official_name = Pontianak
nickname = Khuntien (
motto = Pontianak the Equatorial City with the Vision to be an International Trade Center with Quality Service
imagesize = 200px
image_caption = The equator monument.
map_caption = Location of Pontianak in Indonesia
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = Province
leader_name = Buchary Abdurrahman
established_title = Established
23 October 1771
area_total_km2 = 107.82
population_as_of = 2004
population_total = 516737
timezone = WIB
utc_offset = +7
latd=0 |latm=0 |lats= |latNS=N
longd=109 |longm=20 |longs= |longEW=E
website = [http://www.pontianak.go.id www.pontianak.go.id]
Pontianak is the capital of the Indonesia province of
West Kalimantan. It is a medium-size industrial city located at coord|0|0|N|109|20|E|, on the island of Borneo. It occupies an area of 107.82 km² in the delta of the Kapuas River, at approximately 1143 km, the longest river in Indonesia. It is located precisely on the equator.
The city was formerly the capital of the independent
sultanateof Pontianak and was founded in 1772around an old trading station on the Borneo coast. It is built on swampy ground that is subjected to regular flooding by the river, requiring buildings to be constructed on piles to keep them off the ground.
During the Japanese occupation of 1942 to 1945, more than 21,000 people in Pontianak (including women and children) were kidnapped, tortured and massacred by Japanese troops. Japanese intelligence had become concerned ethnic Chinese were planning to start a rebellion, and were worried that people in the city had received guns and ammunition from the Chinese government.
After the end of war, the Japanese officers in Pontianak were arrested by allied troops and brought in front of an international military tribune. During the trial, it was revealed that the plan to start the rebellion did not exist and instead was only an imaginary plan created by Japanese officers who wanted to get promoted. The massacre occurred from April 23, 1943 to June 28, 1944 and most of the victims were buried in several giant wells in
Mandor(88 km from Pontianak). Allied forces occupying the area after the war found several thousand bones, and more than 60 years after the massacre, several secret graves of the victims were found in Mandor and the surrounding areas.
A monument called Makam Juang Mandor was created to commemorate this tragic event.
Pontianak is renowned for its food and regional produce. The main industries are shipbuilding and the production of rubber, palm oil, sugar, pepper, rice and tobacco. It was formerly Borneo's main centre for gold extraction. Pontianak is also recognised for being a trade hub between overseas cities and other cities in
West Kalimantanprovince. It has also strong trade link with the city of Kuching, Malaysia. Trading activities are centered along the Kapuas River, which range from easternmost part of West Kalimantan province to South China Sea.
There are tens of primary schools and high schools operated by both state institutions as well as private and religious institutions. The
University of Tanjung Pura, a state university, was established in Pontianak in 1963. In addition to this, there are other universities maintained by private institutions, one of the most notable among them is Christianity-influenced University of Widya Dharma, STMIK (Sekolah tinggi Manajemen Informatika dan Komputer), University of Panca Bhakti, State Islamic collage (STAIN), POLNEP (Politeknik Negeri Pontianak), and Muhammadiyah University.
The 2000 census put Pontianak's population at about 526,600. Pontianak is a multicultural city. It has a large minority population of Chinese alongside the majority native Indonesians. In fact, Chinese form the largest single ethnic group in the city. Most Chinese are of either
Teochewor Hakkaextraction. Teochew is the main lingua franca used among the Chinese, and Teochew are the dominant ethnic Chinese group in Pontianak. Native Indonesians are mainly Malay and Dayak people. Madurese and Javanese are also significant minorities. Most citizens of Pontianak use Malay accent of Indonesian, which is somewhat similar to that used in Malaysia.
The equatorial line is marked by the Equator monument, which marks the division between the northern and
Place to see
Places to eat
Pontianak is renowned for its eating out places with different food available from morning to night. Due to its high number of Chinese, Chinese foods are in every corner of the city and not all are halal for Muslims.
Teochew dialect, a lingua franca of residents of Chinese descent in Pontianak
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Pontianak
* [http://www.pontianak.go.id Official site]
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