Cavendish Laboratory

The Cavendish Laboratory is the University of Cambridge's Department of Physics, and is part of the university's School of Physical Sciences. It was opened in 1874 as a teaching laboratory and was initially located on the New Museums Site, Free School Lane, in the centre of Cambridge. After perennial space problems, it moved to its present site in West Cambridge in the early 1970s. Physical Chemistry (originally the department of Colloid Science under Eric Rideal) left the Cavendish site earlier, subsequently locating with chemistry in Lensfield Road.

The current head of the Cavendish is Peter Littlewood. The Cavendish Professorship of Physics is currently held by Sir Richard Friend.

The Department is named after Henry Cavendish, a famous physicist, and a member of the Dukes of Devonshire branch of the Cavendish family. Another family member, William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire, was Chancellor of the University, and he gave money to endow the laboratory in memory of his learned relative.

As of 2006, 29 Cavendish researchers have won Nobel Prizes. [ [http://www-outreach.phy.cam.ac.uk/resources/nobel/about.php] — Nobel Prize Winners who have worked for considerable periods of time at the Cavendish Laboratory]

Nuclear physics

In World War II the laboratory carried out research for the MAUD Committee, part of the British Tube Alloys project of research into the Atomic Bomb. Researchers included Nicholas Kemmer, Allan Nunn May, Anthony French, and the French scientists including Lew Kowarski and Hans von Halban. Several transferred to Canada in 1943; the Montreal Laboratory and some later to the Chalk River Laboratories.

The production of plutonium and neptunium by bombarding uranium-238 with neutrons was predicted in 1940 by two teams working independently: Egon Bretscher and Norman Feather at the Cavendish and Edwin M. McMillan and Philip Abelson at Berkeley Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley.

Biology

The Cavendish Laboratory has had an important influence on biology, mainly through the application of X-ray crystallography to the study of structures of biological molecules. Francis Crick already worked in the Medical Research Council Unit, headed by Max Perutz and housed in the Cavendish Laboratory, when James Watson came from the United States and they made a breakthrough in discovering the structure of DNA. For their work while in the Cavendish Laboratory, they were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962, together with Maurice Wilkins of King's College London, himself a graduate of St. John's College, Cambridge.

Groups

Areas in which the Laboratory has been very influential since 1950 include:-

* Shoenberg Laboratory for Quantum Matter [http://www-qm.phy.cam.ac.uk/] (under Gil Lonzarich);
* Superconductivity Josephson junction (under A Brian Pippard);
* Theory of Condensed Matter, which is the dominant theoretical group.
* Electron Microscopy (under Archie Howie);
* Radio Astronomy (under Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish), with the Radio Astronomy Group's telescopes being based at Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory
* [http://www.sp.phy.cam.ac.uk/ Semiconductor Physics]

Nobel Prize winning Cavendish researchers

* Lord Rayleigh (Physics, 1904)
* Sir J.J. Thomson (Physics, 1906)
* Lord Rutherford (Ernest Rutherford) (Chemistry, 1908)
* Sir Lawrence Bragg (Physics, 1915)
* Charles Barkla (Physics, 1917)
* Francis Aston (Chemistry, 1922)
* Charles Wilson (Physics, 1927)
* Arthur Compton (Physics, 1927)
* Sir Owen Richardson (Physics, 1928)
* Sir James Chadwick (Physics, 1935)
* Sir George Thomson (Physics, 1937)
* Sir Edward Appleton (Physics, 1947)
* Lord Blackett (Patrick Blackett) (Physics, 1948)
* Sir John Cockcroft (Physics, 1951)
* Ernest Walton (Physics, 1951)
* Francis Crick (Physiology or Medicine, 1962)
* James Watson (Physiology or Medicine, 1962)
* Max Perutz (Chemistry, 1962)
* Sir John Kendrew (Chemistry, 1962)
* Dorothy Hodgkin (Chemistry, 1964)
* Brian Josephson (Physics, 1973)
* Sir Martin Ryle (Physics, 1974)
* Antony Hewish (Physics, 1974)
* Sir Nevill Mott (Physics, 1977)
* Philip Anderson (Physics, 1977)
* Pjotr Kapitsa (Physics, 1978)
* Allan Cormack (Physiology or Medicine, 1979)
* Sir Aaron Klug (Chemistry, 1982)
* Norman Ramsey (Physics, 1989)

References

External links

* [http://www.phy.cam.ac.uk/ Cavendish Laboratory website]
* [http://www.cam.ac.uk/map/v3/drawmap.cgi?mp=main;xx=692;yy=590;mt=c;sx=4;tl=Department%20of%20Physics%3B%20Cavendish%20Laboratory;gf=png Location of the Cavendish Laboratory] on the University map and [http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&hl=en&q=&ie=UTF8&t=k&om=1&ll=52.209231,0.092488&spn=0.001538,0.004962 on Google maps]
* [http://www.phy.cam.ac.uk/cavendish/history/ Cavendish history]
* [http://www.bluesci.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=262&Itemid=260 History of the laboratory]
* [http://www.archive.org/details/historyofcavendi00londuoft A history of the Cavendish laboratory, 1871-1910]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cavendish Laboratory — Laboratoire Cavendish Pour les articles homonymes, voir Cavendish. Le laboratoire Cavendish (Cavendish Laboratory) est le département de physique de l université de Cambridge. Il fait partie de l école de sciences physiques. Il a ouvert en 1874 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Cavendish Laboratory — Eingang des historischen Cavendish Gebäudes in der Innenstadt, Free School Lane Das Cavendish Laboratorium (engl. Cavendish Laboratory) wurde 1873 gegründet. Es ist das Institut für Physik an der englischen Elite Universität Cambridge. Es ist… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Cavendish Laboratory — a centre for scientific experiments in Cambridge, England. Since it was set up in 1871 many famous discoveries have been made there, including parts of the atom and the structure of DNA (= the substance in the human body that passes from parents… …   Universalium

  • (the) Cavendish Laboratory — the Cavendish Laboratory [the Cavendish Laboratory] a centre for scientific experiments in ↑Cambridge, England. Since it was set up in 1871 many famous discoveries have been made there, including parts of the atom and the structure of ↑DNA (= the …   Useful english dictionary

  • Cavendish — may refer to: * Cavendish banana, the dominant commercial variety of banana * Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge * Cavendish Tobacco, both a type and brand of pipe tobacco * Cavendish Motor Services, a bus company part owned by… …   Wikipedia

  • Cavendish, Henry — born Oct. 10, 1731, Nice, France died Feb. 24, 1810, London, Eng. English physicist and chemist. A millionaire by inheritance, he lived as a recluse most of his life. He discovered the nature and properties of hydrogen, the specific heat of… …   Universalium

  • Laboratory of Molecular Biology — The Laboratory of Molecular Biology (or LMB) is a research institute in Cambridge, England, which was at the forefront of the revolution in molecular biology which occurred in the 1950 60s, since then it remains a major medical research… …   Wikipedia

  • Cavendish Professor of Physics — The Cavendish Professorship is one of the senior Professorships in Physics at Cambridge University and was founded by grace of 9 February 1871 alongside the famous Cavendish Laboratory which was completed three years later. The endowment was… …   Wikipedia

  • Cavendish Astrophysics Group — The Cavendish Astrophysics Group (formerly the Radio Astronomy Group) is based at the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge. The group operates all of the telescopes at the Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory except for the 32m… …   Wikipedia

  • Cavendish , Henry — (1731–1810) English chemist and physicist Cavendish, who was born in Nice in the south of France, was the son of Lord Charles Cavendish, himself a fellow of the Royal Society and administrator of the British Museum. Henry was educated at… …   Scientists

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.