List of countries spanning more than one continent
This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent, sometimes referred to as transcontinental states. The definitions of what
continent(s) a particular countrycovers may vary according to which criteria are used (whether purely geographical or geological or, on the other hand, political, economic or cultural criteria). An example is Russia, which has its historical core as well as most of its population (72%), economic activity and political institutions (such as its capital city) in Europe, yet "geographically" most of the territory (71%) is actually in Asia.
borders of the continentsdescribes the details and disputes of continental boundaries, which are reflected in this list.
Separately listed below are 1.) countries whose contiguous continental territory or where nearby islands lie in two (or more) different continents, and 2.) distant non-contiguous parts lie on a different continent than the rest of the country.
Africa and Asia
Borders of the continentsfor more details about the geographical border between Africa and Asia."The border between Asiaand Africais considered to go along the Isthmus of Suez and the Suez Canalin Egypt. The border continues through the Gulf of Suez, Red Seaand Gulf of Aden. Yemencontrols Hanish Islandsin the Red Sea which lie beyond this border,Fact|date=September 2008 as well as Socotra, so it has non-contiguous island territory in Africa, but is not considered a transcontinental country.
Three of 29 governorates of
Egyptlie entirely on Asian Sinai Peninsulaand two are transcontinental: Ismailia Governorateis nearly equally divided by the Suez Canal, and Suez Governorate, which is coterminous with the transcontinental cityof Suez, has a small portion east of the Canal.
Asia and Europe
:"See Borders of the continents for more details about the geographical border between
Europeand Asia.":"See also Geographic criteria for EU membership."
Western sources, such as the National Geographic Society, usually state that the Europe-Asia boundary follows the watershed of the
Ural Mountainsto the source of the Ural River, then follows that river to the Caspian Sea. The border then follows the watershed of the Caucasus Mountains from the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea. This is the definition illustrated in this section, although variations exist.
Azerbaijan- situated in Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
* Georgia - situated in Eastern Europe and Western Asia. [As a
transcontinental country, Georgia may be considered to be in Europeand/or Asia. The UN [http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49regin.htm classification of world regions] places Georgia in Western Asia;CIA world factbook and " [http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9365466 Encyclopædia Britannica] " also place Georgia in Asia. Conversely, numerous sources place Georgia in Europe such as the European Union[http://europa.eu/abc/european_countries/others/georgia/index_en.htm] , BBC[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1102477.stm] , "Oxford Reference Online" [http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t186.e21064&srn=1&ssid=416740626#FIRSTHIT] , " [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/Georgia Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary] ", and [http://worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/eu.htm www.worldatlas.com] . Georgia is a Member of Council of Europe]
Kazakhstan- situated in Central Asia and Eastern Europe.
Russia- situated in Northern Asia and Eastern Europe.
Turkey- situated in Western Asia and Southeastern Europe.
The northeastern Azerbaijan district borders run mostly along the main Caucasus watershed. Five districts are entirely within Europe, and the transcontinental
Khizidistrict is almost equally divided on the two sides of the watershed. Azerbaijan is a member of the Council of Europe.
Georgia's regional borders cross the main Caucasus watershed perpendicularly in the east-central region of the country, though some of its subdivisional lines follow it. Georgia's three transcontinental regions are
Shida Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, and Kakheti.
The Java district of Shida Kartli is transcontinental (mostly in Europe) and the region's other four districts are entirely within Asia. The Kazbegi and Dusheti districts of Mtskheta-Mtianeti are transcontinental, with the
Khevisubdivision of Kazbegi and the Khevsuretisubdivision of Dusheti being entirely in Europe and the Mtiuletisubdivision of Kazbegi being transcontinental, and the region's other three districts are entirely within Asia. The Akhmetadistrict of Kakheti is transcontinental, with its Tushetisubdivision in Europe, and the region's other seven districts are entirely within Asia. Georgia is a member of the Council of Europe.
Kazakhstan's provincial borders don't follow the Ural River, although some of its western district borders do so. Two of the provinces are transcontinental,
Atyrau Provinceand West Kazakhstan Province. The capital of the former, Atyrau, is split by the mouth of the Ural and is a transcontinental city. Almost all of it is in Asia with a small portion in Europe. Two of Atyrau Province's districts are entirely in Europe, three of its districts are entirely in Asia, and its Inderskiy and Makhambetskiy districts are transcontinental. [ [http://www.brif.kz/eng/maps/atyrau_region.php www.brif.kz] ] Five of West Kazakhstan's districts and the province's capital city of Oral are entirely in Europe, five of its districts are entirely in Asia, and its Akzhaikskiy district is transcontinental. [ [http://www.brif.kz/eng/maps/west_kaz_region.php www.brif.kz] ]
Russian regions' borders follow the
Ural Mountainsand Ural Riverclosely enough. There is a very small area (less than 300 km²) of Russian territory south of the main Caucasus watershed in Asia. Orenburgon the Ural River is a transcontinental city. More detail on the political divisions through which the intercontinental boundary runs can be found here. Russia is a member of the Council of Europe.
Three of Turkey's provinces are entirely in Europe while Çanakkale and Istanbul are transcontinental provinces. Three of Çanakkale's districts are entirely in Europe and its other nine districts are entirely in
Asia. Nineteen of Istanbul's districts are entirely in Europe and its other twelve districts (forming Anatolia) are entirely in Asia.
North and South America
:"See Borders of the continents and
South Americapages for more details about the geographical border between the two Americas."
Most authorities and most Panamanians consider
Panamato be North America's southernmost nation, entirely within both Central Americaand North America. An alternative view is that the man-made Panama Canal, being a concrete line to demarcate the Isthmusof Panama, divides the continents. That would place Darién Provinceand four " comarcas indígenas" entirely in South America. Panamá Provinceand Colón Provincewould both be transcontinental, with Colón nearly equally divided between both Americas and Panamá Province unequally divided, with nearly a 1:4 ratio in South America's favour. A map of the locations of the districts of these two provinces and their area and population numbers is needed. The Pearl Islandsand TabogaIsland in the Gulf of Panamaare part of Panamá Province and would be associated with South America and North America, respectively. Six other provinces and the "comarca indígena" of Ngöbe-Bugléwould be entirely in North America.
Africa and Europe
:"See Borders of the continents for more details about the geographical border between
* Italy: Although mainland
Italy, Sardinia, Sicily, the Aegadian Islands, Ustica, and the Aeolian Islandsare associated with Europe, the closest land to Pantelleriaand the Pelagie Islandsis Tunisiaon the African mainland. They belong to the transcontinental Sicilian provinces of Trapani and Agrigento, respectively, and they are coterminous with the " comuni" of Pantelleria and Lampedusa e Linosa, respectively.
Maltahas been geopolitically European in modern times, but may be considered geographically associated with Africa. More detail may be found here.
Continental Portugalis in Europe, while the Azoresarchipelago (also associated with Europe) and the archipelago of Madeira(geographically part of Africa) in the Atlantic Oceanconstitute the Autonomous regions of Portugal. The Azores has two islands (Corvo and Flores) that are part of the American plate while the latter region also includes Porto Santo Island, the Desertas Islands, and the Savage Islands, all of which are in fact African islands.
* Spain: Although its mainland is in
Europe, Spainhas holdings (the Canary Islandsin the Atlantic and its " Plazas de soberanía" including Ceuta and Melillaon the African mainland) that are geographically part of Africa. They are considered Autonomous communities of Spain. The African Mediterranean island of Isla de Alboránbelongs to the transcontinental cityof Almeríaand the transcontinental province of Almería.
Asia and Africa
* Yemen: Although mainland
Yemenis in the southern Arabian Peninsulaand thus part of Asia, and its Hanish Islandsand Perimin the Red Seaare associated with Asia, Yemen controls the archipelagoof Socotra, which lies east of the horn of Somaliaand is much closer to Africathan Asia. Socotra and the mainland city of Adenconstitute the transcontinental 'Adan Governorate.
Asia and Oceania
Indonesia: Indonesia is commonly associated with Asia, Southeast Asiaor Malay Archipelago. However, eastern provinces of Indonesia from Wallace Lineto east are geographically associated with Oceania such as West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, North Maluku, West Papua and Papua. [ Indonesiais generally considered a territory of Southeastern Asia (UN region); wholly or partially, it is also frequently included in Australasiaor Melanesia. Maps or atlases usually include Indonesian portion of New Guinea( Irian Jaya) and Maluku Islands.
* East Timor:
East Timoris classified as Asian by the United Nations, [ [http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/maplib/worldregions.htm UN World Macro Regions and Components] ] and a member of the ASEAN Regional Forum. [ [http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/east-timor-asean-bid/2006/07/22/1153166635002.html smh.com.au] ] East Timor has applied for membership of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN), at which it is an observer; it is also an observer at the Pacific Islands Forum(PIF). Biogeographically, East Timor lies within Wallacea, an ecological transition zone between Asia and Australasia.cite book |last=Severin |first=Tim |title=The Spice Island Voyage: In Search of Wallace |publisher=Abacus Travel |year=1997 |location=Great Britain |id=ISBN 0-349-11040-9] The Portuguese sources, "Lello Universal" and "Enciclopédia Luso-Brasileira", described Timor as being in Oceania. The social organization of its tribal population is extremely similar to societies in Oceania. [Marcos, Artur. Timor Timorense - Com suas línguas, literatura, lusofonia. Colibri Editions, 1995. ISBN972-8288-11-5] The languages spoken in the territory are mainly Austronesian, the same group that comprises the languages of Maritime Southeast Asiawhich includes Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines, and also New Guinea which is usually considered as part of Melanesia. [ [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=TL Languages of East Timor] ]
Australia: The Commonwealth of Australiaconsists of its namesake continent and island possessions associated with Oceania, Asia, and Antarctica. Its Indian Ocean island possessions of Christmas Islandand the Cocos (Keeling) Islandsare associated with Asia. The majority of the ancestry of Australia's Asian island residents is Asian and the majority of them are Muslim or Buddhist.
* Japan: All of
Japanconsists of Asian islands except for the remote and uninhabited Minami Torishima, which is an Oceanian island and administratively part of the city of Tokyoand the subdivision of Ogasawara Village, along with other outlying Japanese islands to the south and southeast of the city.Fact|date=November 2007
North America and Oceania
* While the territory of the
United Stateslies overwhelmingly in North America, it includes the state of Hawaiiin Oceania, as well as other Oceanian island possessions and Alaskan islands on NE Asia's continental shelf.
North and South America
* Most geographic authorities delineate the land border dividing the Americas somewhere along the
Isthmus of Panama. The most common demarcation follows the Darien watershed along the Colombia-Panama boundary. A less common dividing line (but used herein) is the Panama Canaltransecting the isthmus; by that definition, Panamawould be reckoned to have territory in both continents. Panama City, Panama's capital, sits on the Pacific (southern) coast near the Panama Canal in the eastern (South American) portion of the country. Panama lies almost entirely on the Caribbean Plate, with a small portion on the South American Plate. Geopolitically and geographically, all of Panama is generally considered a part of North America alone and among the countries of North America.
* The sea islands division is more complicated. All
Caribbeanislands are often labeled as North American. The Dutch dependency Aruba, some parts of the Netherlands Antilles( Bonaireand Curaçaoislands), and the state of Trinidad and Tobagolie on the continental shelfof South America, and are considered South American. Venezuela's Isla Avesand the Colombian islands of San Andrés and Providenciaare geographically North American. Isla Aves is one of the Federal dependencies of Venezuelaunder the administration of the transcontinental cityof Caracas. North American Caribbean islands belonging to South American countries: South American Caribbean islands:
Aruba: Lies on the continental shelf of South America, and is thus considered to lie entirely in South America, but all Caribbean islands are often labelled as North American, and the language and cultural links are not to South America.
Colombiais in northwestern South Americaand Malpelo Islandin the Pacific Oceanis also associated with South America, but the nation also controls the San Andrés and Providencia archipelago, 400 miles WNW of Colombia's Caribbean coast, near the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua. This archipelago is coterminous with the department of the same name.
Netherlands Antilles: Bonaireand Curaçaolie entirely in South Americabecause of the position of the continental shelf, while Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maartenlie entirely in North America. Similarly to Aruba, its historical connections are with the other Caribbean islands that are often labelled as North American, and the language and cultural links are not to South America but increasingly because of tourism and the financial industry to other English speaking Caribbean nations.
Trinidad and Tobago: Lies on the continental shelf of South America, and is thus considered to lie entirely in South America, but all Caribbean islands are often labelled as North American, and the language and cultural links are not to South America but to the rest of the English speaking Caribbean nations.
Chileis mostly on the South American mainland and includes the Oceanian islands of Easter Islandand Sala y GómezIsland. They and the outlying South American Juan Fernández Islandsand Desventuradas Islandsare part of the Valparaíso Region.
Denmarkincludes the North American island of Greenlandand the Faroe Islandsassociated with Europe. Greenland was integrated into the Danish Kingdom in 1953 and home rulewas granted in 1979. For more information see " Rigsfællesskabet".
Franceincludes overseas departmentsin Africa ( Réunion), North America ( Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Pierre and Miquelon), and South America ( French Guiana). These entities have the same legal status as the departments of Metropolitan France. There are other island possessions associated with North America, Africa, Oceania, and Antarctica that are French overseas collectives or part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
Netherlandshas the Caribbean island possessions of the Netherlands Antillesand Aruba. While Aruba has self-government, the Netherlands Antilles are divided into special municipalities by island group. Parts of the Netherlands Antilles will be moving toward greater incorporation into the metropolitan Netherlands, while others for self-government soon.
These examples have integral parts associated with other continents.
France, Norway, South Africa, and the United Kingdommay also be considered transcontinental by virtue of distant island possessions associated with a continent other than where the country is based.
A number of nations claim ownership over portions of the continent of
Antarctica. Some, including Argentinaand Chile, consider the Antarctic land they claim to be integral parts of their national territory. Some nations also have sub-Antarctic island possessions north of 60°S latitude and thus recognized by international law under the Antarctic Treaty System, which holds in abeyance land claims south of 60°S latitude.
Borders of the continents
List of countries by continent
List of transcontinental empires and countries in history
* [http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=1136330434&men=ipda&lng=en&des=gamelan&dat=200&srt=pnan&col=aohdqcfbeimg#continents Transcontinental states according to World Gazetteer]
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