Army and Navy Club
The Army and Navy Club in
Londonis a gentlemen's clubfounded in 1837, also known informally as The Rag. [http://www.armynavyclub.co.uk/ Main page of Army and Navy Club web site] at armynavyclub.co.uk (accessed 18 January 2008)]
Foundation and membership
The club was founded by Lieutenant-General Sir Edward Barnes (1776–1838) in 1837. His proposal was to establish an Army Club, with all officers of Her Majesty's Army on full or half pay eligible for membership. However, when the Duke of Wellington was asked to be a patron, he refused unless membership were also offered to officers of the
Royal Navyand the Royal Marines, and this was agreed. On 28 August 1837 a meeting representing the various services took place, to elect a Committee and to settle the new club's Rules.
Sir Edward Barnes died on 19 March 1838, just two weeks before the first general meeting of the club.
By 1851, the club was in a strong position, with sixteen hundred members and a waiting list of 834. [Firebrace, "The Army and Navy Club 1837–1933", London, 1934, p. 43] This pressure led to the founding of the separate
Naval & Military Clubin 1862. Charles Dickens, Jr, reported in "Dickens's Dictionary of London" (1879). Charles Dickens, Jr, "Dickens's Dictionary of London" (1879) quoted at [http://www.victorianlondon.org/dickens/dickens-a.htm Victorian London - Directories - Dickens's Dictionary of London, by Charles Dickens, Jr., 1879 - "Army and Navy Club"] (accessed 18 January 2008)] - cquote|Army and Navy Club, Pall Mall. — Is instituted for the association of commissioned officers of all ranks in Her Majesty’s Regular Army, Royal Navy, and Royal Marines. Election by ballot in club meeting. Thirty members must actually vote, and one black ball in ten excludes. Entrance fee, £40; subscription, £7 7S. for old members; but the following resolution was carried at the annual meeting of the club on the 3rd June, 1878: "All new members who are elected to the club, commencing with the next ballot, shall pay an annual subscription at £10 10s."
According to the "
Encyclopaedia Britannica" article "Club", in 1902 [Webster,James Claude, in " Encyclopaedia Britannica", 10th Edition (1902), article on "Club", online at [http://www.1902encyclopedia.com/C/CLU/club.html Club] at 1902encyclopedia.com (accessed 18 January 2008)] - cquote|The largest income... may be stated to be that of the Army and Navy club, which in the year 1875 amounted to £30,813, of which £19,383 was raised by entrance fees and subscriptions alone. The expenditure is, however, most commonly of nearly equal amount, and of few of the clubs can it be said that they are entirely free from debt. The number of members included in a London club varies from 2200 in the Army and Navy to 475 in the St James's club.
Membership of the Army and Navy Club is now offered also to members of Commonwealth armed services and to members' immediate families. The club has some six thousand members, including women.
The club's first home was at 18,
St James's Square, at the north corner with King Street.'St James's Square: Army and Navy Club', in "Survey of London", volumes 29 and 30 (St James Westminster, Part 1 (1960) pp. 180-186, online at [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=40563 St James's Square: Army and Navy Club] at british-history.ac.uk(accessed 18 January 2008)] This house was vacated by the Oxford and Cambridge Clubwhen it moved into its new club house in Pall Mall. A lease was taken and the club opened its doors early in 1838.
In 1843, the club began to search for a site to build a purpose-built club house. In 1846, it moved to larger premises called Lichfield House, now 15, St James's Square.
In 1846–1847, the club bought six adjacent freehold houses in Pall Mall, St James's Square, and George Street, at the west corner of Pall Mall and George Street, for a total of £48,770. Of this, £19,500 was paid for Lord de Mauley's house on the west side of St James's Square dating from the 1670s, immediately opposite
Norfolk House. It would now have been Number 22, St James's Square, if it had survived. The St James's Square site was granted on 24 March 1672/3 by Henry Jermyn, 1st Earl of St Albansand Baptist May to trustees for Edward Shaw. In October 1673, they sold the land and the house which had been built on it to the actress Moll Davis, a mistress of King Charles II, for £1800. This house (which was surveyed by John Soanein 1799) was almost square and had three storeys, each with four evenly-spaced windows, all dressed with a wide architrave and cornice. The staircase hall was south of a large room in front, and two smaller rooms and a secondary staircase at the rear. There was a massive cross-wall, containing the fireplaces of the back rooms. In 1749, John Hobart, 1st Earl of Buckinghamshire, sold the house to Thomas Brand of Hertfordshirefor £4500, whose son sold it in 1799 to Samuel Thornton, a director of the Bank of England. In 1818, Thornton sold the house for £11,000 to the Whig politician W. S. Ponsonby, later Baron de Mauley, who sold it to the Army and Navy Club in October 1846 for £19,500. It was demolished in 1847, having survived longer than any other of the other original houses in the square.
It was reported in January 1847 that the club would hold an open competition for the design of its planned new building, with prizes of £200 and £100 for the two best entrants. ["The Builder", 9 January 1847, p. 18] The club committee initially chose a design by the sporting artist
George Tattersall, of St James's Street, who planned a two storey classical building with Corinthian columns and a crowning balustrade ending with martial trophies and a Doric entrance portico of three bays. As well as various statues in niches, over the portico he drew a pedestal with bas-reliefs, surmounted by lions and a group symbolizing Britanniaand Neptune. This choice was confirmed by a ballot of the club members in April 1847. However, "The Builder" pilloried the choice, pointing out that "the space devoted to the purposes of the club is very meagre, indeed quite insufficient". ["The Builder", 1 May 1847, p. 205, and 8 May 1847, pp. 213–15] The club held an extraordinary general meeting on 11 May 1847 and decided to buy another house in Pall Mall to make its site larger, and also to hold another competition. As a result, a design by C. O. Parnell [Parnell's success was a factor in his securing the commission for the Whitehall Club, 1866, in premises at 47, Parliament Street, that were substantially altered for Pearson's in 1907-08 and are now occupied by Parliamentary offices.( [http://www.parliament.uk/documents/upload/g14.pdf The Parliament Street Buildings] , pdf file, accessed 23 January 2008).] and Alfred Smith was chosen, an essay in the Venetian Renaissance style of the early sixteenth century, imitating Venice's Palazzo Corner della ca' Grande.
Building began in March 1848, William Trego having contracted to deliver the club house structure for £19,656. [Firebrace, "op. cit.", p. 41] The foundation stone was laid on 6 May 1848 by the chairman of the Committee, Lt-Col. Daniell. In August 1849 Messrs. Smith and Appleford were instructed to equip the building for £15,671, and the club-house was opened on 25 February 1851. The club was faced with
Caen stone, but this decayed, and in 1886 the bad stone had to be cut out and replaced with Portland.
An early description of the new club house appears in
John Timbs's "Curiosities of London" (1855)Timbs, John, "Curiosities of London: exhibiting the most rare and remarkable objects of interest in the metropolis; with nearly Fifty Years' Personal Recollections" (London, David Bogue, 1855), p. 190] - cquote|ARMY AND NAVY CLUB-HOUSE, Pall Mall, corner of George-street, designed by Parnell and Smith, was opened February, 1851. The exterior is a combination from Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro, and Library of St. Mark at Venice; but varying in the upper part, which has Corinthian columns, with windows resembling arcades filling up the intercolumns; and over their ached headings are groupes of naval and military symbols, weapons, and defensive armour — very picturesque. The frieze has also effective groupes symbolic of the army and navy; the cornice, likewise very bold, is crowned by a massive balustrade. The basement, from the Cornaro, is rusticated; the entrance being in the centre of the east or George-street front, by three open arches, similar in character to those in the Strand front of Somerset House. The whole is extremely rich in ornamental detail. The hall is fine; the coffee-room, convert|82|ft|m by convert|39|ft|m, is panelled with scagliola, and has a ceiling enriched with flowers, and pierced for ventilation by heated flues above; adjoining is a room lighted by a glazed plafond; next is the house dining-room, decorated in the Munich style; and more superb is the morning room, with its arched windows, and mirrors forming arcades and vistas innumerable. A magnificent stone staircase leads to the library and evening rooms; and in the third story are billiard and card rooms; and a smoking room, with a lofty dome elaborately decorated in traceried Moresque. The apartments are adorned with an equestrian portrait of Queen Victoria, painted by Grant, R.A. A piece of Gobelin tapestry (Sacrifice to Diana), presented to the Club in 1849 by Prince Louis Napoleon; marble busts of William IV and the Dukes of Kent and Cambridge; and several life-size portraits of naval and military heroes. The Club-house is provided with twenty lines of Whishaw's Telekouphona, or Speaking Telegraph, which communicate from the Secretary's room to the various apartments. The cost of this superb edifice, exclusive of fittings, was 35,000"l"; the plot of ground on which it stands cost the Club 52,000"l."
In 1857 a stained-glass window was installed in the inner hall to commemorate members killed in the
Crimean War, with tablets bearing the badge of the club and details of the battles of the war. The names of the fallen were inscribed in gold letters on marble architraves. The window was moved in 1925 and 1927, due to rebuilding.
In 1878–79 a new dining-room built, the smoking-room was enlarged, and the club-house was renovated, all by H. R. Gough. [Firebrace, "op. cit.", pp. 76–81]
Demand for bedrooms increased, and in 1919 the club bought numbers 46, 46a and 47, Pall Mall, subject to existing short leases, later adding to them 7, Rose and Crown Yard (just north of 47, Pall Mall) in 1924. [Firebrace, "op. cit.", pp. 142-143] A new building was designed by C. W. Ferrier and work on it began late in 1924. The old smoking-room was demolished and a new one built, a new kitchen constructed, and the exterior stone of the old club house was renovated. The new house, which connected with the back of the club house at the end of the new smoking-room, provided a squash court, a ladies' drawing-room and dining-room, and shop premises, as well as bedrooms. The club house was closed to members for a year, between August 1925 and July 1926, and the cost of the whole scheme was £167,471. Work was finished in March 1927. [Firebrace, "op. cit.", pp. 137-146]
The historic club house was replaced by the present mid-twentieth century building, described on the club's web site as "a modern purpose built building extending to almost convert|80000|sqft|m2, on ten floors which includes its own underground garage".
Presidents of the Club
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
*1841-1845: Admiral Sir Philip Durham GCB
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
*Field Marshal HRH the Duke of Cambridge (1819–1904) ["CAMBRIDGE, George William Frederick Charles, 2nd Duke of" in "Who Was Who 1897–1915" (London, A. & C. Black, 1988 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-2670-4)]
*Right Hon. Sir Arthur Otway, 3rd Baronet MP (1822–1912) ["OTWAY, Rt Hon. Sir Arthur John, 3rd Bt." in "Who Was Who 1897–1915" (London, A. & C. Black, 1988 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-2670-4)]
*Admiral of the Fleet Sir Algernon McLennan Lyons (1833-1908) ["LYONS, Sir Algernon McLennan GCB" in "Who Was Who 1897–1915" (London, A. & C. Black, 1988 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-2670-4)]
*Field Marshal Sir George Stuart White (1835—1912) ["WHITE, Field-Marshal Sir George Stuart" in "Who Was Who 1897–1915" (London, A. & C. Black, 1988 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-2670-4)]
*Field Marshal Sir Evelyn Wood (1838-1919) ["WOOD, Field-Marshal Sir (Henry) Evelyn" in "Who Was Who 1916–1928" (London, A. & C. Black, 1992 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-3143-0)]
*Field Marshal Lord Grenfell (1841-1925) ["GRENFELL, Francis Wallace Grenfell, 1st Baron" in "Who Was Who 1916–1928" (London, A. & C. Black, 1992 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-3143-0)]
Henry Brudenell-Bruce, 5th Marquess of Ailesbury(1842–1911) ["AILESBURY, Henry Augustus Brudenell-Bruce, 5th Marquess of" in "Who Was Who 1897–1915" (London, A. & C. Black, 1988 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-2670-4)]
*Field Marshal Lord Nicholson (1845-1918) ["NICHOLSON, William Gustavus Nicholson, 1st Baron" in "Who Was Who 1916–1928" (London, A. & C. Black, 1992 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-3143-0)]
*Admiral of the Fleet Sir John de Robeck, 1st Baronet (1862–1928) ["de ROBECK, Admiral of the Fleet Sir John Michael, 1st Bt" in "Who Was Who 1916–1928" (London, A. & C. Black, 1992 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-3143-0)]
*Field-Marshal Lord Birdwood (1865-1951) ["BIRDWOOD, William Riddell Birdwood, 1st Baron" in "Who Was Who 1951–1960" (London, A. & C. Black, 1984 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-2598-8)]
*Field-Marshal Sir Claud Jacob (1863-1948) ["JACOB, Field-Marshal Sir Claud (William)" in "Who Was Who 1941–1950" (London, A. & C. Black, 1980 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-2131-1)]
*General Sir William Peyton (1866-1931), died suddenly at the club on 14 November 1931 ["PEYTON, General Sir William Eliot", in "Who Was Who" (London, A. & C. Black)] [http://www.firstworldwar.bham.ac.uk/donkey/peyton.htm William Eliot Peyton] at the web site of the CENTRE FOR FIRST WORLD WAR STUDIES online at bham.ac.uk (accessed 19 January 2008)]
*Marshal of the Royal Air Force Lord Trenchard (1873-1956) ["TRENCHARD, Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount" in "Who Was Who 1951–1960" (London, A. & C. Black, 1984 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-2598-8)]
*Admiral of the Fleet Lord Chatfield (1873-1967) ["CHATFIELD, Alfred Ernle Montacute Chatfield, 1st Baron" in "Who Was Who 1961–1970" (London, A. & C. Black, 1979 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-2008-0)]
*Field Marshal Sir Cyril Deverell (1874-1947) ["DEVERELL, Field Marshal Sir Cyril John" in "Who Was Who 1941–1950" (London, A. & C. Black, 1980 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-2131-1)]
*Air Chief Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham (1878–1953) ["POPHAM, (Henry) Robert (Moore) Brooke-" in "Who Was Who 1951–1960" (London, A. & C. Black, 1984 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-2598-8)]
*Field Marshal Lord Alanbrooke (1883-1963) ["ALANBROOKE, Alan Francis Brooke, 1st Viscount" in "Who Was Who 1961–1970" (London, A. & C. Black, 1979 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-2008-0)]
*Field Marshal Lord Gort (1886-1946) ["GORT, John Standish Surtees Prendergast Vereker, 6th Viscount" in "Who Was Who 1941–1950" (London, A. & C. Black, 1980 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-2131-1)]
*Field Marshal Lord Harding of Petherton (1896-1989) ["HARDING OF PETHERTON, Allan Francis (John) Harding, 1st Baron" in "Who's Who 1989" (London, A. & C. Black, 1989)]
*Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck (1884-1981) ["AUCHINLECK, Field-Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre" in "Who's Who 1981" (London, A. & C. Black, 1981)]
*Admiral of the Fleet Sir Varyl Begg (1908-1995) ["BEGG, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Varyl (Cargill)" in "Who Was Who 1991–1995" (London, A. & C. Black, 1996: ISBN 0-7136-4496-6 )]
*Lord Thorneycroft (1909–1994),
Chancellor of the Exchequer["THORNEYCROFT, George Edward Peter Thorneycroft, Baron" in "Who Was Who 1991–1995" (London, A. & C. Black, 1996: ISBN 0-7136-4496-6)]
*Field Marshal Sir Geoffrey Baker (1912-1980) ["BAKER, Field-Marshal Sir Geoffrey Harding" in "Who Was Who 1971–1980" (London, A. & C. Black, 1989 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-3227-5)]
*Sir Gerald Nabarro MP (1913-1973) ["NABARRO, Sir Gerald (David Nunes)" in "Who Was Who 1971–1980" (London, A. & C. Black, 1989 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-3227-5)]
*Admiral of the Fleet Lord Hill-Norton (1915-2004) ["HILL-NORTON, Admiral of the Fleet Peter John Hill-Norton, Baron" in "Who Was Who 2001–2005" (London, A. & C. Black, 2006: ISBN 0-7136-7601-9)]
*Field Marshal Lord Bramall (born 1923) ["BRAMALL, Field Marshal Edwin Noel Westby Bramall, Baron" in "Who's Who 2007" (London, A. & C. Black, 2007)]
Christopher HibbertMC (born 1924), author ["HIBBERT, Christopher", in "Who's Who 2007" (London, A. & C. Black, 2007)]
*Admiral of the Fleet Lord Fieldhouse (1928-1992) ["FIELDHOUSE, John David Elliott Fieldhouse, Baron", in "Who Was Who 1991–1995" (London, A. & C. Black, 1996: ISBN 0-7136-4496-6 )]
*Field Marshal Lord Inge (born 1935) ["INGE, Field Marshal Peter Anthony Inge, Baron" in "Who's Who 2007" (London, A. & C. Black, 2007)]
*Admiral of the Fleet Sir Benjamin Bathurst (born 1936) ["BATHURST, Admiral of the Fleet Sir (David) Benjamin" in "Who's Who 2007" (London, A. & C. Black, 2007)]
*Lord Robertson of Port Ellen (born 1946),
Secretary General of NATO1999-2004 ["ROBERTSON OF PORT ELLEN, George Islay MacNeill Robertson, Baron cr 1999 (Life Peer) of Islay in Argyll and Bute" in "Who's Who 2007" (London, A. & C. Black, 2007)]
*General Sir Richard Dannatt KCB MC (born 1950) Chief of the General Staff ["DANNATT, Gen. Sir (Francis) Richard" in "Who's Who 2007" (London, A. & C. Black, 2007)]
List of London's gentlemen's clubs
* [http://www.armynavyclub.co.uk/ The Army & Navy Club] - official web site
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