Husayn Bayqarah (1438 –
May 4, 1506) (Persian حسین بایقرا) was a Timuridruler of Heratfrom 1469 to 1506, with a brief interruption in 1470. His father was Mansur, a great-grandson of Timur. He is also referred to as Sultan-Husayn Mirza ( Baburnama).
Mansur died when Husayn Bayqarah was around seven or eight years of age; the latter ended up in the service of
Babur Ibn-Baysunkur, ruler of Herat, in 1452. Following Babur's death in 1457 and the subsequent invasion of Khurasanby the Timurid ruler of Samarkand, Abu Sa'id, Husayn adopted the life of a mercenary. After a while, he decided to fight for himself and wrested Gurgan(or Gorgan) from the Black Sheep Turkmen. Later on he would conquer Mazandaran. At first submissive to Abu Sa'id, he took advantage of the Samarkand ruler's attempts to put down a revolt in Transoxianain 1460; by the following year he was laying siege to Herat, which had fallen into Abu Sa'id's hands in 1459. However, he was soon defeated and forced to take refuge in Khwarazm, from which he began making pillaging raids into Khurasan; these raids were conducted in earnest starting in 1464. Seeking to protect himself against Abu Sa'id, he received the help of the Uzbeks.
Upon Abu Sa'ids death at the hands of the
White Sheep Turkmenin 1469, his empire collapsed. One of his sons, Sultan Mahmud, attempted to gain control of Herat by entering it on March 16with an army, but he did not find it preferable to stay, and Husayn gained control of the city. Sultan Mahmud's brother, Sultan Ahmad, marched from Samarkand to try to take Herat but decided against it after meeting up with Mahmud. Meanwhile, Uzun Hasanof the White Sheep sent his lieutenant, Yadgar Muhammad, to conquer Khurasan. Husayn defeated Yadgar at the Battle of Chinaran( September 15, 1469), but the latter was sent reinforcements. Uzun Hasan demanded that Husayn hand over various Black Sheep officials who had fled to Herat, a demand which Husayn refused. Yadgar therefore continued into Khurasan, and Husayn was unable to match his forces due to mass desertions. He ended up fleeing Herat, which was occupied on July 7, 1470. Six weeks later, however, Husayn reoccupied the city, after raising a fresh force and defeating the sons of Abu Sa'id who were attempting to advance into Khurasan. He captured Yadgar and executed him.
Husayn's empire was now secure. The White Sheep made no further attempts against him, and the Timurid Empire in Samarkand was too weakened by internal conflicts to advance into his territory. His boundary with the White Sheep started on the southern edge of the
Caspian Sea, running south, then east across the north of the Dasht-e Lut, ending at Lake Hamun. His border with the Timurids was the Oxus River. He more or less respected both borders, refusing to cross north in an attempt to capture Transoxiana from the northern Timurids. He was probably aware of the Uzbek threat to the region, and was wise enough not to pursue a border with this dangerous tribal people.
Husayn was forced to deal with several revolts and incursions. In 1490 the brother of Husayn's son Ibrahim Husain's guardian, Darvish 'Ali, conspired with Sultan Mahmud, who by that time ruled in Hisar. Mahmud moved against
Balkh, which Ibrahim resided in, forcing Husayn to mobilize against him. Some years later, Husayn transferred his eldest son, Badi' al-Zaman, from Astarabadto Balkh, but Badi' revolted when his son Muhammed Mu'min was denied rule in Astarabad. Husayn defeated both Muhammed, whom he executed, and Badi', whom he reconciled with. The truce fell apart afterwards, however, and in 1499 Badi' besieged Herat.
In 1501 the Uzbeks conquered Transoxiana for good from the Timurid
Babur. Under Muhammad Shaybani, the Uzbeks could now threaten Khurasan. Suffering from the effects of advanced age, Husayn made no move against them, even after Babur advised him to act. The Uzbeks began conducting raids into Khurasan. Finally changing his mind, he began to march against them but died in 1506 before making a move. The inheritance of his empire was disputed between his sons Badi' and Muzaffar Husain. Babur, who had begun an expedition in support of Husayn, noted the infighting between the brothers, decided the area was impossible to defend and retreated. The next year, Muhammad Shaybani conquered Herat and caused Husayn's successors to flee, putting an end to Timurid rule in Khurasan.NB Astarabad or Esterabad was renamed "Gorgan" (Jorjan in Arabic) in 1937.
*Peter Jackson (1986). "The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume Six: The Timurid and Safavid Periods". ISBN 0-521-20094-6
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Husayn — Infobox Given Name Revised name = Husein imagesize= caption= pronunciation= gender = meaning = region = origin = related names = footnotes = Husein, Hussein, Hossain, Hussain, Husain, Hosein, Husayn, Hussaini (Arabic:حسین Turkish: Hüseyin ), is… … Wikipedia
Arghun Dynasty — The Arghun Dynasty was a dynasty of either Mongol [Davies, p. 627] , Turkish or Turko Mongol [Bosworth, New Islamic Dynasties, p. 329] ethnicity that ruled parts of Afghanistan in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, as well as the region of… … Wikipedia
Nizam al-Din Yahya — (c. 1417 – October 1480) was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1438/9 until his death. He was the son of Shams al Din Ali. Biography Nizam al Din gained the throne of Sistan after his father s death in 1438 or 1439. During his reign he spent … Wikipedia
Yadigar Muhammad — directs here, for the last khan of Kazan Khanate see: Yädegär Möxämmäd Yadigar Muhammad (d. 1470) was the Timurid ruler of Herat in opposition to Husayn Bayqarah for a portion of 1470. Yadigar Muhammad was born to Sultan Muhammad, who was a… … Wikipedia
List of kings of Persia — History of Greater Iran until the rise of modern nation states Pre modern … Wikipedia
Babur — Infobox Monarch name = Babur title = Mughal Emperor of India al ṣultānu l ʿazam wa l ḫāqān al mukkarram pādshāh e ghāzī caption = Portrait of Babur reign = 30 April 1526 – 26 December 1530 coronation = Not formally crowned othertitles = Founder… … Wikipedia
Ali-Shir Nava'i — Nizām al Din Ali Shīr Navā i (1441 1501) Nizām al Din ʿAlī Shīr Herawī (Chagatai and Persian: نظام الدین على شير هروی; Uzbek: Alisher Navoiy; Uyghur: ئەلىشىر نەۋائى) (9 February 1441 – 3 January 1501) was a Central Asian Turkic politician,… … Wikipedia
Uzbek literature — Introduction the body of written works produced by the Uzbek people of Central Asia, most of whom live in Uzbekistan, with smaller populations in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan. Although its roots stretch as far back as the… … Universalium
Badi' al-Zaman — ( fa. بدیع الزمان; d. 1517) was a Timurid ruler of Herat from 1506 to 1507. He was the son of Husayn Bayqarah, who was a great great grandson of Timur. [http://books.google.com/books?id=7E8gYYcHuk8C pg=PA324 lpg=PA324 dq=Badi%27+al… … Wikipedia
Mashhad — For other uses, see Mashhad (disambiguation). Mashhad Persian: مشهد ‹Mašhad› Panorama of Mashhad … Wikipedia