Pressure sensitive tape

[
thumb|Duct tape is a PSA tape which is hand tearable yet strong enough for many common uses.]

Pressure sensitive tape, PSA tape, Adhesive tape, Self stick tape, Sticky tape consists of a pressure sensitive adhesive coated onto a backing material such as paper, plastic film, cloth, or metal foil. Some have a removable liner which protects the adhesive until the liner is removed. Some have layers of adhesives, primers, easy release materials, filaments, printing, etc. made for specific functions.

Pressure sensitive tape will stick with application pressure without the need for solvent, heat, or water for activation. By contrast a "gummed" or "water activated" tape requires warm water for activation. Likewise, some "heat activated" tapes require heat.

PSA tape is used in the home, office, industry, and institutions for a wide variety of purposes.

Single-sided tapes allow bonding to a surface or joining of two adjacent or overlapping materials. Double-sided tape (adhesive on both sides) allows joining of two items back-to-back.

PSA tape was invented in 1926 by Richard Drew of 3M.Fact|date=September 2008 The original tape was a paper-backed masking tape. Transparent and other tapes grew from this invention.

Varieties of PSA tape

*Transparent tape (or general purpose office tape) has a transparent film backing and an acrylic or synthetic rubber based adhesive.
*'Gaffer tape' is normally based on a heavy fabric or plastic tape. The name derives from its use by gaffers in the entertainment industry among others, to hold down cables particularly to obviate or prevent tripping hazard and to stop damage to the cables and equipment.
*Duct tape (sometimes referred to as "duck tape") usually has a fabric backing and many uses, but is mainly used by people needing to tear tape by hand.
*"Box sealing tape" ("Parcel tape", UK) is a type of packaging tape which is a clear or opaque used for closing packages for shipment. It is usually two inch (48 mm) or three inch (72 mm) wide and is made of a polypropylene or polyester backing.
*Masking tape is used to cover areas that shouldn't be painted. It usually has a paper backing and an adhesive designed to remove from surfaces (within a limited time).
*Electrical tape is made of materials like vinyl that do not conduct electricity.
*Surgical tape is an adhesive bandage used to hold a dressing on a wound.
*Double-sided tape is adhesive on both sides of a backing
*"Adhesive transfer tape" does not have a backing material
*"Filament tape" or "Strapping tape" has filaments (usually fiberglass) embedded into the adhesive for extra strength.
*Spike tape is a thinner version of gaffer's tape that is usually bright colored. Used to mark places of furniture or actors on a stage.
*Hockey tape is a cloth tape used for grip on hockey and lacrosse sticks.

Tape glossary

* Backing The primary component of tape upon which an adhesive is applied. Examples are cloth, paper, metal foil, film etc.
* Conformability. Ability of a tape to make total contact with a rough or uneven surface.
* Creped. Paper that has small "folds" to provide stretchability and conformability.
* Double-coated, or two-sided tape. Pressure-sensitive tape with adhesive on both sides of the carrier material.
* Gapping. Openings between layers of tape within a roll.
* Release coating. A very thin coating applied to the impervious tape backing so as to allow the tape to be unwound at a controlled level.
* Substrate The material which the PSA tape must adhere to
* Tack. The sticky feel of the tape. It is the initial adhesion without rub-down.
* Telescoping. A sideways sliding of the tape layers, one over the other, so that the roll looks like a funnel or telescope.
* Unwind. The force to remove or unwind the tape from a roll.

PSA Tape Standards

The PSA industry is in the process of unifying the several standards presently in use.The most active organizations are:

* ISO International Organization for Standardization - A European AFNOR committee is currently active in the definition of international standards; some of the most common test methods, such as Peel Adhesion, Static Shear Adhesion, Break Strength and Elongation are presently ISO standard
* [http://www.astm.org ASTM] : ASTM International has several Technical Committees which write standards related to pressure sensitive tape.
* [http://www.pstc.org PSTC] : Pressure Sensitive Tape Council (tapes, North America)
* [http://www.tlmi.com TLMI] : Tag & Label Manufacturers Institute (labels, North America)
* [http://www.afera.com AFERA] : European Association for the Self Adhesive Tape Industry (tapes, Europe)
* [http://www.finat.com FINAT] : Féderation INternationale des fabricants et transformateurs d' Adhésifs et Thermocollants (labels, Europe)
* JATMA : Japanese Adhesive Tapes Manufacturers Association

ASTM International has dozens of standards related to pressure sensitive tape. Some of them are for general types of PSA tape: Others are for specific types. For example ASTM D1000 has test methods for electrical tapes. There are ASTM specifications for many tapes including: D2301 for vinyl electrical tape, D5486 for box sealing tape, etc. Several of the ASTM test methods are coordinated with PSTC, other trade associations, and other international organizations.

Following are a few examples of some ASTM standards and counterparts:

Environmental considerations

Based on the solid waste hierarchy, the quantity and size of a tape should be minimized without reducing necessary functionality. Material content of a tape should comply with applicable regulations. Life cycle assessments of the tape and the item being taped are useful to identify and improve possible environmental effects. For example, there may be instances where the use of a PSA tape, compared to an alternative solution, improves the overall environmental impact: or vice-versa. [ cite web |url= http://www.pstc.org/technical_notes/environmental_advantages.php?subject=environmental |title= PSA Tapes Offer Environmental Advantages in Packaging|accessdate=2007-11-06 |last= Jensen|first= Timothy|year= 1992|month= September|publisher=Adhesives Age ]

Reuse or recycling are sometimes aided by a tape being removable from a surface. If a tape remains on an item during recycling, a tape should be chosen which does not hinder the recyclability of the item. For example, when taped corrugated boxes are recycled, film backed box sealing tapes do not hinder box recycling: the PSA adhesive stays with the backing and is easily removed. [ cite web |url = http://www.pstc.org/technical_notes/to_recycle.php?subject=packaging|title= Packaging Tapes:To Recycle of Not|accessdate=2007-11-06 |last= Jensen|first= Timothy|year= 1999|month= April|publisher=Adhesives and Sealants Coucil ]

References

ee also

* Pressure sensitive adhesive
* Rheology
* Label
* Tape dispenser

Further reading

* "Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Tapes", J. Johnston, PSTC, 2003, ISBN 0972800107
* "Pressure Sensitive Formulation", I. Benedek, VSP, 2000, ISBN 9067643300

External links

* [http://www.pstc.org Pressure Sensitive Tape Council]
* [http://aic.stanford.edu/sg/bpg/annual/v02/bp02-13.html The History of Pressure Sensitive Tape]


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