Cuttack - କଟକ
Silver City / City of 1000 Years
—  city  —
Cuttack - କଟକ
Location of Cuttack - କଟକ
in Orissa and India
Coordinates 20°16′N 85°31′E / 20.27°N 85.52°E / 20.27; 85.52Coordinates: 20°16′N 85°31′E / 20.27°N 85.52°E / 20.27; 85.52
Country India
State Orissa
District(s) Cuttack
Municipal commissioner Ravinarayana Nanda
Mayor Soumendra Ghosh


606,007[1] (70) (2011)

4,382.23 /km2 (11,350 /sq mi)

Official languages Oriya
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)


398 km2 (154 sq mi)

36 metres (118 ft)

Website CMC Official Portal

Cuttack (/ˈkʌtək/ ( listen); Oriya: କଟକ [kɔʈɔkɔ]) is the former capital of the state of Orissa, India. It is the headquarters of Cuttack district and is located about 20 km to the north east of Bhubaneswar, the capital of Orissa. The name of the city is an anglicised form of Kataka that literally means The Fort, a reference to the ancient Barabati Fort around which the city developed. The city is spread across an area of 398 km2 (154 sq mi) and is situated at the beginning of the Mahanadi river delta.

Established in 989 AD, Cuttack was the seat of government in Orissa for close to a thousand years before its burgeoning size forced the creation of a new capital at Bhubaneswar in 1948. The two cities are collectively referred to as the twin cities today. Cuttack is famous for its unique silver filigree works and textiles of woven and also famous for Dussehra, Dussehra is famous for its silver and gold Medhas.we cann't see any where in india,the goddes are looking so beautiful in which the idols are adorned with huge amounts of gold and silver medhas. silk and cotton.[2]



Early history of Cuttack is associated with the Keshari dynasty. As stated by the distinguished historian A. Stirling, present-day Cuttack was established as a military cantonment by king Nrupa Keshari of Keshari dynasty in 989 A.D. Stirling based his opinion on Madala Panji, a chronicle of Jagannath temple of Puri. The reign of Markata Keshari was distinguished for the stone embank built to protect the new capital from flood in 1002 A.D.

Historical evidence suggests Cuttack becoming capital of a Kingdom founded by Anangabhimadeva of Ganga dynasty in 1211 A.D. After the end of Ganga rule, Orissa passed to the hands of the Gajapati Kings (1435-1541 A.D.) of Solar dynasty under whom Cuttack continued to be the capital of Orissa. After the death of Mukunda deva, the last Hindu king of Orissa, Cuttack first came under Muslim rules and later undernMughals.

By 1750, Cuttack came under Maratha rules and it grew fast as a business centre being the convenient point of contact between the Marathas of Nagpur and the English Merchants of Bengal. It was occupied by the British in 1803 and later became the capital of Orissa division in 1816. From 1948 onwards, when the capital was shifted to Bhubaneswar, the city remained the administrative headquarters of Orissa.

Remnants of an old fort called Barabati Killa still exist in the heart of Cuttack with the moat around the fort. Nearby is a modern stadium called the Barabati Stadium, host to many national and international cricket matches. Recently the stadium was upgraded with floodlights for facilitating Day and Night matches.

The introduction of the Sharadiya Utsav tradition in the city dates back to the visit of Saint Chaitanya in 16th century when the consecration of the idol of Durga by using the mask pattern was conducted in his presence at Binod Behari Devi Mandap.

Recent growth of the city has resulted in expansion across the river Kathjori and a newer township towards the head of the delta formed between the tributary Kathjori river and the main river Mahanadi has come up by the name of Markat Nagar(popularly known as CDA by the local residents) which is spread across 2000 acres. Cuttack is referred to as a city with Babaan Bazaar, Teppan Galee i.e. a city having 52 markets and 53 streets.

Its a place where culture and tradition is seen to have a great fusion. The sense to be born as "Katakis" have a great impact on the ideologies of the inhabbitants of cuttack no matter they stay in Cuttack or any part of the world. People of cuttack respect all religions ,and they don't encourage racism based on religion.

Geography and climate

Kathjodi River
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Cuttack is located at 20°30′N 85°50′E / 20.5°N 85.83°E / 20.5; 85.83[3] and has an average elevation of 36 metres (118 ft). Located at the apex of the Mahanadi delta, the city is surrounded by the river Mahanadi and its tributaries from almost all the sides. The tributaries include the Kathjori, the Kuakhai and the Birupa. Cuttack features a tropical wet and dry climate. The summer season is from March to June when the climate is hot and humid. Thunderstorms are common at the height of the summer. The monsoon months are from July to October when the city receives most of its rainfall from the South West Monsoon. The annual rainfall is around 144 cm. The winter season from November to February is characterised by mild temperatures and occasional showers. Temperatures may exceed 40°C at the height of summer and may fall to below 10°C in winter.

Due to the proximity to coast, the city is prone to cyclones from the Bay of Bengal. Summer thunderstorms also cause a lot of damage. Cuttack is however safe from earthquakes, being situated in the relatively safe seismic zone II.

The Mahanadi provides much of the drinking water to the city. There are also numerous ponds (pokharis) in the city that store rain water. The river is also used as a dumping zone for sewage produced in the city.

Cultural and Religious aspects

Uttareswar Temple

Religious places

Cuttack hosts Paramahansa Nath temple (near Biribati, 14 km away from the city center), the famous Katak Chandi Temple, Bhattarika Temple, Dhabaleswar temple, Panchamukhi Hanuman temple and the most oldest temple is Paramahansanatha others. The Barabati fort houses the Gada Chandi temple which is one of the oldest temples in Cuttack. The Dhabaleswar temple is located on an island in the river Mahanadi and is connected to the mainland by a long hanging bridge. The pillar less hanging bridge is unique of its kind in India.

Here is situated a holy historical Sikh shrine 'The Gurdwara Daatan Sahib'. It is here that the first Sikh Guru, Shree Guru Nanak Dev halted on his way to Puri. It is believed that a tree branch planted by him after using it as a tooth cleaner still flourishes here, hence the name Daatan Sahib. Cuttack houses several churches that include holy rosary church, Oriya Baptist church etc.

Cuttack also hosts of various mosques namely,


Cuttack town enjoyed for a pretty long time the honour of being the seat of political authority of the Muslims in Orissa. During this period numerous Muslim monuments were built in Cuttack. The Qadam-E-Rasool is a monument of beauty built by Shujaddin Khan. At four corners of its high compound wall are four small yet strong towers constructed out of chiselled stone. It is adorned with four flat domes and pucca pavements from all direction of the grave yard to the main octagonal building with magnificent dome in the centre. It contains the foot print of the Prophet engraved in a circular stone. The dome outside is adorned with a golden pinnacle.

Juma Masjid

As the name suggests Juma, means Big, this masjid is the oldest, biggest, and the most beautiful masjid of Cuttack. It was built during the Mughal era. It possesses several rooms for visitors and students. Earlier there used to be a Madrasa in this mosque. However, since last 10 years, the Madrasa is shifted out of the mosque. The neighbourhoods surrounding the Juma Masjid are inhabited both by Hindus and Muslims, who live peacefully with perfect communal harmony.

Shahi Mosque

The Shahi mosque is situated inside the Barabati fort. It is structurally similar to the Ujale Khan mosque at Mohammadia Bazaar. All these mosques are adorned with beautiful domes on hexagonal base. Stones and tiles are used in construction of the mosque. It seems that during the British rule of Orissa, it was used as a Magazine as it is apparent from the two Mehrabs on the flanks which are closed with bricks.


Cuttack, being the aesthetic capital of Orissa for a long period of time, celebrates all festivals from all religions with much fanfare and devotion.

Dusshera, the festival of goddess Durga, is very popular in Cuttack. Idols are worshipped in many streets and localities. In this city, Dussehra is famous for its Chandi Medhas, in which the idols are adorned with huge amounts of gold and silver, with localities trying to outsmart each other by constructing more attractive idols. Indeed, the whole city comes to a standstill on Astami, Navami and in Dashami burning of effigy of the demon Ravana (the eighth, ninth and tenth days of Dussehra) as people travel all over the city appreciating all the idols put forth by the neighbourhoods.

Kali puja, Just after Durga puja gets over, cuttackis gear up with all their vigour to celebrate Kali puja.On the auspicious day of Diwali amidst the bursting of firecrackers on the banks of Mahanadi (called Gadgadia ghat) people not only celebrate the victory of good over evil but also pay tribute to the goddess Kali.

Bali Yatra,But the festival which Cuttackis look forward to most is the Bali Yatra. In olden times, merchants from Orissa used to trade with South-East Asian countries. And whatever items they brought from those places after trading Oriya goods used to be put up for sale in the capital city (which was then Cuttack). People from all over the state and beyond used to come to Cuttack to buy these items. Bali Yatra is the festival of continuing this ancient tradition. It is held every year in the month of November on the banks of the Mahanadi ("Bali Yatra" literally means a festival to celebtate the trade that the ancient Oriyas had with the island of Bali in the ancient days), where many stalls are set up selling both local and exotic goods. People from all over Orissa come to the Baliyatra to buy items, as was the custom back in those days.

Kartikeshwar puja: The organized puja committees incharge of carrying out the worship of the deity of Cuttack get ready for Kartikeswar Puja.Kartikeshwar is the eldest son of Lord Shiva. Nowhere else except Sabarimala is the Kartikeswar puja carried out with so much elan.

Kite flying is also celebrated with much enthusiasm and energy in the city. Kite-flying culminates with the Makar Sankranti, with kite-flying competitions being held all over the city. All the other regular Indian festivals like Ganesh Chaturthi, Vasant Panchami, Holi, Id, Good Friday, Rath Yatra, Diwali, Christmas and the numerous Hindu festivals are also celebrated here.


Among the culinary delights unique to the Millenium City, none compare the famed Dahi Bara and Aludum, a spicy concoction of three basic dishes i.e., dahibara - vadas soaked in skim yoghurt, ghuguni - curried chickpeas and aludum - whole size potatoes immersed in fiery curry. All and sundry sample this traditional dish nearly every day and is a must on most tourists' itinerary. Other popular fast foods include Chat, Gup-chup (pani puri).

There are several nice restaurants in Cuttack that serve very good food at reasonable price. Some of the nice restaurants of Cuttack are situated near College square (close to Railway station).


As of 2001 India census,[4] Cuttack had a population of 534,654. Males constituted 52% of the population and females 48%. Cuttack has an average literacy rate of 77% with male literacy at 86% and female literacy at 67%. 29% of the population is under 14 years of age.

Around 94% of the city's population is Hindu. Muslims account for around 5% while Christians and Sikhs comprise the rest.[5]


At the Parliament Cuttack has been the seat of Orissa politics since a long time.In the Indian parliament, Cuttack parliamentary constituency is represented by Mr. Bhartruhari Mahatab of Biju Janata Dal (BJD).

At the state Assembly Cuttack City is divided into three constituencies viz. Barabati-Cuttack, Choudwar-Cuttack and Cuttack Sadar. Cuttack sadar is represented by Mr Kalindi Behera of (BJD) Biju Janata Dal whereas Cuttack Barabati is represented by Mr.Debasish (Rishi) Samantaray of BJD at the State Legislative Assembly while Choudwar-cuttack is represented by Mr. Pravat Biswal (BJD).

At the Municipal Corporation Mr. Soumendra Ghosh is the Mayor of the Cuttack Municipal Corporation (CMC).[6] He is a lawyer by profession and won the municipal elections with a Biju Janata Dal (BJD)[7] ticket.


Indian Metals & Ferro Alloys (IMFA), the country's largest producer of ferrous alloys is situated at Choudwar, Cuttack.

There are a few more industries in Chowdwar. For example the paper mill and the Orissa textile mill.

OSL Group one of the leading stevedoring firms of the country is also head quartered in Cuttack.


Electronic Media

Cuttack has a Doordarshan centre which telecasts Oriya programs.It also has a branch the All India Radio which broadcasts AM as well as FM radio in the twin cities. At present BIG 92.7 FM, RED 93.5 FM, Radio Chokolate 104 and FM Rainbow are available in the twin cities.

Print Media

There are many print media houses in Cuttack. The Samaj (founded by Pandit Gopabandhu Das), The Prajatantra (founded by Harekrushna Mahatab, former Orissa CM and Maharasthra Governor).


General Hospital Cuttack has the largest medical college in Orissa, the SCB medical college and hospital. The hospital has emergency centre, outdoor (for walk in patients), and in house facilities. In SCB medical campus there is an operative eye bank in the name of Guru Nanak Dev.

Sishu Bhavan (paediatric hospital) Cuttack has a big Sishu bhavan (paediatric hospital). The hospital has close collaboration with Japanese/Korean government. The hospital is well equipped with many modern health care instruments.

Eye hospital At sector 6 of CDA in Cuttack, there is a very nice eye hospital run by rotary association. The hospital is well equipped with the instruments required for advanced eye surgeries. The hospital employs very high quality doctors. Anathor well equipped eye hospital at Buxibazar is run by the Lions Club International.

Private hospitals and nursing homes Apart from public run hospitals, Cuttack has also plenty of private nursing homes and clinics. These nursing homes carry out many surgeries and other advanced treatments. In general, the private medical homes have a good reputation in Cuttack.

Education and Research

Primary and Secondary Schools

Schools in Cuttack are affiliated with the Board of Secondary Education Orissa (BSE), the all-India Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) and the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) boards. Oriya and English are the usual language of instruction. Secondary board high school (S.B.H.S), considered to be one of the finest schools in the state, is situated here.

Cuttack houses a number of excellent public schools both in ICSE and CBSE such as D.A.V. Public School (C.D.A. Colony Branch), Cambridge School, Stewart School, New Stewart School, , Cambridge school, St. Joseph's Girls High school, D.P.S. Kalinga, Kendriya Vidyalaya etc. Together, these schools have brought pride and recognition to the city, state and country in the field of education.

The other important school in Cuttack is the famous Ravenshaw Collegiate school which proudly boasts many eminent personalities in its alumni including Netaji Subash Chandra Bose, Biju Pattnaik, Harekrishna Mahtab, etc. Among other notable schools (run by Orissa state board) are Christ Collegiate School, Peary Mohan Academy, Badambadi New Colony High School,Matrubhaban etc.


General Colleges

Cuttack has a number of high level colleges giving education in science, social science, and humanities. The colleges teach both +2 (intermediate) and +3 (bachelor) classes. Some of the prominent colleges are: Ravenshaw, Sailabala Women's College, JKBK, Stewart Science college, Christ college,Sri Aurobindo institute of higher studies & research. etc.

Medical Colleges

SCB medical College, one of the premier medical colleges in India and the largest medical institution in Orissa, proudly associates its origin to the Silver city - Cuttack. This college produces one of the finest brand of doctors every year. The quality of education imparted in SCB medical college is quite high. SCB medical college has produced some of the very first licensed medical practitioners of India medical fraternity. SCB medical college also has a dental college which gives bachelors degree in dental surgery.

Law Colleges

Cuttack houses NLUO, one of the premier National Law Universities of the country. It also has the Madhu Sudan Law college, named after Madhusudan Das.

Technical Colleges

Cuttack is home to several technical institutions which includes Dhaneswar Rath Institute of Engineering & Management Studies DRIEMS, Bhubananda Orissa School of Engineering (BOSE)the 1st technical school of Orissa, Image Institute of technology & management(IITM), IPSAR, IMIT, Ajay Binay Institute of Technology (ABIT), and JIET. The twin cities house around 40 engineering colleges. There exists a textile engineering college in Chowdwar. There is also a Biju Pattnaik film and television institute offering professional courses.

Research Institutes

Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI)[8]

Cuttack hosts several national research laboratories such as the Central Rice Research Institute, located in Bidyadharpur, Cuttack. This is a premier institute of rice research in the whole of South Asia.

Swami Vivekananda National Institute of Rehabilitation and Training (NIRTAR)[9]

The Swami Vivekananda National Institute of Rehabilitation Training and Research (SVNIRTAR) is an autonomous body under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Govt. of India. It is located in a beautiful rural area at Olatpur at a distance of 30 km from Cuttack and Bhubaneswar. It conducts three Bachelor Degree courses in Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, Prosthetics and Orthotics, two Postgraduate courses in Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy affiliated to Utkal University, Bhubaneswar.

Regional Spinal Injury Centre (RSIC)

The Regional Spinal Injury Centre, Cuttack has been functioning inside the S.C.B. Medical College Campus since 2001. RSIC is an autonomous organization under the administrative and financial control of Dept. of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of Orissa and is headed by Director of the RSIC. This is one of the institutions which provide rehabilitation measures to persons with disabilities especially spinal injury.

Acharya Harihar Regional Cancer Centre (AHRCC)

The AHRCC, the only one of its kind in east India, carries out high-end research and treatment in cancer.


Ravenshaw University[10]

Ravenshaw University came into existence on the 15th day of November, 2006. It was an upgradation of Ravenshaw College established in 1868, one of the oldest and largest colleges in India.

National Law University, Orissa[11]

The National Law University, Orissa, at Cuttack, is a premier Law University established by the National Law University Orissa Act of 2008 and is a member of the existing group of National Law Universities of India.

Sri Sri University[12]

The university is being established by the Sri Sri Ravi Shankar Vidya Mandir Trust, conceptualized and under the guidance of Sri Sri Ravi Shankar at Naraj, Cuttack. The legal process of establishing the University was completed on January 2010.[13] Sri Sri University will be functional from academic year 2011-12. Sri Sri Institute of Management Studies – the first college of SSU will induct the first batch of students in June 2011.

Notable people born in Cuttack

  1. Subhas Chandra Bose, Prominent Figure of Indian independence movement activism and reorganizing and leading the Indian National Army in 2nd world war
  2. Samuel Tickell, British army officer, artist and ornithologist in India and Burma
  3. Biju Patnaik, Indian politician & Former Chief Minister of Orissa.
  4. Naveen Patnaik, Chief Minister of Orissa and the chief of Biju Janata Dal, a regional political party in Orissa
  5. Giridharilal Kedia, Former Working President of KVK, Cuttack; Past District Governor of Lions Club International 322C & Former Chairman of IITM cuttack.
  6. Gour Prasad Ghose, Director, Producer, Actor; Recipient of several National Awards and numerous other awards
  7. Parbati Ghose, Director, Producer, Actress, Writer; Recipient of several National Awards and numerous other awards
  8. Akshaya Mohanty, Composer, Chakadola Karuchi Leela
  9. Malaya Ranjan Mahapatra, The Only Oriya to be a part of the First Indian Antarctica Expedition in 1981 and a Prime Minister(Indira Gandhi) Award holder.



The nearest airport is the Biju Patnaik Airport at Bhubaneswar, about 28 km away. A domestic airport, it has flights to almost all major Indian cities. The Charbatia Airbase located in Cuttack is for the exclusive use of the Indian Air Force.


Cuttack Rail Station

Cuttack is an important station on the Howrah-Chennai mainline of the East Coast Railway and falls under the Khurda Road division. A branch line to Paradeep starts from Cuttack. It is connected to all parts of India through trains run by the Indian Railways.The Cuttack Railway station is selected to be developed as a multi functional railway station with food courts shopping plaza, theaters to be developed .


National Highway 5 passes through the city. A part of the Golden Quadrilateral project, this highway runs from Chennai to Kolkata. Feeder state highways connect Cuttack to Jajpur, Paradeep, Talcher, Angul and nearby towns in Cuttack district. Intra city transport is primarily through Cycle rickshaws. There is a threadbare bus service that serves the outermost parts of the city.It is a major junction connecting all the major parts of the state. The bus terminus at cuttack is the largest and thousands of private and government buses ply to hundreds of destinations.

Sports and Entertainment

Sports facilities

Modern Cuttack is the home to Barabati Stadium,[14] an important venue for international cricket matches.[15] Cuttack also possesses Jawaharlal Nehru indoor stadium. The 18th and 24th National Games were held at Cuttack in 1958 and 1970 respectively.

Cuttack has a branch of sports authority of India (SAI) training centres, which was established on 26 March 1987, under Sports Hostel Scheme at Barabati Stadium, Cuttack. Government of Orissa has provided accommodation facility at Barabati stadium for boys and at Jawaharlal Nehru indoor stadium for girls. The centre gives training for athletics, basketball, football, volleyball, and gymnastic.There is a quite nice athletic track at the Satyabrata stadium, near Barabati stadium.

The ring road (that surrounds Cuttack) along rivers Mahanadi and Kathajodi is a popular (and safe) morning-walk route for the residents of Cuttack.


Cuttack is blessed with the huge collection of books and journals in Kanika Library.

For Oriya literature, there is Padhiari Pathagara with a decent collection of books.

The municipality run library called Biswanath pandit library(situated close to Badambadi by the Kathajodi river side) has a very good collection of books, magazines, and journals.


Cuttack had been the centre of art and literature in the past.

Cuttack has several movie theatres playing movie in Oriya, Hindi, and English languages. To carter the need of a large Telugu audience in Cuttack, a few theatres also play Telugu movie. Some of the well-known theatres are Grand, Jayashree (Badambadi), Nishamani (Link road), Samrat, etc.


Cuttack has a deer park, near Barabati stadium, overseeing the beautiful Mahandi river.

There are other parks run by the Cuttack municipality (for example, one at CDA, or at Badambadi).

Biju-Pattnaik park at Bidanasi (on the way to Dhabaleswar temple) is quite a large and nice park for spending your afternoons and evenings. Its also a popular destination for a mini-picnic.

Freedom Fighter's Memorial

It was inaugurated by Hon Chief Minister of Orissa Mr Naveen Patnaik on 23 January -Netaji Jayanti (Netaji Subas Chandra Bose Birthday) in the year 2010.It is situated at the old jail complex (near Big Bazar),Dargha Bazaar , Cuttack.

Netaji Museum

Cuttack takes pride in being the birthplace of the prominent Indian statesman, independence leader and freedom-fighter Subhash Chandra Bose. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose studied in an Anglo school till standard six which is now known as Stewart School and then shifted to Ravenshaw Collegiate school of Cuttack. The birth place of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose which is known as Janakinath Bhawan in Oriya Bazar has now been converted to a museum named Netaji Birth Place Museum where original letters written by Netaji along with other Netaji's important materials are exhibited.

Oriya Film Industry

The Oriya Film Industry[16] has its base in Cuttack.



External links

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cuttack — Cuttack …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Cuttack — (Orissa), 1) Provinz der britischen Präsidentschaft Bengalen, am Bengalischen Meerbusen; das Land wird durch das sumpfige u. ungesunde Delta des Mahanadi, der Brahmani u. Byturnee gebildet; an dasselbe schließt sich weiter landeinwärts der… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Cuttack — (prononcer Katak, en hindî : कटक) est une ville de l État d Orissa, en Inde. Située à la confluence du Mahanadi et du Kathajodi, près de Bhubaneswar, Puri and Konark, c est une des villes les plus anciennes de l Inde. Son nom dérive du… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Cuttack — Cuttack(spr. köttäck), indobrit. Stadt, s.v.w. Katak …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Cuttack —   [kʌ tæk, kʌtæk], Stadt im Bundesstaat Orissa, Ostindien, am Beginn des Reis produzierenden Mahanadideltas, 403 000 Einwohner; Reisforschungsinstitut; Verarbeitung landwirtschaftlicher Erzeugnisse, Textilindustrie, Gold und Silberfiligranwerke.… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Cuttack — [kut′ək] city in E India: pop. 403,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Cuttack — /kut euhk/, n. a city in E Orissa, in NE India. 194,036. * * * ▪ India       city, eastern Orissa state, eastern India. Lying at the apex of the Mahanadi River delta, the city was the state capital until succeeded by Bhubaneswar in 1948.… …   Universalium

  • Cuttack — Original name in latin Cuttack Name in other language Katak, Kataka, Kattak, Kattake, katak, kataka, kataku, katk, kattak, ke ta ke, kutakeu, kuttaka, Катак, Каттак, Каттаке, State code IN Continent/City Asia/Kolkata longitude 20.46497 latitude… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Cuttack — Admin ASC 2 Code Orig. name Cuttack Country and Admin Code IN.21.1273781 IN …   World countries Adminstrative division ASC I-II

  • Cuttack — geographical name city E India in Orissa population 440,295 …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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