1888 Eruption of Mount Bandai
The 1888 Eruption of Mount Bandai was a major volcanic eruption which occurred during the
Meiji periodof the Empire of Japan. The eruption occurred on 1888-07-15, and pyroclastic flows buried villages on the northern foot of the mountain, and devastated the eastern part of Bandai region, Fukushima Prefecturenorth of Tokyo. At least 477 people were killed and hundreds more were injured and rendered homeless in what became the worst volcanic disaster in recent Japanese history. [Smith, Encyclopedia of Geology, pp 461] The eruption had many similarities to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helensin the United States. [Clancey, Earthquake Nation, pp 104]
Mount Bandaiis a stratovolcano, which had previously erupted in the year 806, only to be dormant for the next 1000 years. Mount Bandai had a conical profile, and had been compared in literature with Mount Fuji. The Bandai volcano consisted of four peaks: O-bandai (1,819 meters), Kushigamine (1,636 meters), Akahaniyama (1,427 meters), and Ko-bandai which was slightly lower than that of O-bandai.
earthquakes were reported on July 8, 9, and 10. Moderate earthquakes occurred on July 13 and 14. However, as earthquakes are commonplace all over Japan, these tremors were not viewed by the local populace with undue concern.
On July 15, three earthquakes occurred prior to the main eruption. The third one was the largest, at around magnitude 5. At 07:45, while the ground was still heaving, a
Phreatic eruptionbegan at the fumaroles approximately 100 meters upslope from the Kaminoyu hot spring resort on the flank of Ko-Bandai. Successive explosions occurred 15 to 20 times per minute. Each explosion was accompanied by thunder and a black eruption column ascending to a height of 1300 meters. The last explosion was observed to discharge a horizontal cloud, mainly toward the north.
Within 10 minutes after the explosions, a pyroclastic flow swept over the eastern part of the volcano. According to eyewitness, phreatic eruptions continued after the large collapse at least twice. At around 10:00, hot rain started falling, transforming the vast quantity of
volcanic ashinto lahar(volcanic mudslides). At 16:00, ash fall ceased.
The eruption had transformed hundreds of square kilometers of forest and farmland around the mountain into a wasteland. Several villages were completely buried under landslides, which also considerably altered the
topographyof the region by diverting rivers and creating a number of new lakes. Approximately 1.5 cubic kilometers of the summit of the mountain had collapsed, and flowed northwards.
Japanese Geologists Seikei Sekiya and Y. Kikuchi from the
Imperial University of Tokyovisited Bandai within days of the eruption. After spending several months studying the new crater and the devastated areas, they published a report in English (“The eruption of Bandai-san” Tokyo Imperial University College of Sciences Journal 3 (1890), pp 91-171), which is considered a classic in volcanology. A photograph of the ruined mountain was the first news photograph printed by the Yomiuri Shimbunin Japan. [Clancey, Earthquake Nation, pp 104]
The eruption was the first major disaster faced by the fledging
Japanese Red Cross, which moved in quickly to provide disaster relief.
The lake district formed by this cataclysm is now known as Urabandai or
Bandai-kōgen, and has become a popular tourist destination, especially the multi-hued lakes of Goshiki-numa.
last = Clancey
first = Gregory
year = 2006
title = Earthquake Nation: The Cultural Politics of Japanese Seismicity, 1868-1930
publisher = University of California Press
id = ISBN 0520246071
last = Smith
first = Roger
year = 2000
title = Encyclopedia of Geology
publisher = Routledge
id = ISBN 1579581889
* [http://nisee.berkeley.edu/elibrary/browse/kozak?eq=5295 Photographs of the eruption and aftermath at University of Berkeley]
* [http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Japan/bandai_debris_aval_1888.html United States Geological Survey report]
* [http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=940DE3DD1F38E033A25754C0A96F9C94699FD7CF&oref=slogin New York Times September 7 1888]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Mount Bandai — rises above rice fields. Elevation 1,819 m (5,968 ft) … Wikipedia
Kitashiobara, Fukushima — Kitashiobara (北塩原村; mura) is a village located in Yama District, Fukushima, Japan.As of February 1, 2008, the village has an estimated population of 3,416 and a density of 14.6 persons per km². The total area is 233.94 km².The town was created in … Wikipedia
Ōu Mountains — ▪ mountains, Japan Japanese Ōu sammyaku, range forming the backbone of northeastern Honshu, Japan, and extending for 310 miles (500 km) south from Aomori ken (prefecture) to Fukushima ken. Geologically, dominant Tertiary sediments are… … Universalium
Fukushima — /fooh kooh shee meuh/; Japn. /fooh koo shee mah/, n. a city on N Honshu, in N Japan. 262,847. * * * ▪ prefecture, Japan ken (prefecture), northeastern Honshu, Japan, facing the Pacific Ocean. Its area of 5,322 square miles (13,784 square km) is… … Universalium
Pacific Ring of Fire — The Ring of Fire redirects here. For other uses of the term, see Ring of Fire (disambiguation). The Pacific Ring of Fire (see below) … Wikipedia
Goshiki-numa — is a cluster of five volcanic lakes situated at the foot of Mount Bandai in the center of the lake district of Bandai kōgen, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.Goshiki numa formed when Mount Bandai erupted on July 15, 1888, destroying dozens of villages … Wikipedia
Tuff — (from the Italian tufo ) is a type of rock consisting of consolidated volcanic ash ejected from vents during a volcanic eruption. Tuff should not be confused with tufa , another type of rock. Volcanic ashThe products of a volcanic eruption are… … Wikipedia
Liste von Vulkanen in Japan — Karte mit allen Koordinaten: OSM, Google oder … Deutsch Wikipedia
Liste großer historischer Vulkanausbrüche — In die Liste großer historischer Vulkanausbrüche sollen historisch belegte Vulkaneruptionen aufgenommen werden, die nach dem Vulkanexplosivitätsindex (VEI) mindestens Stärke 3 erreichten und/oder katastrophale Auswirkungen hatten. Als… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Trümmerlawine — Das Orotava Tal auf Teneriffa, Kanarische Inseln, die Abrisskante („Amphitheater“) der Orotava Trümmerlawine, die vor der Nordküste Teneriffas in 3000 m Tiefe liegt Der Begriff Trümmerlawine (engl.: debris avalanche), auch Schutt oder… … Deutsch Wikipedia