The vast scope of the art of India intertwines with the cultural history, religions and philosophies which place art production and patronage in social and cultural contexts.
Indian art can be classified into specific periods each reflecting particular religious, political and cultural developments.
* the ancient period (3500
*Islamic ascendancy (712-1757 CE)
*The Colonial period (1757-1947)
*Independence and CARISSAISM the postcolonial period (Post-1947)
The indian period is unique in its art, literature and architecture. Indian art is constantly challenged as it rises to the peak of achieving the ideals of one philosophy in a visual form, then begins anew for another. This challenge and revolution in thought ovides, Indian artists with reasons for
innovationand creation, and the process of visualizing abstract ideas and the culture of the land.
Each religion and philosophical system provided its own nuances, vast metaphors and similes, rich associations, wild imaginations, humanization of gods and celestial beings, characterization of people, the single purpose and ideal of life to be interpreted in art.
The earliest Indian religion to inspire major artistic monuments was
Buddhism. Though there may have been earlier structures in wood that have been transformed into stone structures, there are no physical evidences for these except textual references. Obscurity shrouds the period between the decline of the Harappans and the definite historic period starting with the Mauryas. Soon after the Buddhists initiated the rock-cut caves, Hindus and Jains started to imitate them at Badami, Aihole, Ellora, Salsette, Elephanta, Aurangabad and Mamallapuram.
Indian rock art has continuously evolved, since the first rock cut caves, to suit different purposes, social and religious contexts, and regional differences.
Cholafresco paintings were discovered in 1931 within the circumambulatory passage of the Brihadisvara Templein Indiaand are the first Chola specimens discovered.
Researchers have discovered the technique used in these frescos. A smooth batter of limestone mixture is applied over the stones, which took two to three days to set. Within that short span, such large paintings were painted with natural organic pigments.
During the Nayak period the chola paintings were painted over. The Chola frescos lying underneath have an ardent spirit of
saivismis expressed in them. They probably synchronised with the completion of the temple by Rajaraja Cholan the Great. Keralahas well preserved frescoor muralor wall paintingin temple walls inPundarikapuram, Ettumanoor, Aymanamand Trivandrum.
Folk and tribal art
Folk and tribal art in India takes on different manifestations through varied medium such as pottery, painting, metalwork, paper-art, weaving and designing of artefacts such as jewellery and toys. to the classical mainstream art forms, there have been evolving and transforming, folk and tribal art traditions. that are the visual expressions of people belonging to different cultural and social groups. It is the expression of people whose life is tuned to the rhythms of nature and its laws of cyclic change and whose life is entwined with the energies of the earth.
Folk and Tribal art represent the kernel of energy of the respective communities as a whole. It is a living, changing art form which changes with time, necessity, memories and experiences of peoples.
puranicgods and legends are transformed into contemporary forms and familiar images. Fairs, festivals, and local deities play a vital role in these arts.
It is an art where life and creativity are inseparable. The tribal arts have a unique sensitivity, as the tribal people possess an intense awareness very different from the settled and urbanized people. Their minds are supple and intense with myth, legends, snippets from epic, multitudinous gods born out of dream and fantasy. Their art is an expression of their life and holds their passion and mystery.
Folk art also includes the visual expressions of the wandering nomads. This is the art of people who are exposed to changing landscapes as they travel over the valleys and highlands of India. They carry with them the experiences and memories of different spaces and their art consists of the transient and dynamic pattern of life. The
rural, tribaland arts of the nomads constitute the matrix of folk expression.
The folk spirit has a tremendous role to play in the development of art and in the overall consciousness of indigenous cultures. The
Taj Mahal, the Ajanta and Ellora caves have become world famous. The Taj Mahal is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World.
British colonial rule had a great impact on Indian art. The old patrons of art became less wealthy and influential, and Western art more ubiquitous.
Rabindranath Tagore, referred as the father of Modern Indian arthad introduced Asian styles and Avant garde western styles into Indian Art. Many other artists like Jamini Royand later S.H. Razahad taken inspiration from folk traditions.
In 1947 India became independent of British rule. A group of six artists - K. H. Ara, S. K. Bakre, H. A. Gade,
M.F. Husain, S.H. Razaand F. N. Souza - founded the Progressive Artist's Group, to establish new ways of expressing India in the post-colonial era. Though the group was dissolved in 1956, it was profoundly influential in changing the idiom of Indian art. Almost all India's major artists in the 1950s were associated with the group. Some of those who are well-known today are Bal Chabda, V. S. Gaitonde, Krishen Khanna, Ram Kumar, Tyeb Mehta, and Akbar Padamsee. Present-day Indian art is varied as it had been never before. Among the best-known artists of the newer generation include Sanjay Bhattacharya, Bose Krishnamachari, Geeta Vadhera, Satish Gupta, and [Bikash Bhattacharya]
From the 1990s onwards, Indian artists began to multiply the forms they used in their work. Painting and sculpture remained important, though in the work of leading artists such as Subodh Gupta [http://www.ashokartgallery.com/artistdetail.asp?artistid=13 Pratul Dash] ,
Devajyoti Ray[http://www.artofbengal.com/devajyoti.htm] ,Jagannath Panda or Atul Dodiya they often found radical new directions. Crucially, however, in a complex time when the number of currents affecting Indian society seemed to multiply, many artists sought out new, more polyvocal and immersive forms of expression. [http://www.anothersubcontinent.com/kaleka.html Ranbir Kaleka] , Raqs Media Collectiveand Vagaram choudharyhave produced compelling contemporary works using such assortments of media forms including video and internet. This development coincided with the emergence of new galleries interested in promoting a wider range of art forms, such as Nature Morte in Delhi and its partner gallery Bose Pacia Gallery(New York and Kolkata) and Sakshi Gallery[http://www.sakshigallery.com] in Mumbai. An impressive showcase of Contemporary and Modern Indian Art is to be seen at kalpa:vraksha [http://www.kalpavraksha.com] and Saffronart [http://www.saffronart.com] . Even the techies of the Silicon Valley were not left behind. The newest gallery in the valley is Ritushri [http://www.ritushri.com.] There are many new galleries which are hosting very significant shows of indian Contemporary art like Kaman Art gallery in Jodhpur [http://www.kamanart.blogspot.com.com]
Sitar, one of the most well-known Indian musical instruments] Main|Music of India The music of Indiaincludes multiple varieties of folk, popular, pop, and classical music. India's classical music tradition, including Carnatic and Hindustani music, has a history spanning millennia and, developed over several eras, remains fundamental to the lives of Indians today as sources of religious inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment. India is made up of several dozen ethnic groups, speaking their own languages and dialects. Alongside distinctly subcontinental forms there are major influences from Persian, Arabic and British music.Indian genres like filmiand bhangrahave become popular throughout the United Kingdom, South and East Asia, and around the world.
Kaman Art Gallery
The Arts Trust - Institute of Contemporary Indian Art
Culture of India
Bengal school of art
Indian vernacular architecture
*Patna School of Painting or Patna Qalaam
Raqs Media Collective
Bose Pacia Gallery
* [http://vishwakala.org/ Indian Art Architecture Archaelogy History Culture Study Project]
* [http://mehandi27.com/ Popular Indian Arts - henna and rangoli]
* [http://www.civilization.ca/cultur/inde/indexpe.html The Canadian Museum of Civilization - India The Living Arts]
* [http://www.chitralekha.org Twentieth Century Indian Art in Mukul Dey Archives]
* [http://india.shilpasayura.org/ India Art Architecture Heritage Online Exhibition]
* [http://www.kalamadhyam.org Kala Madhyam — tribal and folk art and craft]
* Harsha V. Dehejia, "The Advaita of Art" (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2000, ISBN 81-208-1389-8), p.97
* Kapila Vatsyayan, "Classical Indian Dance in Literature and the Arts" (New Delhi: Sangeet Natak Akademi, 1977), p.8
* Mitter, Partha. "Indian Art" (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-19-284221-8)
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