Treaty of Windsor (1386)


Treaty of Windsor (1386)

The Treaty of Windsor is the oldest diplomatic alliance in the world. The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance was renewed in 1386 with the Treaty of Windsor and the marriage of King John I of Portugal (House of Aviz) with Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt. With the victory at the Battle of Aljubarrota, John I was recognized as the undisputed King of Portugal, putting an end to the "interregnum" and anarchy of the 1383–1385 Crisis. Recognition from Castile would arrive only in 1411, with the signature of the Treaty of Ayton-Segovia. The treaty, which remains valid at the present time, established a pact of mutual support between the countries. Portugal used it against its neighbours in 1640, to expel the Spanish kings (House of Habsburg) from the country.

In breach of this Alliance, the British government delivered in 1890 an ultimatum to the Portuguese government, forcing it to retreat from that portion of Africa, coveted by Britain, known as the area of the Pink Map.

Portugal fought on the Allied side in World War I in accordance with the Treaty.

During World War II the UK invoked the treaty again to ensure that Portugal would not support the Axis Powers, and in 1943 the Portuguese dictator, Salazar, leased to Britain what became a major Allied air and naval base in the Portuguese islands of the Azores. Prime Minister Winston Churchill recounted reporting on the lease to the House of Commons:

"I have an announcement", I said, "to make to the House arising out the treaty signed between this country and Portugal in the year 1373 between His Majesty King Edward III and King Ferdinand and Queen Eleanor of Portugal." I spoke in a level voice, and made a pause to allow the House to take in the date, 1373. As this soaked in there was something like a gasp. I do not suppose any such continuity of relations between two Powers has ever been, or will ever be, set forth in the ordinary day-to-day work of British diplomacy. [Winston Churchill, Second World War, pp 146-7]

In yet another breach of the Alliance, when, in 1961, the Portuguese provinces of Goa, Daman and Diu were under assault by Jawaharlal Nehru's Indian Union army, Portugal requested the assistance of Great Britain, but it fell on deaf ears.

References

* [http://www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1007029394365&a=KCountryProfile&aid=1019061813652 Country profile of Portugal, Foreign and Commonwealth Office website]

ee also

*List of treaties
*Timeline of Portuguese history
*
*
*


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Treaty of Windsor — Several treaties are named Treaty of Windsor. The most famous one is the treaty of 1386, that formed the eldest allegiance in the world between Portugal and England.*Treaty of Windsor (1175) between England and Ireland see Norman Ireland *Treaty… …   Wikipedia

  • Windsor, Treaties of —    Various Anglo Portuguese treaties bear the name of Windsor. Among others were the treaties of 1386 and 1899. Signed at Windsor, England, on 9 May 1386, the former treaty confirmed the Alliance Treaty between England and Portugal of 1383 and… …   Historical dictionary of Portugal

  • 1386 — Year 1386 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.Events*February 24 Elizabeta Kotromanic, the mother of the overthrown Queen Mary of Hungary and Croatia, arranges the assassination of… …   Wikipedia

  • Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373 — The Anglo Portuguese Treaty of 1373 was signed between King Edward III of England and King Ferdinand and Queen Eleanor of Portugal. It established a treaty of perpetual friendships, unions [and] alliances between the two seafaring nations. It is… …   Wikipedia

  • History of Portugal — This article is part of a series Prehistoric Iberi …   Wikipedia

  • List of Portugal-related articles — The following is a list of Portugal related articles. Those interested in the subject can monitor changes to the pages by clicking on Related changes in the sidebar.:compactTOC0–91383–1385 Crisis · 1755 Lisbon earthquakeAA Portuguesa · Afonso I… …   Wikipedia

  • Porto — Oporto redirects here. For other uses of Porto and Oporto, see Porto (disambiguation). Coordinates: 41°9′43.71″N 8°37′19.03″W / 41.1621417°N 8.6219528°W …   Wikipedia

  • Naval Battle of the Tejo — Battle of Tejo Part of 1383–1385 Crisis Date July 1384 Location Tagus River, Lisbon, Portugal Result …   Wikipedia

  • History of Portugal (1279–1415) — History of Portugal caption=King Denis of PortugalThe Consolidation of the Monarchy in Portugal (1279 1415)1279 Until the Early 14th CenturyThe chief problems now confronting the monarchy were no longer military, but social, economic and… …   Wikipedia

  • Portugal — /pawr cheuh geuhl, pohr /; Port. /pawrdd too gahl /, n. a republic in SW Europe, on the Iberian Peninsula, W of Spain. (Including the Azores and the Madeira Islands) 9,867,654; 35,414 sq. mi. (91,720 sq. km). Cap.: Lisbon. * * * Portugal… …   Universalium


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.