Stalinist architecture (also referred to as
Stalin's Empire style, StalinistGothic, or Socialist Classicism) is a term given to architectureof the Soviet Unionbetween 1933, when Boris Iofan's draft for Palace of Sovietswas officially approved, and 1955, when Nikita Khruschevcondemned "excesses" of the past decades and disbanded the Soviet Academy of Architecture.
In the Soviet policy of rationalization of the country, all cities were built to a general development plan. Each was split into districts, with allotments drawn based on the city's geography. Projects would be drawn up for whole districts, visibly transforming a city's architectural image.
The interaction of the state with the architects would prove to be one of the focal points of this time. The same building could be declared a
formalistblasphemy and then receive the highest praise the next year, [ as happened to Ivan Zholtovsky and his Bolshaya Kaluzhskaya, 7 in 1949-1950] Authentic styles like Zholtovsky's RenaissanceRevival, Ivan Fomin's St. Petersburg Neoclassical Revivaland Art Decoadaptation by Alexey Dushkinand Vladimir Schuko coexisted with pale imitations and eclectics that became a symbol of that era.
In terms of construction methods, most of the structures, underneath the rich wet
stuccowalls, are simple brick masonry. Exceptions were Andery Burov's medium-sized concreteblock panel houses (such as the "Lace building", 1939-41) and large buildings like the Seven Sisters which necessitated the use of concrete. The masonry naturally dictated narrow windows, thus leaving a large wall area to be decorated. Fireproof terra cottafinishes were introduced in the early 1950s. ["The Skyscraper", "Fortune", July-August 1930] though this was rarely used outside of Moscow. [Kuchino Ceramic Plant was built specifically for the 1947 Skyscraper Project; Russian: [http://retro.samnet.ru/skyscrapers/moscow_skyscrapers_2.htm Moscow Skyscrapers] ] Most of the roofing was comprised of traditional wooden trusses covered with metallic sheets.
Around 1948, construction technology improved – at least in Moscow – as faster and cheaper processes become available. Houses also became safer by eliminating wooden ceilings and partitions. The standardized buildings of 1948-1955 offered the same level of housing quality as the Stalinist classics and are classified as such by real estate agents, but are excluded from the scope of Stalinist "architecture". Ideologically they belong to mass housing, an intermediate step before
Stalinist architecture does not equate to everything built in Stalin’s era. It relied on labor-intensive and time-consuming masonry, and could not be scaled up to the needs of mass construction. When the time finally came to tackle the housing crisis, this inefficiency spelled the end of Stalinist architecture and a turn to mass construction while Stalin was still alive and active.
Although Stalin rejected Constructivism, completion of constructivist buildings extended through the 1930s. Industrial construction, boosted by Albert Kahn and later supervised by
Victor Vesnin, [Victor Vesnin, who in addition to his titles as head of Union of Soviet Architects and Academy of Architects, was also a lead architect for the Commissariat of Heavy Industries (since 1934). He was a formal supervisor of all industrial projects that didn't fall into Stalin’s personal scope of interest, although Vesnin's personal input to individual projects has not been studied properly] was heavily influenced by modernist ideas. It was not as important to Stalin's urban plans, so most industrial buildings (excluding megaprojects like the Moscow Canal) do not fall into the Stalinist category. Even the first stage of the Moscow Metro, completed in 1935, was not on Stalin’s watch list, and so included substantial constructivist input. [Russian: "Московскому метро 70 лет", World Architecture Magazine, no. 14, 2005, стр. 30-52 ("Moscow Metro, 70 Years", pp.30-52) [http://www.wamonline.ru WAM] ]
Thus, the scope of Stalinist architecture is generally limited to urban public and residential buildings of high and middle quality, excluding mass housing, and selected
infrastructureprojects like the Moscow Canal, the Volga-Don Canal, and the latter stages of the Moscow Metro.
Before 1917, the Russian architectural scene was divided between "Russky Modern" (a local interpretation of
Art Nouveau, stronger in Moscow), and Neoclassical Revival (stronger in Saint Petersburg).X] The Neoclassical school produced mature architects like Alexey Shchusev, Ivan Zholtovsky, Ivan Fomin, Vladimir Schuko and Alexander Tamanian; [The order of this list of names follows their formal standing in Stalin's hierarchy. Everybody was ranked and filed.] by the time of the Revolution they were established professionals in their forties, with their own firms, schools and followers. These people would eventually become Stalinism's architectural elders and produce the best examples of the period.
Another school that emerged after the Revolution is now known as Constructivism. Some of the Constructivists (like the
Vesnin brothers) were young professionals who had established themselves before 1917, while others had just completed their professional education (like Konstantin Melnikov) or didn't have any. They associated themselves with vocal groups of modern artists, compensating for lack of experience with public exposure. When the New Economic Policyturned the nation to post-war reconstruction, their publicity paid off in the form of real architectural commissions. Experience did not come overnight, and many constructivist buildings were fairly criticized for irrational floorplans, cost overruns and low build quality. ["Schools. 1954" (see ref below) makes an example of a 1928 "novel" school in Fili, which had a classroom-to-total space ratio as low as 30%. Volume per student approaches 40 cubic meters, while a 1935 national standard sets it at 16.5 cubic meters per student. This excess is not bad in itself, however, it came at cost of not building another school.] [Russian: Школы. Архитектура и строительство школьных зданий, Госстройиздат, М., 1954, стр.12 ("Schools, 1954", p.12)]
For a short period of time in the mid-1920s, the architectural profession operated the old-fashioned way, with private firms, international contests, competitive bidding and paper wars in professional magazines. Foreign architects were welcomed, especially towards the end of this period, when the
Great Depressioncut down their jobs at home. Among theses were Ernst May, Albert Kahn, Le Corbusier, Bruno Tautand Mart Stam. [Russian: A brief study of foreign architects in Russia by Dmitry Khmelnitsky [http://www.archi.ru/press/hmelnitsky/y2005m06d02.htm www.archi.ru] ] The line between traditionalists and constructivists was not clearly defined. Zholtovsky and Shchusev hired modernists as junior partners in their projects, [Zholtovsky hired Melnikov as his junior partner on the extensive housing project for AMO plant (1923). Zholtovsky and Shchusev managed the 1923 All-Russia Agricultural Exhibition, distributing pavilion construction jobs to junior architects of all styles.] and at the same time incorporated constructivist novelties in their own designs. [Zholtovsky - Moscow Electrical Powerplant (MOGES-1, 1927); Shchusev - Narkomzem office, 1928-1933] Urban planningdeveloped separately. Housing crises in big cities and the industrialization of remote areas called for mass housing construction, development of new territories and reconstruction of old cities. Theorists devised a variety of strategies that created heated politicized discussions without much practical output; State intervention was imminent.
The beginning (1931–1933)
"This section is based on Dmitry Khmelnitsky's "Stalin and Architecture" (Russian: [http://www.archi.ru/publications/virtual/hmelnitsky.htm www.archi.ru] )"
Stalin's personal taste in architecture and the extent of his own input remains, for the most part, a matter of deduction, conjecture and anecdotal evidence. The facts, or their reflection in public Soviet documents, revolve around the
Palace of Sovietscontest of 1931-1933:
*February 1931: Leading Soviet architects receive invitations to bid for the Palace of Soviets concept.
*June 1931: The Party Plenum authorize three megaprojects: the reconstruction of Moscow, the
Moscow Canaland the Moscow Metro.
*July 1931: Architects present 15 concepts for the first contest and a second, open, international contest is announced.
*February 1932: The prize for the second contest is awarded to 3 drafts (Iofan, Zholtovsky, Hector Hamilton). All modernist designs are rejected.
*March 1932: 12 architects receive an invitation to a third contest.
*April 1932: The Party outlaws all independent artistic associations. Victor Vesnin is assigned to lead the official Union of Soviet Architects.
*July 1932: 5 architects receive an invitation to a fourth contest.
*August 1932: Stalin (then in
Sochi) writes a memo to Voroshilov, Molotov and Kaganovich. He explained his vision of contest entries, picked Iofan's draft and proposed specific changes to it. This memo, first published in 2001, is the basis for all conjectures on Stalin's personal input.
*February 1933: The fourth contest is closed with no winner announced.
*May 1933: Public approval of Iofan's draft.
*September 1933: All Moscow architects are assigned to 20
Mossovetworkshops, most of them headed by traditionalist architects (Shchusev, Zholtovsky etc.).
The architects invited to lead these workshops included traditionalists - Ivan Zholtovsky, Alexey Shchusev, Ivan Fomin, Boris Iofan, Vladimir Schuko - but also practicing constructivists:
Ilya Golosov, Panteleimon Golosov, Nikolai Kolli, Konstantin Melnikov, Victor Vesnin, Moisei Ginzburgand Nikolai Ladovsky. This set an important trend that lasted until 1955. Stalin chose Iofan for one project, but retained all competing architects in his employ. As Dmitry Khmelnitsky put it, "Comparison with Nazi architectureworks to some degree, yet there is a major difference. Stalin never picked a single architect, or a single style, as Hitlerpicked Speer. No elite group could claim victory ... neither constructivists, nor traditionalists... Stalin forged his "Speer" from whatever he could find."
Another important point is that before cracking down on independent groups, Stalin's megaprojects created thousands of professional jobs. As a result, the once-vocal youth were absorbed into real-world practice, and abstained from discussions, just like their elders. They had jobs to do.
Pre-war Stalinist architecture (1933-1941)
Early Stalinism (1933-1935)
The first years of Stalinist architecture are marked by stand-alone buildings, or, at most, single-block development projects. Building up vast spaces of Moscow proved far more difficult than razing historical districts. The three most important Moscow buildings of this time stand on the same square, all built between 1931 and 1935, yet each draft evolved independently, with little thought given to overall ensemble (see prewar movie stills [http://www.landscape-design.ru/articlex.php?c=moscow-193x-194x&n=devushka-speshit-na-svidanie-mos4&p=devushka-speshit-na-svidanie 1936] [http://www.landscape-design.ru/articlex.php?c=moscow-193x-194x&n=novaya-moskva-model1&p=novaya-moskva 1938] [http://www.landscape-design.ru/articlex.php?c=moscow-193x-194x&n=podkidysh-mos3&p=podkidysh 1939] ). Each set its own vector of development for the next two decades.
*The Mokhovaya Street Building by Zholtovsky, an Italian
Renaissancefantasy, is a direct precursor of post-war exterior luxury (Stalin's "Empire" style). However, its size is in line with nearby 19th-century buildings.
*The Moskva Hotel by Alexey Shchusev. This line of development was uncommon in Moscow (a tower on top of
Tchaikovsky Hallwas never completed), but similar grand edifices appeared in Bakuand Kiev. Slim Roman arches of "Moskva" balconies were common all over the country in 1930s. After the war they persisted in southern cities but disappeared from the Moscow scene.
Arkady Langman's STO Building (later Gosplan, currently State Duma): a modest but not grim structure with strong vertical detailing. This style, a clever adaptation of American Art Deco, required expensive stone and metal finishes, thus it had a limited following - the House of Soviets in Leningrad, topped out in 1941, and TverskayaStreet in Moscow.
А separate line of development, called "early Stalinism" or "
Postconstructivism", [Russian: Хан-Магомедов С.О. Архитектура советского авангарда. — М.: 1996.] evolved from 1932 to 1938. It can be traced both to simplified Art Deco (through Schuko and Iofan), and to indigenous Constructivism, slowly migrating to Neoclassicism (Ilya Golosov, Vladimir Vladimirov). These buildings retain the simple rectangular shapes and large glass surfaces of Constructivism, but with ornate balconies, porticos and columns (usually rectangular and very lightweight). By 1938, it went out of style and didn't recover after the war.
Moscow Master Plan (1935)
Stand-alone projects threatened to become a mess of styles and sizes. In July, 1935 the State evaluated the results and finally issued a decree on the Moscow Master Plan. The Plan, among other things, projected a clear message of Stalin's urban development ideas:
*New development must proceed by whole "ensembles", not by stand-alone buildings.
*City block size should increase from the current 1.5-2 to 9-15 ha.
*New development must be limited in density to 400 persons per 1 ha.
*Buildings should be at least 6 stories high; 7-10-14 story on first-rate streets.
*Embankments are first-rate streets, only zoned for first-rate housing and offices [Russian: Постановление СНК СССР и ЦК ВКП(б) от 10 июля 1935 г. N 1435 "О генеральном плане реконструкции города Москвы" [http://www.smix.biz/docs_cccp.php?id=7154 text] ]
These rules effectively banned low-cost mass construction in the old city and "first-rate" streets, as well as single-family homebuilding. Low-cost development proceeded in remote areas, but most funds were diverted to new, expensive "ensemble" projects which placed
facades and grandeur above the real-world needs of overcrowded cities.
Moscow Canal (1932-1938)
Moscow Avenues (1938-1941)
In the late 1930s, the construction industry was experienced enough to build large, multi-block urban redevelopments - although all of these were in Moscow. The three most important Moscow projects were:
*Gorky Street (
Tverskaya), where Arkady Mordvinovtested the so-called "flow methode" of simultaneously managing building sites in different stages of completion. From 1937 to 1939, Mordvinov completed rebuilding the central stretch of Gorky Street to Boulevard Ring(with some exclusions like the Mossovetheadquarters).
*Dorogomilovo (including part of present-day
Kutuzovsky Prospekt). Unlike the uniform, tight rows of buildings of Gorky Street, Dorogomilovo road was lined with very different buildings, with wide spaces between them. It was an experimental stretch for Burov, Rosenfeld and other rising architects. These buildings were not as thoroughly engineered as on Tverskaya and wooden ceilings and partitions and wet stucco exteriors eventually led to higher maintenance costs. Yet it is here where the "Stalin's Empire" canon was forged, in its clearest form.
*Bolshaya Kaluzhskaya (now Leninsky Prospect), a similar greenfield development of standard block-wide buildings east of Gorky Park
All-Union Agricultural Exhibition (1939)
In 1936, the annual Agricultural Exhibition was moved to an empty field north of Moscow. By August 1, 1939, over 250 pavilions were built on 1.36 square kilometers. A 1937 statue by
Vera Mukhina, " Worker and Kolkhoz Woman", once a Soviet showcase at Paris Expo, was rebuilt at the entrance gates. Pavilions were created in the national styles of Soviet republics and regions; a walk through the exhibition recreated a tour of the huge country. The central pavilion by Vladimir Schuko was based slightly on the abortive 1932 Palace of Soviets draft by Zholtovsky. [This and other photographs, with Russian comments, available at [http://bcxb.ru/pavils/pavils39.htm www.bcxb.ru] ] Unlike the "national" buildings, it hasn't survived (central gates and major pavilions were rebuilt in early 1950s).
The surviving 1939 pavilions are the last and only sign of Stalin's monumental propaganda in their original setting. Such propaganda pieces were not built to last (like Shchusev's War Trophy Hangar in Gorky Park), some were torn down during
de-Stalinizationof 1956 and others simply fell apart.
Post-war architecture, sometimes perceived as a uniform style, was fragmented into at least four vectors of development
*Luxurious residential and office construction of complete regions such as the
Moskovsky Prospektin Leningrad and the Leninsky Prospektin Moscow.
*Major infrastructure projects (Metro in
Leningradand Moscow, Volga-Don Canal)
*Rebuilding war damage of
Kursk, Minsk, Kiev, Smolensk, Stalingrad, Voronezh, and hundreds of smaller towns
*And the drive for new, low-cost technologies to resolve the housing crises, evident since 1948 and the official state policy since 1951
*Building of new cities, especially in
Siberia: Novosibirsk, Kemerovo, Dzerzhinsk and elsewhere.
Residential construction in post-war cities was clearly segregated according to the ranks of tenants. No effort was made to conceal luxuries; sometimes they were evident, sometimes deliberately exaggerated (in contrast with Iofan's stern
House on Embankment). Country residencies of Stalin's near-royalty was on the top level; so was the 1945 House of Lions by Ivan Zholtovsky, [House of Lions was designed by Nikolai Gaigarov and M.M. Dzisko of Zholtovsky Workshop. Zholtovsky supersived and promoted the project] a luxurious downtown residence for Red Army Marshals. 1947 Marshals Apartments by Lev Rudnev, on the same block, is just a step down, also a top brass residence but in a less extravagant exterior package. There was a type of building for every level in Stalin's hierarchy. [A recent study of high-class housing stratification, by Tatyana Korepanova, in Russian, is partially available online at [http://www.glazychev.ru/shkola/diplomy/korepanova/diplom.htm www.glazychev.ru] ]
High-class buildings can be easily identified by tell-tale details like spacing between windows, penthouses and
bay windows. Sometimes, the relative rank and occupation of tenants is reflected in ornaments, sometimes - in memorial plaques. Note that these are all Moscow features. In smaller cities, the social elite usually fitted into just one or two classes; St. Petersburg always had a supply of pre-revolutionary luxury space.
Volga-Don Canal (1948-1952)
"This section is based on "70 years of Moscow Metro", a Russian edition of World Architecture Magazine, 2005. All station names are current, unless noted."
The first stage of Moscow Metro (1931–1935) emerged as just another city utility. There was a lot of propaganda about building it, but the subway itself wasn't perceived as a piece of propaganda. "Unlike other projects, Moscow Metro was never called "Stalin's metro"."Moscow Metro, 70 Years", p.30] Old architects [In particular, Zholtovsky refused to work for the Metro and never ever applied, although he consulted many junior Metro architects - "Moscow Metro, 70 Years" p. 30] stayed away from Metro commissions, clearing the road for the young. Attitudes changed when the second stage work started in 1935. This time, the subway was a political statement and enjoyed far better funding. [Kievskaya (1938) was the first to employ mosaic stone floors. This was later retrofitted to older stations, for example,
Kropotkinskaya(1935) that was built with plain asphaltfloor.] Second stage produced such different examples of Stalinist style as Mayakovskaya (1938), Elektrozavodskayaand Partizanskaya(1944). The stations built in 1944 were the first permanent Patriotic War memorial.
After the war, architects waited in line for the Metro contests; it took 6 years to complete the first post-war line (a 6.4 stretch of the Ring Line. These stations were dedicated to "Victory". No more
Comintern, ["Comintern" metro station was renamed Kalininskaya in December, 1946] no more World revolution, but a clear statement of victorious, nationalist Stalinism. Oktyabrskaya station by Leonid Polyakovwas built like a Classicist temple, with a shiny white-blue altar behind iron gates - a complete departure from prewar atheism. To see this altar, a rider had to pass a long row of plaster banners, bronze candlesticks and assorted military imagery. Park Kultury (2) featured true Gothic chandelliers, another departure. Metrostroyoperated its own marble and carpentery factories, producing 150 solid, whole block marble columns for this short stretch. The second stretch of Ring line was a tribute to "Heroic Labor" (with the exception of Shchusev's Komsomolskaya, set up as a retelling of Stalin's speech of November 7, 1941)."Moscow Metro, 70 Years", p.93-101] April 4, 1953, the public learn that a 1935 stretch from Alexandrovsky Sad, then "Kalininskaya", to Kievskaya is closed for good and replaced with a brand-new, deep-alignment line. No official explanation of this expensive twist exists; all speculations revolve around a bomb shelter function. One of the stations, Arbatskaya (2) by Leonid Polyakov, became the longest station in the system, 250 meters instead of standard 160, and probably the most extravagant. "To some extent, it is Moscow Petrine baroque, yet despite citations from historical legacy, this station is hyperbolic, ethereal and unreal"."Moscow Metro, 70 Years", p.103] Actually, its vaults are "parabolic".
Stalinist canon was officially condemned when two more stretches, to
Luzhnikiand VDNKh, were under construction. These stations, completed in 1957 and 1958 were mostly stripped of "excesses", but architecturally they still belong to Stalin's lineage. The date of May 1, 1958when the last of these stations opened, marks the end of all late Stalinist construction.
Seven Sisters (1947-1955)
Stalin's 1946 idea of dotting Moscow skyline with skyscrapers resulted in a January, 1947 decree that started a six-year-long publicity campaign. By the time of official groundbreaking, September 1947, eight construction sites where identified (one, in
Zaryadye, would be cancelled). Eight design teams, lead by the new generation of chief architects (37 to 62 years old), churned out numerous drafts; there was no open contest or evaluation commission, which is an indicator of Stalin's personal management.
All lead architects were awarded Stalin prizes in April, 1949 for "preliminary" drafts; corrections and amendments followed until very late completion stages. All the buildings employed overengineered steel frames with concrete ceilings and masonry infill, based on concrete slab foundations (which sometimes required ingenious water retention technology).
Skyscraper projects required a lot of new materials (especially ceramics) and technologies; solving these issues contributed to later housing and infrastructure development. However, it came at cost of slowing down regular construction, at a time when the country was lying in ruins. The toll of this project on real urban needs can be seen from these numbers:
*In 1947, 1948, 1949 Moscow built a total of 100,000, 270,000, and 405,000 square meters of housing.
*The skyscrapers project exceeded 500,000 square meters (at a higher cost per meter) [Russian: Горин, С.С., "Вершины сталинской архитектуры в Москве", "Строительный мир", N4/2001 ("Gorin, S.S.", Stalin's architectural summits), [http://www.stroi.ru/tsch/d2984dr392124m428.html www.stroi.ru] ]
Similar skyscrapers were built in Warsaw and Riga; the tower in
Kievwas completed without crown and steeple.
The upward surge of the Sisters, publicised since 1947, was recreated in numerous smaller buildings across the country. 8 to 12 story high towers marked the 4-5 story high "ensembles" of post-war regional centers. The Central Pavilion of
All-Russia Exhibition Centre, reopened in 1954, is 90 meters high, has a cathedral-like main hall, 35 meters high, 25 meters wide with Stalinist sculpture and murals. [Russians: History and images of 1954 Central Hall [http://www.bcxb.ru/pavils/descriptions/001_54.htm www.bcxb.ru] ]
Dual towers, flanking major city squares, can be found from Berlin to Siberia:
Independence Avenue in Minsk (1944-1959)
The urban architectural ensemble of Nezalezhnastci Avenue in Minsk is an example of the integrated approach in organizing a city's environment by harmoniously combining its architectural monuments, the planning structure, the landscape and the natural or man-made spots of vegetation. The Ensemble was constructed during fifteen years after World War II. Its length is 2900 metres. The width of the road including side-walks varies from 42 to 48 metees.
The work on the general lay-out of the former Sovietskaya Street began in 1944, immediately after the liberation of Minsk from the Nazi troops. The leading architects from Moscow and Minsk were involved in the project. In 1947, as a result of the competition, the project which had been developed under supervision of the academician of architecture M. Parusnikov, was selected for the implementation.
The project plan of the Nezalezhnastci Avenue ensemble has succeeded in escaping monotony. The lay-out provided for the main features of the town-planning ensemble - the length of the buildings facades, their silhouettes, the main divisions, and the general architectural pattern. The integrated building plan was based on the accommodation of innovative ideas into classical architecture. The survived pre-war buildings and park zones were harmoniously incorporated into the architectural ensemble.
At present all buildings which form the Nezalezhnastci Avenue ensemble are inscribed on the State List of Historical and Cultural Values of the Republic of Belarus. The architectural ensemble itself, with its buildings and structures, the lay-out and the landscape is protected by the state and inscribed on the List as a complex of historical and cultural values. In 1968 a National Prize in architecture was introduced and it was won by a team of architects representing architectural schools of Moscow and Minsk, (M.Parusnikov, G.Badanov, I.Barsch, S.Botkovsky, A.Voinov, V.Korol, S.Musinsky, G.Sisoev, N.Trachtenberg, and N.Shpigelman) for the design and construction of the Nezaleznosci Avenue ensemble. [ [http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/1900/ Architectural ensemble of Francysk Scaryna avenue in Minsk (1940's -1950's) - UNESCO World Heritage Centre ] ]
The most famous Stalinist architectural ensembles in Minsk are also in Lenina Street, Kamsamolskaya Street, Kamunistychnaya Street, Pryvakzalnaya Square and others.
Rebuilding Kiev (1944-1955)
1949 Stalin Prize
Stalin Prize for the year 1949, announced in March, 1950, showed a clear and present division of Stalinist architecture - extravagant, expensive buildings are still praised, but so are attempts to make Stalinist style affordable. The 1949 prize was given exclusively for completed apartment buildings, a sign of top priority. It also demonstrates clear class stratification of eligible tenants of this time. Three Moscow buildings received awards:
*Zemlyanoy Val, 46-48 by Yevgeny Rybitsky stands out in exterior luxury, even by 1949 standards. In addition to bay windows, it has elaborate rooftop obelisks, porticos and complex cornices. Even more is hidden inside. It was built for top MGB brass, with 200-meter apartments and a secure 2-level courtyard. Workforce included German POW's; wiring, plumbing and finishes used requisitioned German materials. [Russian: "Репрессированный дом"; probably, anecdotal evidence but very convincing [http://moskva.kotoroy.net/arch_press.php?id=70 www.moskva.kotoroy.net] ] In 1949, it was praised, in 1952 criticized,Russian: Цапенко, М.П., "О реалистических основах советской архитектуры", М, Госархстройиздат, 1952, стр.240-257 ("Tsapenko", 1952, p.240-254)] and in 1955 Khruschev personally labelled it as "a pinnacle of "excesses".
*Sadovo-Triumphalnaya, 4 by Rosenfeld and Suris is just one step below the ladder. Walls, deeply cut by bay windows and horizontal cornices, are finished in granite and terra cotta. Overall image is so heavyweight, it projects luxury as effectively as Rybitsky's work. A nice design feature is a second set of stairs for the "servants".
*Bolshaya Kaluzhskaya, 7 by Zholtovsky is one of the first recognized attempts to cut costs per unit, while retaining Stalinist standards of quality and masonry technology. Two-room apartments are small by Stalinist standards, yet with plenty of storage space and a smart floorplan that discouraged conversion of single-family units to multi-family
kommunalka. Externally, it's a flat slab with modest decorations following Zholtovsky's Florentine canon; no statues or obelisks, no bay windows. It was a sign of things to come.
The national republics of the USSR were entitled to develop their own Stalinist styles, with more or less freedom. When local forces were not enough, Russian architects were summoned (Shchusev designed an oriental-looking theater in
Tashkent, etc.). Alexander Tamanian, appointed as the chief architect of Yerevan, is largely responsible for the Armenian variety of Stalinist architecture. Stalinist architecture was, from around 1948 to 1956, employed in the post-war Eastern Bloc 'People's Democracies', usually after defeating internal Modernist opposition. This would sometimes show certain local influences, though was frequently regarded as a Soviet import.
Lev Rudnev's Warsaw Palace of Culture, which was dubbed a 'gift from the Soviet people', was perhaps the most controversial of the importations of Stalinist architecture. This vast, skyscraping tower, which is still the fourth largest building in the European Union, entirely dominated the city. However an earlier exercise in Neoclasssicism was the large MDM Boulevard, which was developed in parallel with the faithful reconstruction of the old town centre. MDM was a typical Stalinist 'Magistrale', with the generous width of the street often rumoured to be for the purposes of tank movements. The New Town of Nowa Huta outside Krakowwas also planned in Stalinist style in the late 1940s.
After the Soviet Victory over Nazi Germany, various grandiose war memorials were built in Berlin, including one in the
Tiergarten(using marble taken from Albert Speer's Reich Chancellery) and another, larger one in Treptow. The first major Stalinist building in Germany was the Soviet embassy in Unter den Linden. This was initially mocked by Modernists such as Hermann Henselmann, and until around 1948, East Berlin's city planning (under the direction of Hans Scharoun) was Modernist, as in the galleried apartments that made up the first part of a planned Stalinallee. However the government condemned these experiments and adopted the Russian style, and the rest of the Stalinallee was designed by Henselmann and former Modernists like Richard Paulickin what was disrespectfully dubbed "zuckerbackerstil" ('wedding cake style'). Similar, if less grandiose, monuments were designed in other cities, such as the new town of Stalinstadt.
Romania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and Hungary
Central buildings built in the overwhelming Stalinist manner also included the Casa Scânteii in Romania and the complex of the
Largo, Sofia, in Bulgaria. These were all pre-1953 projects, even if some were finished after Stalin's death. There were fewer examples in Czechoslovakia, although the Modernist architects and theorists such as Karel Teigewere hounded, while statues to Stalin were designed, one of the most grandiose of which was in Prague. In Hungary a Stalinist style was adopted in the town of Sztalinvaros. As in the USSR, Modernism returned in much of Eastern Europe after the mid-1950s, although there were exceptions to this in the most authoritarian regimes: the enormous Palace of the Parliamentin Bucharestis a very late example of neoclassicism, begun as late as 1984 and completed in 1990, shortly after the fall of Nicolae Ceauşescuin 1989.
East Asia, some examples may be found in North Koreaand China, e.g., the 's liking for the official residence of the British monarch.
Folding down (1948-1955)
A switch from Stalinist architecture to standard prefabricated concrete is usually associated with Khruschev's reign and in particular the November 1955 decree "On liquidation of excesses ..." (November, 1955).Russian: Постановление ЦК КПСС и СМ СССР "Об устранении излишеств в проектировании и строительстве", 04.11.1955. Give a better English version it you would...] Indeed, Khruschev was involved in cost-cutting campaign, but it began in 1948, while Stalin was alive and active. A turn to mass construction is evident in economy Stalinist buildings like Zholtovsky's Bolshaya Kaluzhskaya, 7. Based on masonry, they provided only a marginal gain; there had to be a technology breakthrough. In 1948-1955, various architectural offices conduct an enormous
feasibility study, devising and testing new technologies. [German POWs were heavily employed in post-war Stalinist construction; "German House" remains a sign of excellent build quality, as in Rybitsky's MGB house on Zemlyanoy Val. The extent of German input, and losses to construction process caused by repatriation of POW slaves, have not been studied yet. But it was among the factors leading to cost-cutting policies of 1948-1951.]
Frame-and-panel experiment (1948-1952)
In 1947, engineer
Vitaly Lagutenkowas appointed to lead the experimental Industrial Construction Bureau, with an objective to study and design the low-cost technology suitable for fast mass construction. Lagutenko focused on large prefabricatedconcrete panes. He joined rising architects Mikhail Posokhin(Sr.) [Posokhin (Sr.) was Chief Architect of Moscow in 1961-1980. His son, Mikhail Posokhin (Jr.) leads Moscow's largest Mospoyekt-2 firm since 1982. In 1960s, Lagutenko followed Posokhin (Sr.) up the career ladder.] and Ashot Mndoyants, and in 1948 this team built their first concrete frame-and-panel building near present-day Polezhaevskayametro station. Four identical buildings followed nearby; similar buildings where built in 1949-1952 across the country."Tsapenko", p.217, names Magnitogorsk, Sverdlovsk, Kiev "and other cities".] This was still an experiment, not backed by industrial capacity or fast-track project schedules. Posokhin also devised various pseudo-Stalinist configurations of the same building blocks, with decorative "excesses"; these didn't materialize. Concrete frames became common in industrial construction, but too expensive for mass housing.
January, 1951: Moscow Conference
It is not known for sure which Party leader personally initiated the drive to cut costs. The need was imminent. What is known is that in January, 1951, Khrushchev - then City of Moscow party boss - hosted a professional conference on construction problems. [Russian: Научно-техническое совещание по жилищно-гражданскому строительству, строительным материалам и проектно-изыскательским работам, М, январь 1951 (Сonference on residential and civil construction, construction materials, and design, Moscow, January 1951)] The conference decreed a transition to plant-made, large-sized concrete parts, building new plants for prefab concrete and other materials, and replacement of "wet" masonry technology with fast assembly of prefab elements. The industry still had to decide - should they use big, story-high panels, or smaller ones, or maybe two-story panels, as Lagutenko tried in
Kuzminki[Russian: "Комбинат, который открыл эпоху", Московская перспектива, N21, 29.05.2001. Lagutenko experimented with so-called "rolled concrete panels", which indeed were two storeys high. Experiment failed.] ? Basic technology was set, feasibility studies continued. A year later, this line of action - setting up prefab concrete plants - was made a law by the XIX Party Congress, Stalin attending. Major public buildings and elite housing were not affected yet.
Peschanaya Square (1951-1955)
A different line of experiments tackled improvement of project management, switching from a single-building to a multi-block project scale. This was tested live during the Peschanaya Square development (a territory north from 1948 Posokhin-Lagutenko block). Using "flow methode" ["Поточный метод" (flow methode) which was tested right before WWII by
Arkady Mordvinov(Gorky Street reconstruction). However, Mordvinov's project's scope was limited, far smaller than was required for mass housing.] of moving crews through a chain of buildings in different completion stages, and a moderate application of prefab concrete on otherwise traditional masonry, builders managed to complete typical 7-story buildings in 5-6 months."Tsapenko", p.219] Instead of wet stucco (which caused at least two months delay), these buildings are finished in open brickwork outside and drywall inside; and from a quality of life viewpoint, these are true - and the last - Stalinist buildings.
The end of Stalinist Architecture (November 1955)
When Stalin was alive, luxury "empire" and mass construction coexisted; support for Lagutenko did not mean demise for Rybitsky. It changed in November, 1954, when critics openly bashed the "excesses" and the will to build 10-14 story buildings, Stalin's own will; according to Khmelnitsky, [Russian: Дмитрий Хмельницкий, "Конец стиля. К пятидесятилетию гибели сталинской архитектуры" XIII-MMV - 27.03.2005, [http://www.projectclassica.ru/school/13_2005/school2004_13_01a.htm Project Classica] ] this had to be triggered by Khruschev personally. For the next year, the campaign grows, preparing public to a formal farewell with stalinism.
Decree "On liquidation of excesses..." (November 4, 1955) provides some data on the cost of Stalinist "excesses", estimated at 30-33% of total costs. Certainly, these examples were carefully hand-picked, but they are reasonable.
Alexey Dushkinand Yevgeny Rybitsky received a special beating for triple cost overruns and luxurious floorplans; Rybitsky and Polyakov were stripped of their Stalin prizes. This was followed with specific orders to develop standardized designs and install an Institute of Standardized Buildings in place of the former Academy.X]
Stalinist architecture agonized for five more years - work on "old" buildings was not a top priority anymore. Some were redesigned from scratch; some, structurally complete, lost all the "excesses". The story ended with completion of
Hotel Ukrayina(Kiev) in 1961.
The majestic Stalinallee in
Berlin, also completed in 1961, was conceived in 1952, and didn't have too much to lose: the scale and bulk of these buildings are definitely Stalinist, but the modest finishes lean to Jugendstiland Prussian Neoclassicism. The street would later be extended in an International Style idiom and renamed Karl-Marx-Allee.
Legacy and Revival
Certain buildings of the Brezhnev era, notably the
White House of Russia, can be traced to Stalin's legacy, while the Neo-Stalinist regime in Romaniaproduced a vast, late example of the style in its Palace of the Parliament, which was started in 1984. Deliberate recreations of his style have appeared in Moscow since 1996, either as infill into period neighborhoods, or as stand-alone developments. Some lean to pure Neoclassical or Art Deco; with a few exceptions, their architectural quality and role in urban development is disputed. Examples of the least controversial kind are:
Triumph Palacein Moscow, known as the eighth sister, is one of the most prominent buildings, with a silhouette identical to the Stalinist constructions.
*Roman Court (Римский Двор, 2005) by Mikhail Filippov; probably better classified as a neoclassical fantasy, yet related to early Stalinist buildings [More photographs, Roman Building [http://www.projectclassica.ru/m_classik/17_2006/17_classik_01a.htm Project Classica] ]
*GALS Tower (Cистема ГАЛС, 2001) by a team of Workshop 14 architects fills a gap between midrise period buildings on
Tverskaya. Not intended to dominate the neighborhood, it just marks the corner of a block. Despite mixed citations from Art Nouveau and Art Deco, it blends well with its Tverskaya setting [More photographs, GALS Tower [http://www.projectclassica.ru/m_classik/04_2002/04_classik_01a.htm Project Classica] ]
*Preobrazhenskaya Zastava (Преображенская Застава, 2003) is a whole block (308 apartments and retail stores) designed in early 1930s style approaching the Art Deco adaptations by of Iofan and Vladimirov. An unusual example which actually looks like a period piece, not a modern replica.
*Architecture of The Stalin Era, by Alexei Tarkhanov (Collaborator), Sergei Kavtaradze (Collaborator), Mikhail Anikst (Designer), 1992, ISBN 978-08-4781-473-2
*Architecture in the Age of Stalin: Culture Two, by Vladimir Paperny (Author), John Hill (Translator), Roann Barris (Translator), 2002, ISBN 978-05-2145-119-2
*The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful Shape the World, by Deyan Sudjic, 2004, ISBN 978-15-9420-068-7
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