Jamestown, New York
Jamestown — City — Nickname(s): The Pearl City Coordinates: Coordinates: Country United States State New York County Chautauqua Founded 1810 Incorporated (village) 1827 Incorporated (city) April 19, 1886 Government – Type Mayor-Council – Mayor Samuel Teresi (D) – Common Council Area – Total 9.1 sq mi (23.5 km2) – Land 9.0 sq mi (22.94 km2) – Water 0.1 sq mi (0.217 km2) Elevation 1,378 ft (420 m) Population (Census 2010) – Total 31,146 – Density 3,534.6/sq mi (1,364.3/km2) Time zone EST (UTC-5) – Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4) ZIP codes 14701, 14702 Area code(s) 716 Twin Cities – Jakobstad Finland – Đakovica Kosovo – Cantù Italy FIPS code 36-38264 GNIS feature ID 0953925
The City of Jamestown is adjacent to Town of Ellicott and is at the southern tip of Chautauqua Lake. The town of Chautauqua, home of the Chautauqua Institution, is 17 miles (27 km) northwest of Jamestown.
The city has been a center for the manufacture of wood products such as furniture as well as a major producer of mattresses. The town was once called the "Furniture Capital of the World." Although many of these industries have migrated away from the area in recent times, Jamestown still retains a few large manufacturing plants for various multinational corporations. The city has a large concentration of citizens of Swedish and Italian ancestry.
Jamestown is noted as the birthplace of actress and comedienne Lucille Ball, as well as the childhood hometown of the fictitious Lucy Ricardo formerly Lucy McGillicuddy, her character on the popular U.S. television sitcom I Love Lucy (CBS, 1951–1960). Jamestown houses the Lucille Ball Museum and festival twice yearly, once in May and once in August. Other notable famous residents of Jamestown include Roger Tory Peterson, and the institute named after him. Robert H. Jackson, who became Attorney General of the United States, a U.S. Supreme Court justice and the chief prosecutor at Nuremberg Trials of Nazi war criminals, graduated from Jamestown High School in 1910 and lived and practiced law in Jamestown from then until he moved to Washington in 1934. Singer Natalie Merchant and the band 10,000 Maniacs also originated in Jamestown. The Maniacs' gold and platinum records hang on the wall of Jamestown City Hall. Current NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell was born in Jamestown.
- 1 History
- 2 Gallery
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Government
- 5 Culture
- 6 Major employers
- 7 Education
- 8 Transportation
- 9 Proposed power plant
- 10 Notable people
- 11 Radio stations
- 12 References
- 13 Bibliography
- 14 External links
Jamestown, New York, is named after James Prendergast, an early Chautauqua County settler. His family had purchased 3,500 acres (14 km2) in 1806, in the area now known as Chautauqua County. James Prendergast explored the area that is now Jamestown. Prendergast saw the area to be valuable, and so he purchased 1,000 acres (4.0 km2) of land in the area in 1808. In the fall of 1809, Prendergast and an employee, John Blowers built a log cabin, which became the first building in Jamestown. Another log cabin as well as mills and a dam were built later on.
In 1855, Nightwatch was created for the purpose of looking out for fires.
Jamestown was incorporated into a village in 1827 and incorporated into a city on April 19, 1886. Oscar F. Price was elected as the first mayor of the city on April 13, 1886. James Murray was appointed to be the first Chief of Police and would lead a force of six police officers.
In 1887, Jamestown Electric Light and Power Company, Art Metal, and WCA Hospital were established. In 1888, Jamestown Woolen Spinning Co. established; cornerstone of Holy Trinity Lutheran Church laid. In 1889, the American Aristotype Co. was established. The first electric trolley car in Jamestown made its appearance in 1890. In 1891, a fire destroyed the Old Homestead Hotel at Third and Pine Streets and four people died. James Prendergast Library and the Municipal Light Plant were established the same year.
In 1892, Chautauqua Worsted mills was formed. In 1893, Jamestown Veneer Works was started by Nathan Wilson and Jamestown's first ice cream company started making Collins Ice Cream. In 1895, the cornerstone of City Hall was laid and the City Council decided to lay no more wooden sidewalks. Eleazer Green is elected mayor the same year. In 1896, Empire Worsted Mills was formed. In 1898, Chautauqua Towel Mills was opened. In 1899, Henry H. Cooper was elected mayor. In 1900, Tinkham Brothers established their business, the Furniture Index was published, and the Hall Textile Corporation was formed. In 1903, Jamestown purchased a water system and the J.P. Danielson Tool Co. was organized. In 1906, James L. Weeks was elected mayor. In 1907, the Crescent Tool Company was started by Karl Peterson and Charles F. Falldine. In 1908, Samuel A. Carlson was elected mayor. Music Study Club and Jamestown Symphony Orchestra began the same year.
In 1910, the excavation began for construction of Jamestown General Hospital, which still stands in the present day. In 1911, the Norden Club was started. On August 6, actress Lucille Ball was born in Jamestown. The first plane to ever fly over Jamestown occurred on September 28, 1911. The Norden Clubhouse was completed in 1914. On April 8, 1917, Company E left for guard duty. The Emerson Glass Company started the same year. In 1918, Jamestown Corp. formed to make airplane propellers. A steam ship, the City of Pittsburgh sank at Boatlanding, also in 1918. On July 7, 1918, the death of Ira Lou Spring marked the first Jamestown man to die in France during World War I. In 1921, the Zonta Club was organized. In 1925, the Hotel Samuels was sold. In that same year, the Scottish Rite Temple was formally opened and taxpayers voted a $350,000 bond issue for the Third Street Bridge. The following year, Third Street Bridge was completed and it still stands today. In 1927, Jamestown celebrated the centennial of its incorporation as a village. Lars Larson was elected mayor the same year. Ine 1930, Samuel A. Carlson served as mayor once again. In 1931, a fire destroyed the old Martyn Factory. Also, the city purchases Niagara, Lockport and Ontario Power Company.
In 1932, the ground was broken for the new armory, the Erie Railroad station was dedicated, and the Community Chest was permanently formed. In 1933, Elk Furniture Company was sold. Also, Milton Carlson and Frederick Larson took over Jamestown Airport. The board of education assumed title to school forest. Also in 1933, city councilman Leon F. Roberts was elected mayor. In 1934, Jamestown Airport Corp. offered an airport to the city and the city secured the old armory as a relief center. As part of the New Deal program, the ground was broken for a new high school, which provided jobs during the Great Depression. In 1935, the Board of Education opened the new industrial arts building and City Council approved $314,000 airport for North Main Street site. In November, Jamestown High School was formally dedicated. In 1937, the Temple Hesed Abraham was dedicated and the Alfred Collegiate Extension Center opened with 80 students. In 1938, Harry C. Erickson became mayor and Jamestown General Hospital's maternity annex opened. In 1939, twelve local plans surveyed by the government to produce supplies in wartime. Also, the city's new airport formally dedicated.
In 1940, the PONY league baseball began and Co. E was inducted into federal service. In 1941, Jamestown Municipal Stadium was dedicated and Samuel A. Stroth was elected mayor. In 1942, East Second Street widening was ordered and flames destroyed the old state armory. In 1945, Jamestown was hit by a tornado. In 1946, Dr. Carlyle C. Ring was named superintendent of schools. C.C. Ring Elementary School presently stands, in his honor. In 1950, Jamestown Community College was opened.
In 1951, Stanley A. Weeks was elected mayor and the addition to the municipal power plant was opened. In 1954, Samuel A. Stroth was elected mayor and Allegheny Airlines began east-west flight via Jamestown. In 1955, Carl F. Sanford was elected mayor. In 1956, Lucy and Desi Arnaz visited Jamestown. In 1957, a $400,000 runway improvement to Jamestown Municipal Airport was added. In 1958, a new sewage disposal plant was opened, Buffalo Street pumping station was modernized, and a new wing opened at Jamestown General Hospital. In 1959, Jamestown's new post office was started. In 1960, Jamestown celebrated the sesquicentennial of first house erected here. That same year, Mohawk Airlines started to serve Jamestown.
In 1961, Jamestown Community College moved into new Falconer Street campus and William D. Whitehead was elected mayor. In 1963, the City's first parking ramp opened at Main and Second Streets and Frederick H. Dunn elected mayor. Additionally, Grandin Mills on Allen Street was destroyed by fire and singer Natalie Merchant was born in Jamestown. In 1964, the Washington Street Bridge was completed, . In 1967, an addition to Jamestown High School was completed. Also, Jamestown Community College opened a new Science and Engineering Building. In that same year, Charles B. Magnuson was elected mayor. In 1968, an addition to the James Prendergast Free Library was completed. In 1969, the Cherry Street parking ramp was opened, Rail service to Jamestown discontinued by Erie-Lackawanna Railway, Stanley N. Lundine was elected mayor, and the New Gustavus Adolphus Children's Home opened. In 1970, the Final approval was granted for the Brooklyn Square Urban Renewal Project. Throughout the 1970s, homes in Brooklyn Square were relocated as well as many stores and shops. In 1981, Burt Reynolds visited Jamestown while filming in Buffalo. A second Urban Renewal Project was proposed in 2006, and the project began in 2007.
Jamestown has hosted thirteen Babe Ruth World Series since 1980, and hosted the 13-Year-Old Babe Ruth World Series in 2008. The James Prendergast Library has regularly ranked in the top ten in the nation among those that service populations of 25,000-49,999, according to HAPLR, with a peak ranking of fourth in 2004.
As of the census of 2000, there were 31,730 people, 13,558 households, and 7,904 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,534.6 inhabitants per square mile (1,364.3/km²). There were 15,027 housing units at an average density of 1,673.9 per square mile (646.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 91.52% White, 3.39% African American, 0.64% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.8% from other races, and 2.16% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.94% of the population. 19.7% were of Italian, 18.1% Swedish, 12.8% German, 9.0% Irish, 8.7% English and 5.5% American ancestry according to Census 2000.
There were 13,558 households out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.1% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.7% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.94.
In the city the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, and 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 91.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $25,837, and the median income for a family was $33,675. Males had a median income of $30,003 versus $20,039 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,316. About 15.8% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.1% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over.
The executive branch consists of the mayor, (who is elected for 4-year terms without term limits), and the heads of the departments, most of them appointed by the mayor.
This section lists the mayors of Jamestown, New York.
# Mayor name Took office Left office Political Party 1 Oscar F. Price April 13, 1886 May 7, 1894 2 Eleazer Green May 7, 1894 April 11, 1898 3 Henry H. Cooper April 11, 1898 1900 4 J. Emil Johnson 1900 1906 5 James L. Weeks 1906 1908 6 Samuel A. Carlson 1908 1928 Republican 7 Lars Larson 1928 1930 8 Samuel A. Carlson 1930 1934 Republican 9 Leon F. Roberts 1934 1938 10 Harry C. Erickson 1938 1941 11 Samuel A. Stroth 1941 1951 12 Stanley A. Weeks 1951 1954 13 Samuel A. Stroth 1954 1955 14 Carl F. Sanford 1955 1961 15 William D. Whitehead 1961 1963 16 Frederick H. Dunn 1963 1967 17 Charles B. Magnuson 1967 1969 18 Stanley Nelson Lundine 1969 1976 Democratic 19 Steven B. Carlson 1976 1990 20 Donald W. Ahlstrom 1990 1992 21 Carolyn Gifford Seymour 1992 1994 22 Richard Kimball 1994 2000 Republican 23 Samuel Teresi 2000 Incumbent Democratic
The legislative body of Jamestown consists of nine council members, who are elected every two years without any term limits. Six council members represent each of the city's 6 wards, and 3 additional council members are known as councilmembers-at-large, representing the entire city. The table below outlines the current members of the Jamestown City Council.
Name/Party Elected Notes Gregory P. Rabb (D) At-Large, Council President Kimberly A. Ecklund (R) At-Large George S. Spitale (D) At-Large Stephen Szwejbka (D) Ward I Anthony Dolce (R) Ward II Michael A. Taylor (D) Ward III Vince DeJoy (D) Ward VI Maria B. Jones (D) Ward V Paul D. Whitford (D) Ward VI
The Fenton History Center is named after former resident Reuben Fenton, the twenty-fifth governor of New York. The Lucille Ball-Desi Arnaz Center is dedicated to the city's best-known daughter, Lucille Ball and is holding her 100 year birthday celebration in her honor in August 2011. The Robert H. Jackson Center exists to preserve the life and legacy of Robert H. Jackson. The Roger Tory Peterson Institute of Natural History continues the legacy of Roger Tory Peterson by promoting the teaching and study of nature, and to thereby create knowledge of and appreciation and responsibility for the natural world.
Jamestown was also home to the now-defunct Jamestown Vikings of the short-lived Mid-Atlantic Hockey League between 2007 and 2008.
Jamestown is also the current home of the Jamestown Chiefs.( Semi-Pro football team)
Currently, the city is home to the Jamestown Jets who are members of the Greater Metro Junior A Hockey League (GMHL) and are the only American team in this Canadian league. The Jets had previously belonged to the Northern Junior Hockey League (which itself was based in Jamestown) for the 2008-09 season where they won the season championship President's Cup and the United Junior Hockey League for the 2009-10 season. Both leagues are now defunct.
Jamestown High School's boys and girls basketball teams have both won numerous Sectional and Division titles, with the basketball team winning back to back Section VI titles in 2009-2010, 2010-2011 while reaching the NYSPHSAA Class AA State Championship in 2011. The High School Football team has been to four New York State Championships, losing in 1993, and winning in 1994, 1995, and 2000
Jamestown will host its 15th Babe Ruth World Series in August 2011.
The Jamestown area has a few large manufacturing plants that are major employers in this region. These include Bush Industries (makers of ready-to-assemble furniture), "Crawford Furniture" (makers of solid wood furniture) Cummins Inc. (manufacturer of diesel engines; the heavy duty engine plant is located in the Town of Busti, just west of Jamestown, but still called the Jamestown Engine Plant or JEP), SKF AeroEngine (formerly MRC Bearings), TitanX and Truck-Lite (makers of truck lighting systems) "Blackstone" (makers of sheet metal). Chain stores have opened in recent years in the surrounding area, including Walmart, KMart, Wegmans, Sam's Club, CVS, and Rite Aid. The Jamestown area used to have a chain of Grocery stores, "Quality Markets" (aka Bi-Low) , recently bankrupt, have now been bought out by TOPS Friendly Markets.
"The Connection" an outsource phone call center has become a major employer on the corner of Second and Washington Streets in Jamestown housed in the Furniture Mart building, and headquartered out of MN. Jamestown is the home of hot dog franchise "Johnny's Lunch", founded in 1936, now expanding into many other states. However, many of the places of employment are packing up and leaving at a growing rate. The unemployment rate shows this area to be one of the most economically depressed areas of NY State. Population decrease and job decrease have gone hand in hand in this area. Senior Citizens have claimed previous retail buildings in downtown area that have been revamped for senior housing.
WCA Hospital (Women's Christian Association) was founded May 23, 1885, and included a nursing school until Jamestown Community College filled the need with a 2 year RN nursing program. Though Jamestown General Hospital, still stands in the present day on Jones Hill, it is no longer public, and is now part of WCA, housing mental health units as well as laboratories. The main campus of WCA is on the corner of Allen St and Foote Avenue.
At present, the greater Jamestown area remains at the center of an impressive agricultural region. Among the area's leading producers are Welch's, Mogen David, Kraft Foods and Red Wing. Of all the counties in New York State, Chautauqua County has more farms than any other (about 2,200). Although its primary agricultural product is milk, Chautauqua County is also the State's greatest producer of wine and jelly grapes. The area's production of Concord grapes is one of the largest in the nation, second only to California.
Jamestown also houses a high school, Jamestown High School; three middle schools, Persell Middle School, George Washington Middle School, and Thomas Jefferson Middle School; as well as six elementary schools, C.C. Ring School, CV Bush School, Fletcher School, Abraham Lincoln School, Love School, and Rogers School.
The Red Raider Marching Band from Jamestown High School is one of the most traveled high school marching bands in the country, having been as far as Hawaii, and appearing on such shows as The Late Show with David Letterman. The Marching Band won the NY State Field Band Conference Championship in 1991, and has consistently placed in the top 10 at Bands of America competitions. They also played at the pregame show at the 2004 FedEx Orange Bowl. In December 2007 they traveled to Florida again, to play at the Citrus Bowl. They have traveled to New York City for the St. Patricks Day Parade. The other premiere music ensemble at JHS is the A Cappella Choir. An auditioned ensemble featuring students from grades 10-12, the A Cappella choir has had only 4 directors in their 85 year history, starting with Ebba H. Goranson in 1924, continuing with Donald B. Bube and Brian A. Bogey, all the way to the choir's current director Dr. Benjamin P. Bracey. The A Cappella has traveled and sung internationally at: Saint Michael's Cathedral in Toronto, Canada; Saint Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, Austria; the Cathedral in Salzburg, Austria that W.A. Mozart served as parish musician; Saint Paul's, Westminster, and Salisbury Cathedrals in England; and the Saint Anne de Beaupre and Notre Dame Basilica in Quebec City, Canada. In the United States the choir has traveled to Washington, D.C.; Boston Massachusetts; New York City; Walt Disney World, Florida, and Chicago, Illinois.
The Chautauqua County-Jamestown Airport (JHW) is north of the city and provides scheduled and charter air service.
Bus service is provided by Coach USA of Erie. Connections are available. to the Greyhound service in Buffalo. There is also a county wide bus service (CARTS) and taxi service through various companies.
Long distance railroads
Present day Jamestown is on the mainline of the Western New York and Pennsylvania Railroad which provides freight service. Amtrak provides a daily Thruway Motorcoach service between its Buffalo-Exchange Street Station and Jamestown.
Until the 1970s, four railroad companies traveled through Jamestown:
- Erie Railroad - main line passing through Jamestown (New York to Chicago)
The Erie Railroad's former Jamestown Station still exists, and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003.
Electric interurban - the Jamestown, Westfield and Northwestern
An electric interurban railroad—Jamestown, Westfield and Northwestern Railroad (JW&NW)—connected all three above towns (Jamestown-Mayville-Westfield) and ran along the north side of Lake Chatauqua. The JW&NW ended passenger operation in 1947, continued with freight, then quit entirely in 1950. Its rails and right-of-way have slowly disappeared.
Proposed power plant
Jamestown is the site of a proposed coal-burning power plant, for which Praxair, Inc. is seeking a subsidy from the United States Department of Energy. The plant, which would have an estimated cost of over $500 million, has been criticized by environmentalists and area residents. A study by an environmental consulting firm concluded that the cost of electricity from the proposed plant would be substantially higher than that of existing power sources, and higher than the cost of energy efficiency and wind alternatives.
- 10,000 Maniacs, rock band
- Brad Anderson, cartoonist
- Mitchell Anderson, actor from Doogie Howser, M.D.
- Lucille Ball, actress and comedienne whose birthplace was Jamestown, and whose childhood home is in nearby Celoron.
- Lorin Blodget, climatologist and financial writer
- Pandora Boxx, female impersonator and reality television personality (series RuPaul's Drag Race and RuPaul's Drag U)
- Nick Carter, singer from Backstreet Boys, was originally from Jamestown, though he grew up elsewhere
- William Feather, publisher and author
- Reuben Fenton, lumber merchant and governor of New York
- Charles Goodell, congressman and senator
- Roger Goodell, NFL commissioner, born and raised in Jamestown
- Junior Guilders, singing group connected with the local Lucille Ball Little Theatre
- Alva L. Hager, congressman
- Hayward A. Harvey, inventor and industrialist
- John B. Hayes, commandant of the U. S. Coast Guard
- Robert H. Jackson, U.S. Solicitor General, U.S. Attorney General, U.S. Supreme Court associate justice & Nuremberg chief prosecutor, graduated from Jamestown High School, lived and practiced law in Jamestown from 1910-1934, visited regularly when he lived in Washington from 1934-1954, and was buried following an October 1954 funeral at Jamestown's St. Luke's Episcopal Church.
- Laura Kightlinger, comedienne, writer and actress
- Stanley Lundine, politician, Mayor of Jamestown, Congressman, NY Lieutenant Governor
- Natalie Merchant, musician
- William Parment, politician
- Julie Anne Peters, children's author
- Roger Tory Peterson, naturalist, artist, educator, photographer and inventor of the Peterson Field Guides of birdwatching
- Irv Noren, Former American professional Baseball and Basketball player
- Jacob Riis, journalist, photographer, most known for book "How the Other Half Lives," lived and worked in Jamestown and surrounding area for several years
- Jackson Rohm, country/pop musician
- Ira Spring, photographer, author and hiking advocate
- Jud Strunk, singer/songwriter and comedian
- Davis Hanson Waite, governor of Colorado
- Walter Washington, first African American mayor of Washington, D.C., and its first elected mayor, grew up in Jamestown-
Radio stations in Dunkirk/Fredonia/Jamestown/Warren, NY-PA By FM frequency By AM frequency NOAA Weather Radio frequency162.425 · 162.525 · 162.550 By callsign Defunct
New York Radio Markets: Albany-Schenectady-Troy • Binghamton • Buffalo-Niagara Falls • Elmira-Corning • Hamptons-Riverhead • Ithaca • Nassau-Suffolk (Long Island) • New York City • Newburgh-Middletown (Mid Hudson Valley) • Olean • Plattsburgh • Poughkeepsie • Rochester • Syracuse • Utica-Rome • Watertown
Other New York Radio Regions: Jamestown-Dunkirk • North Country • Saratoga
Pennsylvania radio markets: Allentown-Bethlehem • Altoona • Bradford-Coudersport • Chambersburg-Waynesboro • Erie • Harrisburg-Lebanon-Carlisle • Lancaster • Montrose • New Castle • Philadelphia • Pittsburgh • Reading • State College • Sunbury-Selinsgrove-Lewisburg • Wilkes Barre-Scranton • Sayre-Towanda-Mansfield-Wellsboro • Williamsport • York
Other Pennsylvania radio regions: Bedford • Indiana • Johnstown • Lewistown-Mifflintown • Meadville-Franklin • Punxsutawney-DuBois • St. Marys-Emporium-Kane • Stroudsburg • Warren
21. Classic Trains magazine, Fall 2004 issue, p72, J D Ingles, Kalmbach Publishing, Wisconsin. photos/text/map.
- ^ a b c d e "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- ^ a b c d e f "History of Jamestown, NY". History of Chautauqua County, New York and its people. American Historical Society, Inc.. 1921. http://history.rays-place.com/ny/chau-jamestown.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-13.
- ^ a b "Police Department History". City of Jamestown Website. http://www.jamestownny.net/index.php/office-of-public-safety/police-department/history. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay "Chronology Of City's History". The Post-Journal. 28. pp. CT–15. http://www.prendergastlibrary.org/jamestown/jtntimeline.html. Retrieved 2008-03-13.
- ^ a b c Jamestown City Charter
- ^ [http://www.prendergastlibrary.org/Extra!Extra!/Steven%20B.% 20Carlson/76-3-15.pdf Carlson To Be Sworn In As Mayor of Jamestown]
- ^ Carlson Blasts Ahlstrom
- ^ Nineteen Candidates Emerge for Library District Board
- ^ "About the Mayor". City of Jamestown Website. http://www.jamestownny.net/mayor_about.php.
- ^ "City Council Members". City of Jamestown Website. http://www.jamestownny.net/index.php/city-council/members. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
- ^ Fenton History Center
- ^ Robert H. Jackson Center
- ^ Roger Tory Peterson Institute of Natural History
- ^ Jamestown World Series Central
- ^ Ingles, J. D. (Fall 2004). "p. 72S". Classic Trains magazine.
- ^ "Praxair to Seek DOE Funding for Oxy-Coal Project". Press release. Praxair. August 21, 2008. http://www.praxair.com/praxair.nsf/AllContent/D213CBF327494D37852574AC005C36EA?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
- ^ Sommer, Mark; Robinson, David (September 18, 2009). "Study is critical of Jamestown ‘clean coal’ plant plans". The Buffalo News. http://www.buffalonews.com/412/story/799361.html#. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
- ^ "Frequently Asked Lucy-Desi Questions". The Lucille Ball-Desi Arnaz Center, Inc.. http://www.lucy-desi.com/info/faq.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
- ^ http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/wait-walberg.html
- Middleton, Wm. D., The Interurban Era, 432pp, Kalmbach Publishing, Milwaukee. 1961, reissue 2000. (ISBN 0-89024-003-5)
- Middleton, Wm. D., The Time of the Trolley, Kalmbach Publishing, Milwaukee, WI.
- Ahlstrom, Harold, Jamestown and Chautauqua Lake Trolleys, Fenton Historical Society, Jamestown, NY. 1974. Softcover, 39 pages.
Municipalities and communities of Chautauqua County, New York Cities
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