22nd Regiment Alabama Infantry

Infobox Military Unit
unit_name= 22nd Regiment Alabama Volunteer Infantry (Confederate)


caption=Alabama state flag
dates= October 6 1861 to April 26 1865
country= Confederate States of America
allegiance= CSA
branch= Infantry
equipment=
battles=Battle of Shiloh
Battle of Perryville
Battle of Murfreesboro
Battle of Chickamauga
Third Battle of Chattanooga
Battle of Franklin
Battle of Nashville
Battle of Bentonville

The 22nd Regiment Alabama Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that served in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War.

ervice

This regiment was organized at Montgomery, November, 1861, and armed by private enterprise. It first served in Mobile; from there it was ordered to Corinth and reached Tennessee in time for the battle of Shiloh, where it suffered severe loss. It fought at Munfordville, September 14 to 16, 1862; at Perryville, October 8th, and at Murfreesboro, December 31 to January 2, 1863. It took a very brilliant part in the impetuous assault on Rosecrans' army at Chickamauga, September 20th, and suffered severely, losing almost two-thirds of its forces, the killed including five color-bearers. It served in the campaign in Georgia, losing heavily in the battles around Atlanta, July, 1864, and at Jonesboro, August 31st and September 1st It was also distinguished at Franklin, November 30th; at Nashville, December 15th and 16th; at Kinston, N. C., March 14, 1865, and at Bentonville, March 19th to 21st. In April it was consolidated with the Twenty-fifth, Thirty-ninth and Fiftieth, under Colonel Toulmin.

Col. John C. Marrast died in the service, after having made a glorious record. Capt. Abner C. Gaines was killed, and Maj. R. B. Armistead mortally wounded, at Shiloh. Lieuts. J. N. Smith and J. H. Wall fell at Murfreesboro, Lieut.-Col. John Weedon, Capt. James Deas Nott and Lieuts. Waller Mordecai and Renfroe were killed at Chickamauga; Col. Benj. R. Hart, Capt. Thomas M. Brindley, Lieuts. Leafy and Stackpoole at Atlanta, and Capt. Ben. B. Little was killed at Jonesboro. The other field officers were Col. Zach C. Deas, afterward a noted brigadier-general; Col. Harry T. Toulmin, now U.S. district judge; Lieut.-Cols. Napoleon D. Rouse and Herbert E. Armistead; Majs. Thomas McPrince, Robert D. ArmIstead and Robert Donnell.

1861

Company D was organized at Dublin, Aabama, and elected officers Sep 17 1861 at Montgomery, Alabama. Company D and her sister companies were formed from men who were recruited from Calhoun, Cherokee, Choctaw, Clarke, Mobile, Montgomery, Pike, Randolph, and Walker counties. The 22nd Alabama Infantry Regiment was then organized by Major Z. C. Deas and Major Robert B. Armistead in Montgomery, Alabama on October 6 1861.http://www.tarleton.edu/~kjones/gardner.html Gardner's Brigade website On Oct 25, 1861 Maj. Deas was elected and commissioned Colonel. Col. Deas spent $28,000 in gold to equip the regiment with 800 Enfield rifles. On Nov 5 1861 22nd Alabama was ordered to report to General Withers at Mobile, District of Alabama, where it encamped during that winter.

1862

Ordered to west Tennessee in Jan 1862, Gen. Bragg transfered Gen. A. H. Gladden (of Louisiana) to Mobile, and created Gladden’s Brigade including the 22nd Alabama. On Feb 1 1862 the 22nd Alabama and her brigade were in the Department of Alabama and West Florida, in the Army of Mobile under General Withers. On Feb 26 1862 the Brigade (under Gladden) was ordered to Corinth, Mississippi by Gen. Bragg. The 22nd Alabama was then engaged from Apr 6 to 7 1862 in the Battle of Shiloh, where it operated under the 1st Brigade of BGen. Adley H Gladden who was wounded and died on Apr 12 1862. Col. Deas later assumed command of the 1st Brigade temporarily until wounded himself on Apr 7. During this engagement the 22nd Alabama and 1st Brigade were under the 2nd Division (commanded by BGen. Jones M. Withers) of the 2nd Corps (commanded by MGen. Braxton Bragg) under the Army of Mississippi (commanded by Gen Albert S. Johnston). The 22nd Alabama suffered heavy losses, and reported 123 men fit for duty after the battle.

During Apr 1862 the 1st Brigade (with the 19th, 22nd, 25th, 26th/50th, and 39th Regiments) was placed under BGen Franklin Gardner, who ultimately led this brigade into Kentucky. The 39th Alabama was absorbed at the railhead in Tupelo, Mississippi south of Corinth. In May of 1862 the Brigade was camped a few miles north of Tupelo at the town of Saltillo, Mississippi. During Jun 1862 the Brigade formed the 17th Battalion of Sharpshooters. On Jun 30 1862 Gardner’s Brigade was in a Reserve Corps of Bragg’s Army. During Aug 1862 the 1st Brigade (and Army of Mississippi, Bragg) was loaded into railcars at Saltillo & Tupelo and were transported south by the Mobile and Ohio Railroad to Mobile, changed trains, and transported north to Montgomery, West Point, Atlanta, then Chattanooga. By Aug 18 to 20 1862 Gardner’s Brigade was with Gen. Leonidas Polk at Chattanooga. On Aug 28 1862 the Army of Mississippi began its march to Kentucky and arrived at Munfordville, Kentucky on Sep 17 Sep 1862, where it was engaged in the Battle of Munfordville.

Following the battle the 22nd Alabama accompanied Bragg's Army of Mississippi as it continued its march into Kentucky, reaching Hodgenville and Bardstown in October, where on Oct 4, 1862 the regiment witnessed the inauguration of the Confederate governor of Kentucky at Frankfort. Shortly afterward on Oct 8 1862 during the Battle of Perryville the 1st Brigade was held in reserve and not involved much in the battle except for some skirmishing.

On Oct 9, 1862 Gen. Bragg reacheed Knoxville and renamed his army the Army of Tennessee. The 22nd Alabama stayed in Knoxville for a couple of weeks, until ordered to Murfreesboro, Tennessee. During Nov 1862 BGen. Gardner was promoted to MGen and transferred to Port Hudson, Louisiana. Subsequently on Dec 13, 1862, Col. Deas was promoted to BGen. During this period, the Honorable President Jefferson Davis reviewed the Army of Tennessee at Murfreesboro.Fninally on Dec 31, 1862 BGen. Deas formally assumed command of 1st Brigade.

1863

From Dec 31 to Jan 2, 1863 the regiment fought fiercely in the Battle of Murfreesboro (called Stone’s River by the Yanks). 22nd Alabama and the 1st Brigade fought under the 2nd Division (commanded by MGen. Jones M. Withers) under Polk’s Corps (commanded by LtGen. Leonidas Polk) under the Army of Tennessee (commanded by Gen Braxton Bragg). The 22nd Alabama suffered 94 casualties. After fiercely defending their liberties in the Battle of Murfreesboro, ten gallant men from the 22nd Alabama were awarded the Southern Cross of Honor [Clemmer, p. 448] :

* Company A: Sgt. W. D. Sumner
* Company B: Pvt. William Sellers
* Company C: Cpl. J. L. Husbands
* Company D: 1stSgt. Benjamin Franklin Nelson
* Company E: Sgt. P. A. Minton
* Company F: Cpl. N. B. Walker
* Company G: Pvt. J. R. Black
* Company H: Cpl. W. R. Larry
* Company I: Pvt. J. J. McVey
* Company K: Pvt. J. N. Eilands

Following the battle, 1st Brigade retreated to Shelbyville, Tennessee where it was joined later by the rest of the Army of Tennessee. During the first half 1863 the Army of Tennessee occupied a front in southern Tennessee from Shelbyville to Tullahoma. The 1st Brigade now commonly referred to as Deas Brigade, and remained under Wither’s Division and Polk’s Corps. At the end of July 1863 Deas' Brigade evacuated the Shelbyville and Tullahoma area and pulled back to Chattanooga, Tennessee due to flanking by Union Army, and then during Aug the Army of Tennessee occupied Chattanooga.

From Sep 6 to 7, 1863 the Army of Tennessee evacuated Chattanooga and marched southward, where it participted from Sep 18 to 20 in the Battle of Chickamauga. During the battle the 22nd was commanded by LtCol John Weedon, assisted by Capt Harry T. Toulmin, under Deas’ Bridgade (BGen. Zachariah C. Deas), under Hindman’s Division (MGen. Thomas C. Hindman), under the Left Wing (LtGen. James Longstreet), under the Army of Tennessee (Gen. Braxton Bragg). On Sep 19 Sep Deas’ Brigade was placed in a line of battle (Saturday morning) near Lee and Gordon’s Mill, on southern end of Confederate line, and formed a line of log breastworks. The 22nd Alabama was in the line of battle which moved to assault Union Gen. William Rosecrans at Chickamauga, where it lost 5 color bearers and 175 killed and wounded out of about 400 engaged.

The 22nd Alabama lost lightly in November 1863 at the Battle of Missionary Ridge and wintered at Dalton, Georgia, where wheather and sickness claimed 272 men.

1864

The 22nd Alabama under the command of Gen. George D. Johnston of Perry County, participated in the campaign from Dalton to Atlanta, losing gradually by the constant fighting. At Atlanta, from July 22 to 28, the loss in the regiment was high, as it was at Jonesboro. It moved into Tennessee with Gen. John Bell Hood and suffered severely at Franklin and lightly at Nashville.

1865

The 22nd Alabama was transferred beyond the Edisto and moved into North Carolina, skirmishing with the advance of Union Gen. George Thomas' army. The loss at Kinston and Bentonville was light, with Col. Harry Toulmin leading the brigade. The regiment was consolidated with the 25th Infantry in the field in early 1865 and then it was also consolidated with the 25th, 39th, and 26/50th at Smithfield, 9 April 1865, with H. T. Toulmin as Colonel, N. B. Rouse (Butler) as Lt. Col., and Robert Donald (Limestone) as Major, and then surrendered at Greensboro, North Carolina on April 26, 1865.

Total strength and casualties

Commanders

* Colonel Zachariah Cantey Deas
* Colonel John Calhoun Marrast
* Colonel Benjamin R. Hart
* Colonel Harry Theophilus Toulmin

Field and Staff Officers

Field and staff officers included:
*Colonels: Zachariah Cantey Deas (wounded, Shiloh, promoted to BGen), John Calhoun Marrast (died in service, 1863), Benjamin R. Hart (KIA, Atlanta, Jan., 1864), and Harry Theophilus Toulmin
*Lt. Cols: John Calhoun Marrast (promoted), John Weedon (KIA, Chickamauga), Benjamin R. Hart (promoted), Harry Theophilus Toulmin (promoted), and E. Herbert Armistead (KIA, Franklin)
*Majors: Robert Burbage Armistead (KIA, Shiloh), John Weeden (promoted), Benjamin R. Hart (wounded, Chickamauga, promoted), Thomas McCarroll Prince (wounded, Franklin);
*Adjutants: Elias F. Travis (wounded, Shiloh, and transferred), William G. Smith (resigned), J. L. Lockwood (wounded, Jonesboro).

Company Commanders

*Co. "A" (Walker): John Weedon (promoted to Major); Isaac M. Whitney
*Co. "B", Frank Lyon Rifles (Clarke): James Deas Nott (KIA, Chickamauga); Joseph R. Cowan (wounded, near Marietta)
*Co. "C", Brownrigg Warriors (Choctaw): Abner C. Gaines (KIA, Shiloh); Thomas McCarroll Prince (wounded, Chickamauga; promoted to Major); Joseph R. Cowan (wounded near Mobile)
*Co. "D" (Cherokee): Stephen R. Hood (resigned, 10 Jan 62); Edward Herbert Armistead (promoted); T. C. Hagood; Thomas M. Brindley (KIA, near Atlanta, July 64)
*Co. "E" (Calhoun): John R. Northcutt (resigned, 13 June 62); Jacob G. Mordecai
*Co. "F" (Randolph): O. W. Shepherd (wounded, near Shiloh; resigned, 27 May 62); James B. Martin; Hures Austill
*Co. "G" (Randolph): R. G. Roberts (dismissed, 25 June 63); S. H. Pairs (deserted, 27 Oct 62); Benjamin B. Little (KIA, Jonesboro); William O. Baldwin (KIA, Franklin)
*Co. "H", Sam Cooper Rifles (Mobile): Wilton L. Young (promoted to Major, 10th Bn.); Harry T. Toulmin (wounded, Shiloh; promoted to Major); Simon Franklin Preston
*Co. "I" (Pike): Andrew P. Love (wounded, Shiloh; resigned, 1 July 62; transferred to Jeff Davis' Cavalry); Willis C. Wood (wounded, Murfreesboro; resigned, 31 Oct 64); Willis H. Henderson (wounded, Kinston)
*Co. "K" (Montgomery and Pike): Benjamin R. Hart (promoted to Major); Hugh W. Henry.

ee also

*Alabama Civil War Confederate Units
*Alabama in the American Civil War

Notes

References

*Clemmer, Gregg. S., "Valor in Gray: The Recipients of the Confederate Medal of Honor", Staunton, Virginia, Hearthside Publishing Company, 1998.


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