Airline hub


Airline hub

An airline hub is an airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination. It is part of a hub and spoke model, where travelers moving between airports not served by direct flights change planes en route to their destinations. Many hubs of the airlines are also situated at airports in the cities of the respective head offices.

Some airlines may use only a single hub, while other airlines use multiple hubs. Hubs are used for both passenger flights as well as cargo flights.

Many airlines also utilize focus cities, which function much the same as hubs, but with fewer flights. Airlines may also use secondary hubs, a non-technical term for large focus cities.

For most non-US airlines, it is more technically correct to use the term home base rather than hub as a majority of their flights are international and the so-called hubs are simply their home countries' largest airports, such as Dubai International Airport for Emirates Airline or Singapore Changi Airport for Singapore Airlines. Indeed, the application of the term hub in such contexts is only recently popularized by American airline industry analysts and often contested by local commentators.

All 30 of the busiest airports in the world serve as hubs for one or more major airlines.Fact|date=March 2007

Fortress hub

A fortress hub is an airport dominated by a single airline that controls a share of flights at or above the monopoly standard of 70 percent of flights in and out of the hub. [cite paper |url= http://www.consumerfed.org/pdfs/abaair1.pdf |title = Freeing Public Pollicy from the Deregulation Debate: The Airline Industry Comes of Age |publisher = Consumer Federation of America |author = Dr. Mark N. Cooper |format = .PDF |date = 1999-01-22 |accessdate = 2007-03-17 |pages = 10 - 11 ] For example, in 2005 US Airways occupied 72 (plus 1 shared with Lufthansa) out of 85 total gates and accounted for approximately 90% of passenger traffic at Charlotte/Douglas International Airport. [Source: City of Charlotte & Mecklenburg County, May 2005; US Airways, June 2005 A fortress hub is difficult for new entrant carriers to penetrate.] [ cite web |url= http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/sr/sr255/apndx.pdf |title = Appendix A: Statement of Enforcement Policy Regarding Unfair Exclusionary Conduct |accessdate = 2007-03-28 |pages = 10 - 11 ] New entrants, such as Spirit Airlines at DTW, AirTran at ATL, and Vanguard at DFW, allege to have been the target of exclusionary practices by the dominant carrier. Some observers argue that the existence of such hubs can stifle competition; [http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/transportation/jan-june98/airlines_6-15.html ProAir's battle with Northwest] when it briefly flew out of Detroit City Airport is often cited as an example. Northwest was able to out compete the short-lived discount carrier by matching its fares and offering more frequent flights.

A few examples of fortress hubs for major US airlines include but not limited to:

* Charlotte/Douglas International Airport - US Airways
* Washington Dulles International Airport - United Airlines
* Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport - American Airlines
* Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport - Northwest Airlines
* Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport - Delta Air Lines
* Salt Lake City International Airport - Delta Air Lines
* Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport - Northwest Airlines
* Newark Liberty International Airport - Continental Airlines
* Houston George Bush Intercontinental Airport - Continental Airlines

Major passenger airlines and their hubs

Africa

* Afriqiyah Airways (8U) uses Tripoli International Airport (TIP).
* Air Algérie (AH) uses Algiers' Houari Boumedienne Airport (ALG) and Oran Es Senia Airport (ORN).
* Egyptair (MS) uses Cairo International Airport (CAI).
* Ethiopian Airlines (ET) uses Addis Ababa's Bole International Airport (ADD).
* Kenya Airways (KQ) uses Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (NBO).
* Royal Air Maroc (AT) uses Casablanca's Mohammed V International Airport (CMN).
* South African Airways (SA) uses Johannesburg International Airport (JNB) and Cape Town International Airport (CPT) (and to a lesser extent Durban International Airport (DUR).
* Virgin Nigeria (vk) uses Nigeria's Murtala Muhammed International Airport(LOS).

Asia

* AirAsia (AK) uses Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KUL).
* AirAsia X (D7) uses Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KUL).
* Air China (CA) uses Beijing Capital International Airport (PEK), Pudong International Airport (PVG) and Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport (CTU).
* Air India (AI) uses Mumbai-Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport (BOM), Delhi-Indira Gandhi International Airport (DEL), Chennai International Airport (MAA)
* All Nippon Airways (NH) uses Tokyo-Narita International Airport (NRT), Tokyo-Haneda Airport (HND), Osaka-Kansai International Airport (KIX), and Osaka-Itami Airport (ITM).
* Asiana Airlines (OZ) uses Seoul-Incheon International Airport (ICN) and Seoul-Gimpo Airport (GMP).
* Bangkok Airways (PG) uses Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi Airport (BKK) and Koh Samui-Samui Airport (USM).
* Cathay Pacific (CX) uses Hong Kong International Airport (HKG).(and to a lesser extent Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi Airport (BKK),Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport (TPE)).
* China Airlines (CI) uses Taipei Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport (TPE)(and to a lesser extent Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi Airport (BKK)).
* China Eastern Airlines (MU) uses Shanghai-Hongqiao International Airport (SHA), Pudong International Airport (PVG).
* China Southern Airlines (CZ) uses Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport (CAN) and Beijing Capital International Airport (PEK).
* Dragonair (KA) uses Hong Kong International Airport (HKG)
* El Al (LY) uses Ben Gurion International Airport (TLV).
* Emirates Airline (EK) uses Dubai International Airport (DXB).
* Etihad Airways (EY) uses Abu Dhabi International Airport (AUH).
* EVA Air (BR) uses Taipei Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport (TPE) (and to a lesser extent Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi Airport (BKK)).
* Garuda Indonesia (GA) uses Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (CGK), Bali-Ngurah Rai International Airport (DPS), Surabaya-Juanda International Airport, and Singapore Changi Airport (SIN).
* Gulf Air (GF) uses Bahrain International Airport (BAH).
* Japan Airlines (JL) uses Tokyo-Narita International Airport (NRT), Tokyo-Haneda Airport (HND), Osaka-Kansai International Airport (KIX), and Osaka-Itami Airport (ITM).
* Jazeera Airways (J9), a low-fare airline uses Kuwait International Airport (KWI) and Dubai International Airport (DXB).
* Jet Airways (9W) uses Mumbai-Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport (BOM), and Delhi-Indira Gandhi International Airport (DEL)
* Korean Air (KE) uses Seoul-Incheon International Airport (ICN) and Seoul-Gimpo Airport (GMP).
* Kuwait Airways (KU) uses Kuwait International Airport (KWI).
* Malaysia Airlines (MH) uses Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KUL).
* Middle East Airlines (ME) uses Beirut Rafic Hariri International Airport (BEY).
* Oman Air (WY) uses Muscat's Seeb International Airport (MCT).
* Pakistan International Airlines (PK) uses Karachi's Jinnah International Airport (KHI), Islamabad International Airport (ISB), and Lahore's Allama Iqbal International Airport (LHE).
* Philippine Airlines (PR) uses Manila Ninoy Aquino International Airport (MNL).
* Qatar Airways (QR) uses Doha International Airport (DOH).
* Royal Brunei Airlines (BI) uses Brunei International Airport (BWN).
* Royal Jordanian Airlines (RJ) uses Amman Queen Alia International Airport (AMM).
* Saudi Arabian Airlines (SV) uses King Abdulaziz International Airport (JED) King Khalid International Airport (RUH) and King Fahd International Airport (DMM).
* Shanghai Airlines (FM) uses Shanghai Pudong International Airport (PVG) and Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport (SHA).
* Singapore Airlines (SQ) uses Singapore Changi Airport (SIN).
* SriLankan Airlines (UL) uses Bandaranaike International Airport (CMB).
* Thai Airways International (TG) uses Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi Airport (BKK), Chiang Mai International Airport (CNX) and Phuket International Airport (HKT).
* Uzbekistan Airways (HY) uses Tashkent International Airport (TAS).
* Vietnam Airlines (VN) uses Tan Son Nhat International Airport (SGN) and Noi Bai International Airport

Europe

* Adria Airways (JP) uses Ljubljana International Airport (LJU).
* Aer Lingus (EI) uses Dublin Airport (DUB) and Cork Airport (ORK).
* Aeroflot (SU) uses Moscow-Sheremetyevo International Airport (SVO).
* Aerosvit (VV) uses Kiev-Boryspil International Airport (KBP).
* Airberlin (AB) uses Berlin-Tegel International Airport (TXL), Düsseldorf International Airport (DUS), Munich Airport (MUC), Nuremberg Airport (NUE) and Palma de Mallorca Airport (PMI).
* Air France (AF) uses Paris Charles De Gaulle International Airport (CDG).
* Air Moldova (9U) uses Chisinau International Airport (KIV)
* Alitalia (AZ) uses Rome Leonardo Da Vinci International Airport (FCO).
* Anadolujet (TK) uses Esenboğa International Airport (ESB).
* Austrian Airlines (OS) uses Vienna International Airport (VIE).
* British Airways (BA) uses London Heathrow Airport (LHR), London Gatwick Airport (LGW).
* Blue1 (KF) uses Helsinki-Vantaa Airport (HEL).
* Bmi (BD) uses Manchester Airport (MAN) and London Heathrow Airport (LHR).
* BmiBaby (WW), a low-fare airline, uses Birmingham Airport (BHX), Cardiff Airport (CWL) and East Midlands Airport (EMA)
* Brussels Airlines (SN) uses Brussels Airport (BRU).
* City Star Airlines (CA) uses Aberdeen Airport (ABZ)
* Condor Airlines (DE) uses Frankfurt International Airport (FRA).
* Croatia Airlines (OU) uses Zagreb Airport (ZAG).
* Cyprus Airways (CY) uses Larnaca Airport (LCA).
* Czech Airlines (OK) uses Prague Ruzyne International Airport (PRG).
* EasyJet (EZY) a low-fare airline uses Belfast International Airport (BFS), Berlin-Schönefeld International Airport (SXF), Bristol International Airport (BRS), Dortmund Airport (DTM), East Midlands Airport (EMA), Edinburgh Airport (EDI), EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg (BSL), Geneva Cointrin International Airport (GVA), Glasgow International Airport (GLA), Liverpool John Lennon Airport (LPL), London Luton Airport (LTN), London Gatwick Airport (LGW), London Stansted Airport (STN), Madrid Barajas International Airport (MAD), Malpensa International Airport (MXP), Newcastle Airport (NCL) and Paris Orly Airport (ORY).
* Finnair (AY) uses Helsinki-Vantaa Airport (HEL).
* Flyglobespan (Y2) uses Glasgow International Airport (GLA) and Edinburgh Airport (EDI)
* Iberia Airlines (IB) uses Madrid Barajas International Airport (MAD).
* Icelandair (FI) uses Keflavík International Airport (KEF).
* Jat Airways (JU) uses Belgrade Airport (BEG).
* KLM (Royal Dutch Airlines) (KL) uses Amsterdam-Schiphol International Airport (AMS).
* LOT Polish Airlines (LO) uses Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport (WAW).
* LTU International Airways (LT) uses Düsseldorf International Airport (DUS) and Munich Franz Josef Strauss Airport (MUC).
* Lufthansa (LH) uses Frankfurt International Airport (FRA) and Munich Franz Josef Strauss Airport (MUC).
* Luxair (LG) uses Luxembourg-Findel International Airport (LUX).
* Malév Hungarian Airlines (MA) uses Budapest Ferihegy International Airport (BUD).
* Martinair (MP) uses Amsterdam Schiphol Airport (AMS).
* Olympic Airlines (OA) uses Athens Eleftherios Venizelos Airport (ATH).
* Portugalia (NI) uses Lisboa Portela Airport (LIS).
* Ryanair (FR) a low-fare airline uses Dublin International Airport (DUB), Shannon International Airport (SNN), Cork International Airport (ORK), London Stansted Airport (STN), London Luton Airport (LTN), Bristol International Airport (BRS), East Midlands Airport (EMA), Prestwick International Airport (PIK), Liverpool John Lennon Airport (LPL), Frankfurt-Hahn Airport (HHN), Airport Weeze (NRN), Bremen Airport (BRE), Brussels South Charleroi Airport (CRL), Orio al Serio International Airport (BGY), Galileo Galilei International Airport (PSA), Rome Ciampino Airport (CIA), Marseille Provence Airport (MRS), Madrid Barajas International Airport (MAD), Girona-Costa Brava Airport (GRO), Valencia Airport (VLC), Alicante International Airport (ALC) and Stockholm-Skavsta Airport (NYO), Birmingham International Airport (BHX), Bournemouth Airport ,(BOU) and Belfast City Airport (correct as of January 2008)
* Scandinavian Airlines System (SK) uses Stockholm-Arlanda Airport (ARN) and Copenhagen Airport (CPH) [and to a lesser extent Oslo Airport, Gardermoen (OSL)] .
* Spanair (JK) uses Madrid Barajas International Airport (MAD) and Barcelona El Prat International Airport (BCN).
* Swiss International Airlines (LX) uses Zürich Airport (ZRH) (and to a lesser extent Geneva Cointrin International Airport (GVA)).
* TAP Portugal (TP) uses Lisboa Portela Airport (LIS) and Oporto Francisco Sá Carneiro Airport (OPO) .
* TAROM Romanian Air Transport (RO) uses Henri Coandă International Airport (OTP) as a principal hub and Cluj-Napoca International Airport (CLJ) as a second hub.
* Turkish Airlines (TK) uses Istanbul Ataturk International Airport (IST)
* Virgin Atlantic (VS) uses London Heathrow Airport (LHR) and London Gatwick Airport (LGW).
* VLM Airlines uses London City Airport (LCY).

North America (including Hawaii)

* Aeroméxico (AM) uses Mexico City International Airport (MEX). Aeromexico is the dominant carrier in Mexico,
* Air Canada (AC) uses Toronto Pearson International Airport (YYZ), Vancouver International Airport (YVR), Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport (YUL), and Calgary International Airport (YYC) as major hubs. [Hub Cities: Air Canada.com [http://www.aircanada.com/en/about/investor/documents/2006_AIF.pdf] ]
* Air Transat (TS) uses Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport (YUL), Toronto Pearson International Airport (YYZ), and Vancouver International Airport (YVR).
* AirTran Airways (FL), a low-fare airline, uses Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL) as its main hub, and Orlando International Airport (MCO) & Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (BWI) as secondary hubs.
* Alaska Airlines (AS) uses Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SEA), Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport (ANC), Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) and Portland International Airport (PDX).
* American Airlines (AA) uses Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD), Lambert-Saint Louis International Airport (STL), Miami International Airport (MIA) and San Juan's Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport (SJU).
* American Eagle Airlines (MQ) uses Chicago-O'Hare International Airport (ORD), Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), San Juan's Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport (SJU), Miami International Airport (MIA), Logan International Airport (BOS), LaGuardia Airport (LGA), and Raleigh-Durham International Airport (RDU).
* Continental Airlines (CO) uses Houston's George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH), Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR), and Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE).
* Continental Micronesia, a subsidiary, uses Guam's Antonio B. Won Pat International Airport (GUM).
* Delta Air Lines (DL) uses Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL),Salt Lake City International Airport (SLC), Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport (CVG), John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), and LaGuardia Airport (LGA).
* Frontier Airlines (F9), a low-fare airline, uses Denver International Airport (DEN).
* JetBlue Airways (B6), a low-fare airline uses John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK) and Boston's Logan International Airport (BOS).
* Mexicana (MX) uses Mexico City International Airport (MEX) and Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla International Airport (GDL).
* Midwest Airlines (YX) uses Milwaukee's General Mitchell International Airport (MKE) and Kansas City International Airport (MCI).
* Northwest Airlines (NW) uses Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport (MSP), Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport (DTW), Memphis International Airport (MEM), Amsterdam Schiphol Airport (AMS), and Tokyo's Narita International Airport (NRT).
* Southwest Airlines (WN), a low-cost airline, mostly runs point-to-point service, but has hub-like operations in Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (BWI), Chicago Midway Airport (MDW), Dallas Love Field Airport (DAL), Las Vegas's McCarran International Airport (LAS), Houston Hobby Airport (HOU), and Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (PHX).
* Spirit Airlines (NK), a low-fare airline, uses Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport (DTW) and Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL), Spirit uses the term "bases" instead of "hubs" to define Detroit and Fort Lauderdale.
* United Airlines (UA) uses Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD), San Francisco International Airport (SFO) (as its Pacific gateway), Washington Dulles International Airport (IAD), Denver International Airport (DEN), and Los Angeles International Airport (LAX).
* US Airways (US) uses Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (PHX), Charlotte/Douglas International Airport (CLT), and Philadelphia International Airport (PHL).
* Virgin America (VX), a low-fare airline uses San Francisco International Airport (SFO)
* WestJet (WS) uses Calgary International Airport (YYC) and Toronto Pearson International Airport (YYZ).

Caribbean

* Air ALM (LM) used Hato International Airport (CUR) as a hub
* Air Aruba (FQ) used Queen Beatrix International Airport (AUA) as a hub
* Air Caraïbes (TX) uses Pointe-à-Pitre International Airport] (PTP) as a hub
* Air Dominicana (RDO) uses Punta Cana International Airport (PUJ) as hubs
* Air Jamaica (JM) uses Montego Bay's Sir Donald Sangster International Airport (MBJ), Kingston's Norman Manley International Airport (KIN), and St. Lucia's Hewanorra International Airport (UVF) as its hubs
* Bahamasair (UP) uses Nassau's Lynden Pindling International Airport (NAS) as its hub
* Caribair (CB) uses La Isabela International Airport (JBQ), Las Americas International Airport (SDQ) and Cibao International Airport (STI) as Hubs
* Caribbean Airlines (BW) uses Piarco International Airport (POS) as a hub
* Caribbean Star (8B) uses VC Bird International Airport (ANU), and Sir Grantley Adams International Airport (BGI) as a hub
* Cayman Airways (KX) uses Grand Cayman's Owen Roberts International Airport (GCM) and Cayman Brac's Gerrard Smith International Airport (CYB) as hubs.
* Copa Airlines (CM) uses Tocumen International Airport (PTY).
* Cubana de Aviación (CU) uses Havana's José Martí International Airport (HAV).
* Dutch Antilles Express (9H) uses Hato International Airport (CUR) as a hub
* Dutch Caribbean Airlines (K8) used Hato International Airport (CUR) as a hub
* Grupo Taca uses Comalapa International Airport (SAL), and Juan Santamaría International Airport (SJO)
* Insel Air (7I) uses Hato International Airport (CUR) as a hub
* Leeward Islands Air Transport (LI) uses VC Bird International Airport (ANU), and Sir Grantley Adams International Airport (BGI) as a hub
* Pan Am World Airways Dominicana (7Q) uses Las Americas International Airport (SDQ) and Cibao International Airport (STI) as Hubs
* Servicios Aereos Profesionales (5S) uses La Isabela International Airport (JBQ), Gregorio Luperon International Airport (POP) and Punta Cana International Airport (PUJ) as Hubs
* Tiara Air (3P) uses Queen Beatrix International Airport (AUA) as a hub

Oceania

* Air New Zealand (NZ) uses Auckland Airport (AKL).
* Air Niugini (PX) uses Jacksons International Airport (POM).
* Air Pacific (FJ) uses Nadi International Airport (NAN).
* Air Tahiti Nui (TN) uses Faa'a International Airport (PPT).
* Jetstar Airways (JQ) uses Melbourne Airport (MEL).
* Qantas (QF) uses Sydney Airport (SYD) and Melbourne Airport (MEL).
* Tiger Airways Australia (TT) uses Melbourne Airport (MEL)
* Virgin Blue (DJ) uses Brisbane Airport (BNE), Sydney Airport (SYD) and Melbourne Airport (MEL).

South America

* Aero Continente used Jorge Chávez International Airport (LIM) as a hub.
* Aerolíneas Argentinas (AR) uses Ministro Pistarini International Airport (EZE) and Aeroparque Jorge Newbery (AEP) as a hub.
* Aeropostal Alas de Venezuela (VH) uses Simón Bolívar International Airport (CCS) as its hub.
* Austral Líneas Aéreas (AU) uses Aeroparque Jorge Newbery (AEP) as a hub.
* Avianca (AV) uses El Dorado International Airport (BOG).
* Gol (G3) uses Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Galeão - Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport (GIG), and to a lesser extent, Eduardo Gomes International Airport (MAO).
* Grupo Taca (TA) uses Jorge Chávez International Airport (LIM) as a hub.
* LAN (LA) uses Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport. (SCL). LAN Ecuador, a subsidiary, uses Jose Joaquin de Olmedo International Airport & Mariscal Sucre International Airport, LAN Peru, a subsidiary, uses Jorge Chávez International Airport (LIM).
* Santa Barbara Airlines (S3) uses Simón Bolívar International Airport (CCS) as its hub.
* TAM Brazilian Airlines (JJ) uses Guarulhos International Airport (GRU), Congonhas Domestic Airport (CGH) and Presidente Juscelino Kubitschek International Airport (BSB).
* Varig (RG) uses Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Galeão - Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport (GIG).

See also

* Focus city
* Former airline hubs
* List of hub airports
* Point-to-point transit
* Rolling airline hub
* Transportation hub

References

External links


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