John Newton (engineer)
John Newton (
August 25, 1822– May 1, 1895) was a career engineer officer in the United States Army, a Union general in the American Civil War, and Chief of the Corps of Engineers.
Newton was born in
Norfolk, Virginia, a city his father represented in the U.S. Congressfor 31 years, He ranked second in the United States Military Academyclass of 1842 and was commissioned in the Corps of Engineers. He taught engineering at the Military Academy (1843–46) and constructed fortifications along the Atlantic coast and Great Lakes (1846–52). He was a member of a special Gulf Coast defense board (1856) and Chief Engineer, Utah Expedition (1858).
Though a fellow Virginian, Newton did not follow
Robert E. Leebut stood firm for the Union. Newton helped construct Washington defenses and led a brigade in the Peninsula Campaign. In the Maryland Campaign, at South Mountain, he led a bayonet charge that resulted in taking the enemy position, and also fought at the Battle of Antietam.
As a division commander in the VI Corps, he participated in the
Battle of Fredericksburg. After that disastrous defeat, he and other generals journeyed to see President Abraham Lincolnand informed him of their lack of confidence in Army of the Potomaccommander, Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside. This was one of the causes of Burnside's relief in January 1863, but it also wounded Newton's career; his appointment to major general on March 30, 1863, was withdrawn the following year when his involvement was understood.
Battle of Chancellorsville, Newton was wounded at Salem Church. At Gettysburg, he replaced the slain Maj. Gen. John F. Reynoldsin command of the I Corps and led it through the defense of Pickett's Charge. He retained command of I Corps until the Army of the Potomac was reorganized in 1864 for Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign. The I Corps was dissolved, and Newton was sent to the Army of the Cumberland.
Atlanta Campaign, he commanded the 2nd Division, IV Corps, in Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas's command. He served under Sherman, who regarded him highly. At the Battle of Peachtree Creek, he prevented a dangerous Confederate movement against Sherman and his rapidly constructed works allowed him to turn back the Confederate thrust, a victory that put his official military career back on track.
After the capture of Atlanta, Newton left active field duty and commanded the District of Key West and the Tortugas of the Department of the Gulf from 1864 to 1866. His last campaign resulted in a defeat at the
Battle of Natural Bridgein Florida in March 1865, which temporarily enabled the Confederates to hold on to the state capital.
Returning to the Corps of Engineers, Newton oversaw improvements to the waterways around
New York Cityand to the Hudson Riverabove Albany. He also had charge of New York Harbor defenses until he was appointed Chief of Engineersin 1884. He is famed for blowing up New York's Hell GateRock with 140 tons of dynamite detonated on October 10, 1885. He retired from the Army in 1886 and served as Commissioner of Public Works, New York City (1886–88), and as President of the Panama Railroad Company(1888–95). He died in New York City and is buried at West Point National Cemetery.
* List of American Civil War generals
* Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., "Civil War High Commands", Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
* [http://www.hq.usace.army.mil/history/coe2.htm History of Corps of Engineers]
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