History of the Grand Canyon area
The known history of the Grand Canyon area stretches back 10,500 years when the first evidence for
humanpresence in the area started. Native Americans have been living at Grand Canyonand in the area now covered by Grand Canyon National Parkfor at least the last 4,000 of those years. Anasazi, first as the Basketmaker culture and later as the more familiar Puebleoans, developed from the Desert Culture as they became less nomadic and more dependent on agriculture. A similar culture, the Cohonina, also lived in the canyon area. Droughtin the late 13th century was the likely cause for both cultures to move on. Other cultures followed, including the Paiutes, Cerbat, and the Navajo, only to be later forced onto reservations by the United States Government.
Under direction by
conquistador Francisco Vasquez de Coronadoto find the fabled Seven Cities of Cibola, Captain Garcia Lopez de Cardenasled a party of Spanish soldiers with Hopiguides to the Grand Canyon in September of 1540. Not finding what they were looking for, they left. Over 200 years passed before two Spanish priests became the second party of non-Native Americans to see the canyon. In 1869, U.S. ArmyMajor John Wesley Powellled the Powell Geographic Expeditionthrough the canyon on the Colorado River. This and later study by geologists uncovered the geology of the Grand Canyon areaand helped to advance that science. In the late 19th century there was interest in the region because of its promise of mineralresources—mainly copperand asbestos. The first pioneer settlements along the rim came in the 1880s.
Early residents soon discovered that
tourismwas destined to be more profitable than mining, and by the turn of the century Grand Canyon was a well-known tourist destination. Most visitors made the grueling trip from nearby towns to the South Rim by stagecoach. In 1901 the Grand Canyon Railwaywas opened from Williams, Arizona, to the South Rim, and the development of formal tourist facilities, especially at Grand Canyon Village, increased dramatically. The Fred Harvey Companydeveloped many facilities at the Grand Canyon, including the luxury El Tovar Hotelon the South Rim in 1905 and Phantom Ranch in the Inner Gorge in 1922. Although first afforded Federal protection in 1893 as a forest reserve and later as a U.S. National Monument, Grand Canyon did not achieve U.S. National Parkstatus until 1919, three years after the creation of the National Park Service. Today, Grand Canyon National Park receives about five million visitors each year, a far cry from the annual visitation of 44,173 in 1919.
Native American inhabitation
Current archaeological evidence suggests that
humans have inhabited the Grand Canyon area as far back as 4,000 years and at least were passers through for 6,500 years before that. Radiocarbon datingof artifacts found in limestonecaves in the inner canyon indicate ages of 3,000 to 4,000 years."Secrets in ...", page 12] In the 1930s artifacts consisting of split-twig animalfigurines were found in the Redwall Limestone cliffs of the Inner Gorge that were dated in this range. These animal figurines are a few inches (7 to 8 cm) in height and made primarily from twigs of willowor cottonwood. This find along with other evidence suggests these inner canyon dwellers were part of Desert Culture; a group of seminomadic hunter-gatherer Native Americans.
The Basketmaker Anasazi (also called the Histatsinom, meaning "people who lived long ago") evolved from the Desert Culture sometime around 500 BCE. This group inhabited the rim and inner canyon and survived by
hunting and gatheringalong with some limited agriculture. Noted for their basketmaking skills (hence their name), they lived in small communal bands inside caves and circular mud structures called pithouses. Further refinement of agriculture and technology led to a more sedentary and stable lifestyle for the Anasazi starting around 500 CE. Contemporary with the flourishing of Anasazi culture, another group, called the Cohonina lived west of the current site of Grand Canyon Village.
Anasazi in the Grand Canyon area started to use stone in addition to mud and poles to erect above-ground houses sometime around 800 CE. Thus the Pueblo period of Anasazi culture was initiated. In summer, the Puebleoans migrated from the hot inner canyon to the cooler high plateaus and reversed the journey for winter. Large graineries and multi-room
pueblos survive from this period. There are around 2,000 known Anasazi archaeological sites in park boundaries. The most accessible site is Tusayan Pueblo, which was constructed sometime around 1185 and housed 30 or so people.American Park Network]
Large numbers of dated archaeological sites indicate that the Anasazi and the Cohonina flourished until about 1200 CE. Something happened a hundred years after that, however, that forced both of these cultures to move away. Several lines of evidence led to a theory that
climate changecaused a severe droughtin the region from 1276 to 1299, forcing these agriculture-dependent cultures to move on. [ "The Grand Canyon", page 16 ] Many Anasazi relocated to the Rio Grandeand the Little Colorado Riverdrainages, where their descendants, the Hopiand the 19 Pueblos of New Mexico, now live. The Hopi people believe they emerged from the canyon and that their spirits rest here.
For approximately one hundred years the canyon area was uninhabited by
humans. Paiutes from the east and Cerbat from the west were the first humans to reestablish settlements in and around the Grand Canyon. The Pauite settled the plateaus north of the Colorado River and the Cerbat built their communities south of the river, on the Coconino Plateau. Sometime in the 15th century the Navajo, or the Dine, arrived in the area.
All three cultures were stable until the
United States Armymoved them to Indian reservations in 1882 as part of the removal efforts that ended the Indian Wars. The Havasupaiand Hualapaiare descended from the Cerbat and still live in the immediate area. Havasu Village, in the western part of the current park, is likely one of the oldest continuously-occupied settlements in the contiguous United States."Geology of U.S. Parklands", page 396] Adjacent to the eastern part of the park is the Navajo Nation, the largest reservation in the United States.
The first Europeans reached the Grand Canyon in September 1540. It was a group of about 13 Spanish soldiers led by
García López de Cárdenas, dispatched from the army of Francisco Vásquez de Coronadoon its quest to find the fabulous Seven Cities of Cibola(Castañeda  1990). The group was led by Hopiguides and, assuming they took the most likely route, must have reached the Canyon at the South Rim, probably between today's Desert View and Moran Point.
The report indicates that they greatly misjudged the proportions of the gorge. On the one hand, they estimated that the Canyon was about three to four
leagues wide (13–16 km, 8–10 mi), which is quite accurate. At the same time, however, they believed that the river, which they could see from above, was only 2 metres (6 ft) wide (in reality it is about a hundred times wider). Being in dire need of water, and wanting to cross the giant obstacle, the soldiers started searching for a way down to the Canyon floor that would be passable for them along with their horses. After three full days, they still hadn't been successful, and it is speculated that the Hopi, who probably knew a way down to the Canyon floor, were reluctant to lead them there.
As a last resort, Cárdenas finally commanded the three lightest and most agile men of his group to climb down by themselves (their names are given as Pablo de Melgosa, Juan Galeras, and an unknown, third soldier). After several hours, the men returned, reporting that they had only made one third of the distance down to the river, and that "what seemed easy from above was not so". Furthermore, they claimed that some of the boulders which they had seen from the rim, and estimated to be about as tall as a man, were in fact bigger than the Great Tower of Seville (which then was the tallest building in the world, measuring 82 metres, or 270 feet). Cárdenas finally had to give up and returned to the main army. His report of an insurmountable barrier squelched all interest in the area for the next two hundred years.
Only in 1776 did two Spanish Priests, Fathers
Francisco Atanasio Domínguezand Silvestre Vélez de Escalantetravel along the North Rim again, together with a group of Spanish soldiers, exploring southern Utah in search of a route from Santa Fe, New Mexicoto Monterey, California.
James Ohio Pattie and a group of American trappers and mountain men were probably the next Europeans to reach the Canyon in 1826. There is little in terms of documentation to support this, however.
The signing of the
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgoin 1848 ceded the Grand Canyon region to the United States. Jules Marcouof the Pacific Railroad Surveymade the first geologic observations of the canyon and surrounding area in 1856. Jacob Hamblin(a Mormonmissionary) was sent by Brigham Youngin the 1850s to locate easy river crossing sites in the canyon. Building good relations with local Native Americans and white settlers, he discovered Lee's Ferryin 1858 and Pierce Ferry(later operated by, and named for, Harrison Pierce)—the only two sites suitable for ferry operation. George Johnson led an expedition by stern wheeler steam boat that reached Black Canyon in 1857.
U.S. War Departmentexpedition led by Lt. Joseph Ives was launched in 1857 to investigate the area's potential for natural resources, to find railroad routes to the west coast, and assess the feasibility of an up-river navigation route from the Gulf of California. The group traveled in a stern wheeler steamboatnamed "Explorer". After two months and 350 miles (560 km) of difficult navigation, his party reached Black Canyon some two months after George Johnson. In the process, the "Explorer" struck a rock and was abandoned. The group later traveled eastwards along the South Rim of the Grand Canyon.
A man of his time, Ives discounted his own impressions on the beauty of the canyon and declared it and the surrounding area as "altogether valueless", remarking that his expedition would be "the last party of whites to visit this profitless locality". Attached to Ives' expedition was geologist
John Strong Newberrywho had a very different impression of the canyon. After returning, Newberry convinced fellow geologist John Wesley Powellthat a boat run through the Grand Canyon to complete the survey would be worth the risk. ["Geology of National Parks", page 7] Powell was a major in the United States Armyand was a veteran of the American Civil War, a conflict that cost him his right forearm in the Battle of Shiloh.
More than a decade after the Ives Expedition and with help from the
Smithsonian Institution, Powell led the first of the Powell Expeditions to explore the region and document its scientific offerings. On May 24, 1869, the group of nine men set out from Green River Station in Wyomingdown the Colorado River and through the Grand Canyon. This first expedition was poorly-funded and consequently no photographer or graphic artist was included. While in the Canyon of Lodore one of the group's four boats capsized, spilling most of their foodand much of their scientific equipment into the river. This shortened the expedition to one hundred days. Tired of being constantly cold, wet and hungry and not knowing they had already passed the worst rapids, three of Powell's men climbed out of the canyon in what is now called Separation Canyon. Once out of the canyon, all three were supposedly killed by Shivwits band Paiutes who thought they were miners that recently molested and killed a female Shivwit."Geology of U.S. Parklands", page 397] All those who stayed with Powell survived and that group successfully ran most of the canyon.
Two years later a much better-funded Powell-led party returned with redesigned boats and a chain of several supply stations along their route. This time, photographer E.O. Beaman and 17-year-old artist Frederick Dellenbaugh were included. Beaman left the group in January 1872 over a dispute with Powell and his replacement, James Fennemore, quit August that same year due to poor health, leaving boatman
Jack Hillersas the official photographer (nearly one ton of photographic equipment was needed on site to process each shot). [ "The Grand Canyon", page 17 ] Famed painter Thomas Moranjoined the expedition in the summer of 1873, after the river voyage and thus only viewed the canyon from the rim. His 1873 painting "Chasm of the Colorado" was bought by the United States Congressin 1874 and hung in the lobby of the Senate. [ "The Grand Canyon", page 19 ]
The Powell expeditions systematically cataloged rock formations,
plants, animals, and archaeological sites. Photographs and illustrations from the Powell expeditions greatly popularized the canyonland region of the southwest United States, especially the Grand Canyon (knowing this Powell added increasing resources to that aspect of his expeditions). Powell later used these photographs and illustrations in his lecture tours, making him a national figure. Rights to reproduce 650 of the expeditions' 1,400 stereographs were sold to help fund future Powell projects. [ "The Grand Canyon", page 18 ] In 1881 he became the second director of the U.S. Geological Survey.
Clarence Dutton( and helped to advance that science. Both the Powell and Dutton expeditions helped to increase interest in the canyon and surrounding region.
Prospectors in the 1870s and 1880s staked
miningclaims in the canyon. They hoped that previously-discovered deposits of asbestos, copper, lead, and zincwould be profitable to mine. Access to and from this remote region and problems getting oreout of the canyon and its rock made the whole exercise not worth the effort. Most moved on, and some stayed to seek profit in the tourist trade. Their activities did improve pre-existing Indian trails, such as Bright Angel Trail.
A rail line to the largest city in the area, Flagstaff, was completed in 1882 by the
Santa Fe Railroad. Stage coaches started to bring tourists from Flagstaff to the Grand Canyon the next year—an eleven-hour journey. Tourism greatly increased in 1901 when a spur of the Santa Fe Railroad to Grand Canyon Villagewas completed. The first scheduled train with paying passengers of the Grand Canyon Railway arrived from Williams, Arizona, on September 17 that year. The 64 mile (103 km) long trip cost $3.95, and naturalist John Muirlater commended the railroad for its limited environmental impact.ref for whole paragraph: "The Grand Canyon", page 30]
Competition with the automobile (see below) forced the Santa Fe Railroad to cease operation of the Grand Canyon Railway in 1968 (only three passengers were on the last run). The railway was restored and reintroduced service in 1989, and has since carried hundreds of passengers a day.
automobilewas driven to the Grand Canyon in 1902. Oliver Lippincott from Los Angeles, California, drove his Toledo Automobile Company-built car to the South Rim from Flagstaff. Lippincott, a guide and two writers set out on the afternoon of January 4 that year anticipating a seven-hour journey. Two days later, the hungry and dehydrated party arrived at their destination; the countryside was just too rough for the 10 horsepower(7 kW) auto. A three day drive from Utahin 1907 was required to reach the North Rim for the first time.
Trains, however, remained the preferred way to travel to the canyon until they were surpassed by the auto in the 1930s. By the early 1990s more than a million automobiles per year visited the park.
Air pollutionfrom those vehicles and wind-blown pollution from Flagstaff and even the Las Vegas area has reduced visibility in the Grand Canyon and vicinity.
West Rim Drive was completed in 1912. In the late 1920s the first rim to rim access was established by the North Kaibab suspension bridge over the Colorado River."Secrets in ... , page 13] Paved roads did not reach the less popular and more remote North Rim until 1926, and that area, being higher in elevation, is closed due to winter
weatherfrom November to April. Construction of a road along part of the South Rim was completed in 1935.
John D. Leewas the first person who catered to travelers to the canyon. In 1872 he established a ferryservice at the confluence of the Colorado and Paria rivers. Lee was in hiding, having been accused of leading the Mountain Meadows massacrein 1857. He was tried and executed for this crime in 1877. During his trial he played host to members of the Powell Expedition who were waiting for their photographer, Major James Fennemore, to arrive (Fennemore took the last photo of Lee sitting on his own coffin). Emma, one of Lee's nineteen wives, continued the ferry business after her husband's death. In 1876 a man named Harrison Pierceestablished another ferry service at the western end of the canyon.
Farlee Hotelopened in 1884 near Diamond Creek and was in operation until 1889. That year Louis Boucheropened a larger hotelat Dripping Springs. John Hanceopened his ranch near Grandview to tourists in 1886 only to sell it nine years later in order to start a long career as a Grand Canyon guide (in 1896 he also became local postmaster). William Wallace Bassopened a tent house campground in 1890. Bass Camp had a small central building with common facilities such as a kitchen, dining room, and sitting room inside. Rates were $2.50 a day, and the complex was 20 miles (30 km) west of the Grand Canyon Railway's Bass Station (Ash Fort). Bass also built the stage coach road that he used to carry his patrons from the train station to his hotel. A second Bass Camp was built along the Shinumo Creek drainage.
Grand Canyon Hotel Companywas incorporated in 1892 and charged with building services along the stage route to the canyon. In 1896 the same man who bought Hance's Grandview ranch opened Bright Angel Hotelin Grand Canyon Village. Cameron Hotel opened in 1903, and its owner started to charge a toll to use Bright Angel Trail.ref for whole paragraph: "The Grand Canyon", page 31]
Things changed in 1905 when the luxury
El Tovar Hotelopened within steps of the Grand Canyon Railway's terminus. El Tovar was named for Don Pedro de Tovar who tradition says is the Spaniard who learned about the canyon from Hopis and told Coronado (see above). Charles Whittlesey designed the arts and crafts-styled rustic hotel complex, which was built with logs from Oregonand local stone at a cost of $250,000 for the hotel and another $50,000 for the stables (a huge sum in 1905). El Tovar was owned by Santa Fe Railroad and operated by its chief concessionaire, the Fred Harvey Company. Fred Harveyhired Mary Elizabeth Jane Colterin 1902 as company architect. She was responsible for five buildings at the Grand Canyon: Hopi House(1905), Lookout Studio(1914), Hermit's Rest(1914), Desert View Watchtower(1932), and Bright Angel Lodge(1935). She stayed with the company until her retirement in 1948.
cable carsystem spanning the Colorado went into operation at Rust's Camp, located near the mouth of Bright Angel Creek, in 1907. Former U.S. President Theodore Rooseveltstayed at the camp in 1913. That, along with the fact that while president he declared Grand Canyon a U.S. National Monumentin 1908, led to the camp being renamed Roosevelt's Camp. In 1922 the National Park Servicegave the facility its current name, Phantom Ranch.
In 1917 on the North Rim, W.W. Wylie built accommodations at Bright Angel Point. The
Grand Canyon Lodgeopened on the North Rim in 1928. Built by a subsidiary of the Union Pacific Railroadcalled the Utah Parks Company, the lodge was designed by Gilbert Stanley Underwoodwho was also the architect for the Ahwahnee Hotelin California's Yosemite Valley. Much of the lodge was destroyed by fire in the winter of 1932, and a rebuilt lodge did not open until 1937. The facility is managed by TW Recreation Services. Bright Angel Lodgeand the Auto Camp Lodge opened in 1935 on the South Rim.
hikingtrails, along old Indian trails, were established during this time as well. The world famous mulerides down Bright Angel Trail were mass-marketed by the El Tovar Hotel. By the early 1990s, 20,000 people per year made the journey into the canyon by mule, 800,000 by hiking, 22,000 passed through the canyon by raft, and another 700,000 tourists fly over it in air tours ( fixed-wing aircraftand helicopter). Overflights were limited to a narrow corridor in 1956 after two planes crashed, killing all on board. In 1991 nearly 400 search and rescues were performed, mostly for unprepared hikers who suffered from heat exhaustionand dehydration while ascending from the canyon (normal exhaustion and injured ankles are also common in rescuees). [ref for whole paragraph: "The Grand Canyon", page 32] An IMAXtheater just outside the park shows a reenactment of the Powell Expedition.
Kolb Brothers, Emery and Ellsworth, built a photographic studio on the South Rim at the trailhead of Bright Angel Trail in 1904. Hikers and mulecaravans intent on descending down the canyon would stop at the Kolb Studioto have their photos taken. The Kolb Brothers processed the prints before their customers returned to the rim. Using the newly-invented Pathé Bray camerain 1911–12, they became the first to make a motion pictureof a river trip through the canyon that itself was only the eighth such successful journey. From 1915 to 1975 the film they produced was shown twice a day to tourists with Emery Kolb at first narrating in person and later through tape (a feud with Fred Harvey prevented pre-1915 showings). ["The Grand Canyon", pages 18 and 32]
By the late 19th century, the
conservation movementwas increasing national interest in preserving natural wonders like the Grand Canyon. U.S. National Parks in Yellowstone and around Yosemite Valleywere established by the early 1890s. U.S. Senator Benjamin Harrisonintroduced a bill in 1887 to establish a national park at the Grand Canyon. The bill died in committee, but on February 20, 1893, Harrison (then President of the United States) declared the Grand Canyon to be a National Forest Preserve. Miningand loggingwere allowed, but the designation did offer some protection.
Theodore Rooseveltvisited the Grand Canyon in 1903. An avid outdoorsman and staunch conservationist, he established the Grand Canyon Game Preserve on November 28, 1906. Livestock grazingwas reduced, but predators such as mountain lions, eagles, and wolves, were eradicated. Roosevelt added adjacent national forestlands and redesignated the preserve a U.S. National Monumenton January 11, 1908. Opponents such as land and mining claim holders blocked efforts to reclassify the monument as a U.S. National Parkfor 11 years. Grand Canyon National Park was finally established as the 17th U.S. National Park by an Act of Congress signed into law by President Woodrow Wilsonon February 26, 1919. The National Park Servicedeclared the Fred Harvey Company to the official park concessionaire in 1920 and bought William Wallace Bassout of business.
An almost 310 square mile (800 km²) area adjacent to the park was designated as a second Grand Canyon National Monument on December 22, 1932. Marble Canyon National Monument was established on January 20, 1969, and covered about 41 square miles (105 km²)."Geology of U.S. Parklands", page 395] An act signed by President
Gerald Fordon January 3, 1975, doubled the size of Grand Canyon National Park by merging these adjacent national monuments and other federal land into it. That same act gave Havasu Canyonback to the Havasupai. From that point forward, the park stretched along a 278 mile (447 km) segment of the Colorado River from the southern border of Glen Canyon National Recreation Areato the eastern boundary of Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Grand Canyon National Park was designated a World Heritage Siteon October 24, 1979. [cite web|publisher=About.com|url=http://usparks.about.com/library/miniplanner/blgrandcanyonnp.htm|title=Grand Canyon National Park|accessdate=2006-12-31]
Hoover Damstarted to impound Lake Meadsouth of the canyon. Conservationists lost a battle to save upstream Glen Canyonfrom becoming a reservoir. The Glen Canyon Damwas completed in 1966 to control flooding, provide water and hydroelectric power. Seasonal variations of spring high flow and flooding and low flow in summer have been replaced by a much more regulated system. The much more controlled Colorado has a dramatically reduced sediment load, which starves beaches and sand bars. In addition, clearer water allows significant algaegrowth to occur on the riverbed, giving the river a green color.
With the advent of commercial flight, the Grand Canyon has been a popular site for aircraft overflights. However, a series of accidents resulted in the
Overflights Act of 1987by the United States Congress, which banned flights below-the-rim and created flight-free zones. The tourism flights over the canyon have also created a noise issue, and the number of flights over the park has been restricted.
*"Account of the Expedition to Cibola which took place in the year 1540", Pedro de Castañeda of Najera (Seville; 1596; English translation in: "The Journey of Coronado, 1540–1542", George Parker Winship (Golden, Colorado; Fulcrum Publishing; 1990; pages 115–117)) ISBN 1-55591-066-1
*"The Grand Canyon", Letitia Burns O'Connor (Los Angeles, California; Perpetua Press; 1992; pages 16–19, 30–32) ISBN 0-88363-969-6
*"Secrets in The Grand Canyon, Zion and Bryce Canyon National Parks: Third Edition", Lorraine Salem Tufts (North Palm Beach, Florida; National Photographic Collections; 1998; pages 12–13) ISBN 0-9620255-3-4
*"Geology of U.S. Parklands: Fifth Edition", Eugene P. Kiver, David V. Harris (New York; John Wiley & Sons; 1999; pages 395–397) ISBN 0-471-33218-6
*"Geology of National Parks: Fifth Edition", Ann G. Harris, Esther Tuttle, Sherwood D. Tuttle (Iowa; Kendall/Hunt Publishing; 1997; page 7) ISBN 0-7872-5353-7
*National Park Service (adapted public domain text) [Grand Canyon National Park, [http://www.nps.gov/grca/grandcanyon/quicklook/american_indians.htm "American Indians at Grand Canyon - Past and Present"] , Last updated: 06-Jan-2005. Retrieved Dec. 31, 2006.] [Grand Canyon National Park, [http://www.nps.gov/grca/grandcanyon/quicklook/nationalpark.htm "When and Why Did Grand Canyon Become a National Park?"] , Last updated: 06-Jan-2005. Retrieved Dec. 31, 2006.]
* [http://www.americanparknetwork.com/parkinfo/content.asp?catid=85&contenttypeid=43 American Park Network: Grand Canyon History] (viewed April 11, 2005)
* [http://usparks.about.com/library/miniplanner/blgrandcanyonnp.htm usparks.about.com - Grand Canyon National Park] (viewed March 18, 2006)
* [http://www.nps.gov/grca/adhi/ Polishing the Jewel: An Administrative History of Grand Canyon National Park] , U.S. National Park Service
* [http://www.thetrain.com/ Grand Canyon Railway] official website
*Diane Grua, [http://www.archives.gov/nhprc/annotation/december-98/emery-kolb.html "Saving the Life Work of Two Daring Grand Canyon Photographers: The Emery Kolb Collection at Northern Arizona University's Cline Library"] , "Annotation", December 1998
* [http://www.zionnational-park.com/grand-canyon.htm Grand Canyon North Rim]
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