Learning management system

A Learning Management System. (LMS) is software for delivering, tracking and managing training. LMSs range from simple systems for managing training records to software for distributing courses over the Internet and offering features for online collaboration. In many instances, corporate training departments purchase LMSs to automate record-keeping as well as the registration of employees for classroom and online courses. Student self-service (e.g. self-registration on instructor-led training), training workflow (e.g. user notification, manager approval, waitlist management), the provision of on-line learning (e.g.
Computer-Based Training, read & understand), on-line assessment, management of continuous professional education (CPE), collaborative learning (e.g. application sharing, discussion threads), and training resource management (e.g. instructors, facilities, equipment), are some of the additional dimensions to leading Learning Management Systems.

Most LMSs are web-based to facilitate "anytime, any place, any pace" access to learning content and administration. LMSs are favoured by regulated industries (e.g. financial services and biopharma) where compliance training is essential.

Leading LMS providers seek to include integrated "performance management systems," which encompass such functionality as performance management (i.e. period-based appraisals), competency management, skills-gap analysis, succession planning, and multi-rater assessments (360 degree reviews).

For the commercial market, the development path for Learning and Performance Management Systems (LPMS) appears to be towards the inclusion of recruitment and reward functionality. With these enhancements in place, the complete lifecycle of student development, from recruitment to retirement, will be covered.

LMSs are based on a variety of development platforms, from Java EE based architectures to Microsoft .NET, and usually employ the use of a robust database back-end. While most systems are commercially developed and frequently have non-free software licences or restrict access to their source code, free and open-source models do exist. Other than the most simple, basic functionality, LMSs cater to, and focus on, different educational, administrative, and deployment requirements. Open source and web-based LMS software solutions are increasingly important.

Characteristics

LMSs can cater to different educational, administrative, and deployment requirements. While an LMS for corporate learning, for example, may share many characteristics with an LMS, or virtual learning environment, used by educational institutions, they each meet unique needs. The virtual learning environment used by universities and colleges allow instructors to manage their courses and exchange information with students for a course that in most cases will last several weeks and will meet several times during those weeks. In the corporate setting a course may be much shorter, completed in single instructor-led or online session.

The characteristics shared by both types of LMSs include:
* Manage users, roles, courses, instructors, and facilities and generate reports
* Course calendar
* Student messaging and notifications
* Assessment/testing capable of handling student pre/post testing
* Display scores and transcripts
* Grading of coursework and roster processing, including waitlisting
* Web-based or blended course delivery Characteristics more specific to corporate learning, which sometimes includes franchisees or other business partners, include:
* Autoenrollment (enrolling Students in courses when required according to predefined criteria, such as job title or work location)
* Manager enrollment and approval
* Boolean definitions for prerequisites or equivalencies
* Integration with performance tracking and management systems
* Planning tools to identify skill gaps at departmental and individual level
* Curriculum, required and elective training requirements at an individual and organizational level
* Grouping students according to demographic units (geographic region, product line, business size, etc.)
* Assign corporate and partner employees to more than one job title at more than one demographic unit

Learning content management system

A Learning Content Management System or LCMS is a related technology to the learning management system (e.g., WebCT), in that it is focused on the development, management and publishing of the content that will typically be delivered via an LMS. An LCMS is a multi-user environment where learning developers may create, store, reuse, manage, and deliver digital learning content from a central object repository. The LMS cannot create and manipulate courses; it cannot reuse the content of one course when building another. The LCMS, however, can create, manage and deliver not only training modules but also manage and edit all the individual pieces that make up a catalog of training. LCMS applications allow users to create, import, manage, search for and reuse small units or 'chunks' of digital learning content/assets, commonly referred to as learning objects. These assets may include media files developed in other authoring tools, assessment items, simulations, text, graphics or any other object that makes up the content within the course being created. An LCMS manages the process of creating, editing, storing and delivering e-learning content, ILT materials and other training support deliverables such as job aids.Fact|date=April 2008

The components of an LCMS are:
*content authoring/editing
*the ability to acquire and ingest externally developed assets
*a centralized repository
*assessment development
*versioning and history
*metadata / taxonomy support
*support for publishing of web, CD, print, presentation requirements associated with e-learning or ILT
*standards support
*development process management
*a dynamic delivery interface; and,
*Student administration tools

Learning management systems vs. learning content management systems (LCMS)

In addition to managing the administrative functions of online learning, some systems also provide tools to deliver and manage instructor-led synchronous and asynchronous online training based on learning object methodology. These systems are called Learning content management systems or LCMSs. An LCMS provides tools for authoring and re-using or re-purposing content (mutated learning objects) MLO as well as virtual spaces for student interaction (such as discussion forums and live chat rooms). Despite this distinction, the terms LMS is often used to refer to both an LMS and an LCMS, although the LCMS is a further development of the LMS. Due to this conformity issue, the acronym Clcims ("Computer Learning Content Information Management System") is now widely used to create a uniform phonetic way of referencing any learning system software based on advanced learning technology methodology.

In essence, an LMS is a high-level, strategic solution for planning, delivering, and managing most learning events within an organization, including online, virtual classroom, and instructor-led courses. The primary solution is replacing isolated and fragmented learning programs with a systematic means of assessing and raising competency and performance levels throughout a learning enterprise. For example, an LMS can simplify global certification efforts, enable entities to align learning initiatives with strategic goals, and provide a viable means of enterprise-level skills management. The focus of an LMS is to manage students, keeping track of their progress and performance across all types of training activities. It performs heavy-duty administrative tasks, such as reporting to instructors, HR and other ERP systems but isn’t generally used to create course content.

In contrast, the focus of an LCMS is a strategic solution for managing learning content across an organization's various training development areas. It provides developers, authors, instructional designers, and subject matter experts the means to create and re-use e-learning content more efficiently and reduce duplicated development efforts.

Primary business problems an LCMS solves are
* centralized management of an organizations learning content for efficient searching and retrieval,
* productivity gains around rapid and condensed development timelines,
* productivity gains around assembly, maintenance and publishing / branding / delivery of learning content.

Rather than developing entire courses and adapting them to multiple audiences, an LCMS provides the ability for single course instances to be modified and republished for various audiences maintaining versions and history. The objects stored in the centralized repository can be made available to course developers and content experts throughout an organization for potential reuse and repurpose. This eliminates duplicate development efforts and allows for the rapid assembly of customized content.

Learning Management Industry

In the relatively new LMS market, commercial vendors for corporate and education applications range from new entrants to those that entered the market in the nineties. In addition to commercial packages, many open source solutions are available.

In 2005, LMSs represented a fragmented $500 million market. [ [http://www.clomedia.com/content/templates/clo_article.asp?articleid=1267&zoneid=101 CLO magazine] ] The six largest LMS product companies constitute approximately 43% of the market. In addition to the remaining smaller LMS product vendors, training outsourcing firms, enterprise resource planning vendors, and consulting firms all compete for part of the learning management market.

LMS buyers generally report poor satisfaction based on survey results from the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) [ [http://www.learningcircuits.org/2006/August/2006LMSresults.htm 2006LMSresults ] ] and the eLearningGuild [http://elearningtech.blogspot.com/2007/09/lms-satisfaction-features-and-barriers.html] . The ASTD respondents were very unsatisfied with an LMS purchase doubled and those that were very satisfied decreased by 25%. The number that were very satisfied or satisfied edged over 50%. (About 30% were somewhat satisfied.) Nearly one quarter of respondents intended to purchase a new LMS or outsource their LMS functionality over the next 12 months. eLearningGuild respondents report significant barriers including cost, IT support, integration, and customization. They also report significant effort [ [http://elearningtech.blogspot.com/2007/10/lms-team-size-and-time-wow-23-months.html LMS Team Size and Time - Wow 23 Months! : eLearning Technology ] ] to implement with a median of 23 months being reported from requirements gathering to implementation for corporations with more than 2,000 employees.

Channel learning, is under-served. For many buyers channel learning is not their number one priority, according to a survey by TrainingOutsourcing.com [ [http://www.trainingoutsourcing.com/articles.asp?id=3815&fragment=0&SearchType=AND&terms=channel+training Business Strategy & Outsourcing : Intelligence Center : Articles ] ] Often there is a disconnect when the HR department oversees training and development initiatives, where the focus is consolidating LMS systems inside traditional corporate boundaries. Software technology companies are at the front end of this curve, placing higher priority on channel training.

Most buyers of LMSs utilize an authoring tool to create their elearning content, which is then hosted on an LMS. Buyers, however, must choose an authoring tool that seamlessly integrates with their LMS in order for their content to be hosted. There are authoring tools on the market, such as Lectora, which meet AICC and SCORM standards and therefore content created in tools such as these can be hosted on an AICC or SCORM certified LMS.

LMS platforms

Below is a list of some of the LMS platforms that are available.

Open source

* ATutor - Open Source Web-based Learning Content Management System
* Claroline - Claroline is a free LMS
* Dokeos - elearning and course management web application
* eFront - Open Source Learning Management System
* Fle3
* ILIAS - Open Source Learning Management System
* KEWL.nextgen
* LON-CAPA - Open Source Learning Management System with Linked Domains
* Moodle - Open Source Course Management System
* OLAT - Open Source Learning Management System
* Sakai Project - Collaboration and Learning Environment

Closed systems

* ANGEL_Learning -- ANGEL
* Blackboard -- Blackboard
* Desire2Learn
* eCollege -- eCollege
* Fronter - worldwide supplier of eLearning facilities
* Scholar360 -- Scholar360
* E-preceptor -- E-preceptor
* Webct -- WebCT Bought over Blackboard
* it's learning -- it's learning
* NEXPORT Solutions -- Nexport Solutions

See also

* AICC (CBT)
* Computer aided instruction
* Course Management System
* eLML - The eLesson Markup Language is an XML framework/LMS to create eLearning content
* Educational technology
* eLearning
* Electronic performance support systems
* History of virtual learning environments
* Learning Content Management System
* Lifelong Learning
* LAMS
* LCMS
* Managed learning environment
* Knowledge capture
* SCORM
* Virtual learning environment
* Digication

Notes

External links

* [http://elearningtech.blogspot.com/2007/09/lms-satisfaction-features-and-barriers.html LMS Satisfaction Features and Barriers]
* [http://elearningtech.blogspot.com/2007/10/lms-team-size-and-time-wow-23-months.html LMS Team Size and Time]
* [http://directory.fsf.org/category/educ/ FSF]
* [http://www.ariadne-eu.org/ Ariadne]
* [http://dir.wolfram.org/learning_management_systems.html Learning Management Systems Research] - private collection
* [http://www.learningcircuits.org/NR/exeres/72E3F68C-4047-4379-8454-2B88C9D38FC5.htm LMS and LCMS: What's the Difference?] - good overview of comparison
* [http://www.nexportsolutions.com/ NEXPORT Solutions] - NEXPORT Solutions Homepage


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