelle Furstenberg|publisher=Hadassah Magazine|date=November 2002|accessdate=2007-03-22|url=http://www.hadassah.org/news/content/per_hadassah/archive/2002/Nov_02/isr_life.htm]

That same year, a television broadcast of The McLaughlin Group on the subject of Israel’s separation policy opened with the words: "Jews call it hafrada, "separation," in Hebrew. Critics call it apartheid. The more technical neo-nomenclature is, quote, unquote, "unilateral disengagement." It's an idea that has gained ground in Israel."cite web|title=Transcript from broadcast of The McLaughlin Group|publisher=The McLaughlin Group|date=Taped 24 May 2002 & broadcast 1 to 2 June 2002|accessdate=2007-03-22|url= http://www.mclaughlin.com/library/transcript.asp?id=289]

Construction on the Israeli West Bank barrier or "separation fence" began in 2002. Forming "a central pillar" of Ariel Sharon's "unilateral separation plan" or what is known today as Israel's unilateral disengagement plan, it was put before the Israeli public in mid-December 2003.cite web|title=The ICJ Hearing on the Wall Awaiting a Momentous Ruling|publisher=Zawya "(original from Monday Morning)|date=25 February 2004|accessdate=2007-03-22|url=http://www.zawya.ae/printstory.cfm?storyid=ZAWYA20040225120932&l=0000000402]

The barrier has been described by Daniel Schueftan as constituting, "the physical part of the strategy," of unilateral separation. Schueftan has explained that: "It makes the strategy possible because you cannot say 'this is what I will incorporate and this is what I will exclude' without having a physical barrier that prevents movement between the two."cite web|title=The ICJ Hearing on the Wall Awaiting a Momentous Ruling|publisher=Zawya "(original from Monday Morning)|date=25 February 2004|accessdate=2007-03-22|url=http://www.zawya.ae/printstory.cfm?storyid=ZAWYA20040225120932&l=0000000402]

Sharon had originally dubbed his unilateral disengagement plan - in Hebrew, "Tokhnit HaHitnatkut", or "Tokhnit HaHinatkut" - the "separation plan" or "Tokhnit HaHafrada" before realizing that, "separation sounded bad, particularly in English, because it evoked apartheid." cite book|title=Unspeak:How Words Become Weapons, How Weapons Become a Message, and How That Message Becomes Reality|author=Steven Poole|publisher=Grove Press|year=2006|isbn=0802118259|page=87] Formally adopted by the Israeli government and enacted in August 2005, the unilateral disengagement plan resulted in the dismantlement of all settlements in the Gaza Strip and four in the northern West Bank.

Schueftan has characterized Sharon's unilateral disengagement plan as only the first step in a "wider historical process."cite web|title=Gaza: The Doomed Experiment (Reprinted at the website of the Australian/Israel & Jewish Affairs Council|author=Leslie Susser|publisher=The Jerusalem Report|date=19 September 2005|url=http://www.aijac.org.au/updates/Sep-05/130905.html]

Telling The Jerusalem Report in 2005 that he could "even pin the dates on it," he suggested that in 2007 or 2008, there would be another major disengagement in the West Bank; and that before 2015, Israel would unilaterally repartition Jerusalem along lines of its own choosing. Schueftan argued that the "underlying feature" of disengagement is not that it will bring peace, but rather that it will prevent "perpetual terror".cite web|title=Gaza: The Doomed Experiment (Reprinted at the website of the Australian/Israel & Jewish Affairs Council|author=Leslie Susser|publisher=The Jerusalem Report|date=19 September 2005|url=http://www.aijac.org.au/updates/Sep-05/130905.html]

Implementation of hafrada has continued under the government of Prime Minister Ehud Olmert.cite web|title="The Result of the Hafrada Policy is Quiet in Hebron, But All Await the Storm" (Hebrew)|author=Ben Shani |publisher=Nana.co.il Magazine (original from Channel 10 News)|date=19 January 2007|url=http://www.nana.co.il/article/?articleID=423192&sid=126] cite web|title=Israel votes for separation|author=Jerrold Kessel & Pierre Klochendler|publisher=Ha'aretz, English Edition|accessdate=2007-03-17|February 2006|url=http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=699267&contrassID=2] cite web|title=Israel's Road to "Convergence" Began with Rabin: A Short History of Unilateral Separation|author=Jonathan Cook|publisher=Counterpunch|date=May 11, 2006|url=http://www.counterpunch.org/cook05112006.html]

Additional examples of the term's usage in languages other than Hebrew

By Israelis

*Eitan Harel, professor of Biology at Hebrew University in Jerusalem, told Le Monde Diplomatique in May 1996: "Our priorities have changed. The dream of a Greater Israel has been replaced by the reality of a small Israel. What matters to people is to live better here, and if you ask them what they wish for and wait for, the majority response is : hafrada, separation." [Original French reads: "Nos priorités ont changé. Au rêve du Grand Israël a succédé la réalité du petit Israël. Ce qui compte pour les gens, c’est de vivre mieux, ici. D’ailleurs, demandez-leur ce qu’ils souhaitent, surtout après les attentats. La réponse majoritaire, c’est : hafrada la séparation." cite web|title=Troublante normalisation pour la société israélienne|author=Dominique Vidal|publisher=Le Monde Diplomatique|date=May 1996|accessdate=2007-03-23|url=http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/1996/05/VIDAL/2746.html]

*Esther Zandberg described an art exhibition entitled "Hafrada" (Separation)" in a June 2005 edition of Ha'aretz as consisting of pictures of 12 separation sites photographed by Yair Barak, Orit Siman-Tov and Amit Grun that represent, "apartheid walls between Caesarea and Jisr al-Zarka and between Nir Zvi and the Arab neighborhood of Pardes Snir in Lod; the architectural monstrosity of the Carmel Beach Towers in Haifa, which stick up like a raised fist opposite the distressed neighborhood of Neveh David; the threatening wall surrounding the luxury residential Holyland neighborhood in Jerusalem; and several other sites."cite web|title=Surroundings: Separation Seems to Have Spread Everywhere|author=Esther Zandberg|publisher=Ha'aretz|date=28 July 2005|accessdate=2007-03-20|url=http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=605608]

* In a paper entitled "Nishul (Displacement):Israel's Form of Apartheid," Jeff Halper of the Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions, wrote that: "Hafrada (Apartheid in Afrikaans) is the official Hebrew term for Israel’s vision and policy towards the Palestinians of the Occupied Territories – and, it could be argued (with qualifications), within Israel itself."cite web|title=Nishul (Displacement): Israel’s form of Apartheid|author=Jeff Halper, Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions (ICAHD)|accessdate=2007-03-17|url= http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:pDgzm2bT7P4J:www.sipa.columbia.edu/REGIONAL/IAS/documents/apartheid.doc]

By Palestinians

* Since 2003, Reverend Naim Ateek of Palestinian Christian Ecumenical Liberation Theology Center, Sabeel, based in Jerusalem has insisted on using the term hafrada to describe Israel's policies toward the Palestinians,cite web|title=The Hafrada Wall|publisher=Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation Theology Center, Jerusalem|date=21 July 2004|accessdate=2007-03-22|url=http://fosna.org/news_archive/documents/2004_0721_sabeel_on_the_wall.pdf] while noting its similarity in meaning to the word apartheid.cite web|title=Sabeel's Rev. Naim Ateek Calls Israeli apartheid by its Hebrew Name: Hafrada (Special Report)|author=Roxane Ellis Rodriguez Assaf|publisher=Washington Report for Middle East Affairs (WRMEA)|date=May 2003|accessdate=2007-03-18|url=http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1658/is_200305/ai_n7557740]

* In a 2006 discussion on the prospects for peaceful resolution to the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict sponsored by The Institute of Strategic and Development Studies, Mazin B. Qumsiyeh, a former Yale professor and geneticist and advocate for a one-state solution, said: "Now, Israel today uses a new word. You probably have heard it mistranslated. In Hebrew it’s called hafrada. Hafrada means literally segregation or separation. But in the worst Israeli propaganda machine at CNN and other news outlets, they use the word 'convergence' - you heard about [Olmert Ehud] , Olmert’s convergence. Convergence doesn’t mean anything. What is convergence? It’s not a translation of hafrada. Hafrada means segregation, separation; that’s what it means."cite web|title=Discussion on: Searching for Peace in the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict|author=Mazin B. Qumsiyeh|publisher=Institute of Strategic and Development Studies, Andreas Papandreou, University of Athens|date=28 June 2006|accessdate=2007-03-18|url=http://www.istame-apapandreou.gr/files/pdf/praktiko-palestinis.pdf]

By activists & advocacy organizations

* The Israeli West Bank Barrier or "Geder Ha'hafrada" is known in some activist and ecumencial circles as the Hafrada Wall. [cite web|title=Four Years Later: Assessing the status of the Israeli-Palestinian peace process, four years after the start of the second intifada|author=Michael Hirst|date=October 2004|publisher=Catholic World News|accessdate=2007-03-19|url=http://www.cwnews.com/news/viewstory.cfm?recnum=33164] cite web|title=Israel/Palestine: The Wall Is Illegal|author=Commitment for Life Programme, United Reformed Church, UK|publisher=Christian World Service|date=September 2004|accessdate=2007-03-27|url=http://www.cws.org.nz/News/0904.asp] cite web|title=The Hafrada Wall|publisher=Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation Theology Center, Jerusalem|date=21 July 2004|accessdate=2007-03-22|url=http://fosna.org/news_archive/documents/2004_0721_sabeel_on_the_wall.pdf]

*In 2006, James Bowen wrote in an opinion editorial in Ha’aretz that he and fellow activists from the Ireland Palestine Solidarity Campaign see, "hafrada (separation) [a] s the Zionist form of apartheid" and argued that "...Israel should be treated like the old South Africa." cite web|title=Making Israel Take Responsibility|author=James Bowen|date=28 September 2006|accessdate=2007-03-22|url=http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/762933.html]

* In a 30 May 2006 media communique entitled "Sunday Herald's Linguistics Gymnastics", Honest ReportingUK addressed the use of the word hafrada by Sunday Herald editor David Pratt. It stated that, "just a cursory glance at a Hebrew-English dictionary reveals that the term 'Hafrada' does not literally mean 'apartheid'. Also, as a concept, 'Hafrada' has certainly not entered the Israeli lexicon, but rather, the term 'Geder Hafrada' ('Separation Fence') referring to Israel's security barrier. Thus, Pratt deliberately and dishonestly claims that Israelis have begun to privately use their own term for "apartheid" while inaccurately stating that Israel's security barrier and the apartheid ideology are one and the same."cite web|title=Sunday Herald's Linguistics Gymnastics|author=Honest ReportingUK|date=30 May 2006|accessdate=2007-03-23|url=http://www.honestreporting.co.uk/articles/critiques/Sunday_Heralds_Linguistic_Gymnastics.asp] This argument, however, ignores the fact that the literal meaning of the Afrikaans word "apartheid" is indeed "separateness", and that the official English synonym was "separate development". It was originally coined by the South African government in an attempt to avoid use of the more active term "segregation".cite web|title=Online Etymology Dictionary: apartheid|accessdate=2008-02-20|url=http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=apartheid++&searchmode=none]

By journalists

* On 26 May 2006, David Pratt, Scottish Sunday Herald Foreign Editor wrote that: "Even among Israelis, the term 'Hafrada', 'separation or apartheid in Hebrew' has entered the mainstream lexicon, despite strident denials by the Jewish state that it is engaged in any such process."cite web|title=Sunday Herald's Linguistics Gymnastics|author=HonestReportingUK|date=30 May 2006|accessdate=2007-03-23|url=http://www.honestreporting.co.uk/articles/critiques/Sunday_Heralds_Linguistic_Gymnastics.asp]

*In a January 2007 article entitled "Further footnotes on Zionism, Yoder and Boyarin," Alain Epp Weaver wrote that it was, "strategic demographic and territorial goals" that gave birth to "a policy of hafrada, Hebrew for separation."cite web|title=Further footnotes on Zionism, Yoder, and Boyarin|author=Alain Epp Weaver|publisher=Cross Currents|date=1 January 2007|accessdate=2007-03-18|url=http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Further+footnotes+on+Zionism,+Yoder,+and+Boyarin-a0160168125]

References

ee also

*Israel and the apartheid analogy
*Citizenship and Entry into Israel Law
*Counter-terrorism
*Israel's unilateral disengagement plan
*Law of Return
*Palestinian political violence
*Realignment plan
*Seam Zone

External links

* [http://www.commondreams.org/views06/0528-27.htm "Toward a Third Intifada" by Fred Schlomka, opinion piece published on May 28, 2006 by the "Baltimore Sun"]
* [http://planet.nana.co.il/breitman/wall/thewall.html Know what is the Separation Fence]
* [http://www.sundayherald.com/56099 Readers respond to Sunday Herald]
* [http://www.theisraelproject.org/ The Israel Project, USA]


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