Ramon Pelegero Sanchis, who takes the
stage nameof Raimon, is a Spanish Catalan-language singer, one of the most important exponents of the musical style of Nova Cançóand one of the most well-known veteran artists in the Catalan language.
Raimon was born in
Xàtiva(Province of Valencia, Spain) on December 2, 1940, at "el carrer Blanc" (White Street), which he references in some songs. In his youth he worked for several years as a radio broadcaster in his hometown, absorbing the music of artists as diverse as Juliette Gréco, The Platters, and Juanito Valderrama.
At age 21, he moved to Valencia in order to study history. It was there that he discovered Catalan culture, and read writers such as
Ausiàs March, Salvador Espriu, Josep Pla, and Joan Fuster, among others. Prior to this, however, he had already written his first song, "Al vent" (To the wind).
In 1962, Raimon made his first public appearance at a literary prize ceremony. A little later, after entering a contest in
Castelló, where Els Setze Jutgesparticipated, he sang for them. Josep Maria Espinàswas impressed and invited him to Barcelonafor the Fòrum Vergés. His success was immediate. Raimon surprised with the form and content of his songs. His urgent texts spoke of a rebellious existentialism; his style departed from the "French style" of Els Setze Jutgesand offered a vision of the world tied not to the life of the Barcelona bourgeois in which musicians like Espinàs, Delfí Abella, and Enric Barbatlived, but rather to the Valencian working classes. His first EP appeared quickly on Catalan record label Edigsain 1963; it included the songs "Al vent", "Som", "La pedra", and "A colps", and became a great sales success.
The Pro-Franco regime
During this period of success, he received a surprising proposal: to sing at the
Festival de la Canción Mediterráneawith a song in Catalan. Initially reticent, Raimon eventually accepted "per voluntat de servei al país i a la llengua" (as an act of service to the country and the language). Raimon, without a guitar, sang, together with Salomé, who gave a feminine interpretation of the love song "Se'n va anar" by Josep Maria Andreuand Lleó Borrell. The song, voted by the public, won first prize. From that moment, Catalan song, considered up to then a minority phenomenon of little consequence, began to receive the attention of the censors and of the institutions of the Franquistas, with the host of prohibitions that accompanied them.
Immediately thereafter, Raimon's second EP appeared, with "Se'n va anar" and three other tunes: the existential "Disset anys", "Cançó del capvespre" (Raimon's first setting of a poem of
Salvador Espriu) and "Ahir", quickly known by its subtitle "Diguem no", which would for many years be song with altered lyrics that softened its overtly political message. Much later, Raimon confessed that he wanted to put "Se'n va anar" and "Diguem no" together because, if they banned the disc, they would ban the both of them.
In 1964 a third EP appeared, which featured the songs "D'un temps d'un país" and "Cançó de les mans". That same year, his first LP saw light, a
live albumcontaining versions of the majority of his previously released songs and two new tunes, "Si em mor" and "Cantarem la vida". In 1965, Raimon sang for the first time in Barcelona without Els Setze Jutges or other singers: his first solo recital took place in the Aliança del Poble Nou. The same year he began his international activities at the university at Lovainain Belgium. He published an EP with four love songs dedicated to the woman whom would become his wife the following year. The songs were "En tu estime el món", "Treballaré el teu cos", "Si un dia vols" and "No sé com".
In 1965, his historic open-air performance at the
Institut Químic de Sarriàtook place, the first true massive act of Catalan song; he also made his first appearances in Parisand Germany. The album "Cançons de la roda del temps" appeared that year, with a painting by Joan Miróon the cover. The music was centered around the book "El caminant i el mur" by Espriu, twelve poems which recall the solar cycle and the life cycle of man, to which Raimon added a concluding song of character more civic than metaphysical, "Inici de càntic en el temple".
In France he released an album recorded live on June 7th at the Olympia, which won the
Francis Carcoaward the following year for best foreign song, granted by the Académie du Disque Français. Unreleased versions of some songs censored in Spain appeared on this disc.
In 1967 he performed at the
Teatre Romea, the first recital of a Catalan singer there. He also performed in Cuba, Switzerland, and other countries. A concert in Barcelona at the Palau de la Música Catalanaon January 28th was released as a live album, "Raimon Palau", with 12 songs. A last EP followed that same year.
In 1968 he released his first disc with
Discophon, the song "Indesinenter" (a setting of a poem of Espriu). This same year he had two more historic recitals, one at the Price labor movement festival and the other at the Faculty of Economics in Madrid. He also performed in Mexico, Germany, Switzerland, and Cuba that year. The next year, he returned to the Paris Olympia, and another LP was released solely in France.
After another single, which included his first setting of Ausias March, "Veles e vents", he released the disc "Per destruir aquell qui l'ha desert" in 1970, arranged by Lleó Borrell and with cover art by
Antoni Tàpies. Side A was dedicated to settings of 15th century Catalan poets: the poem "Desert d'amics" (the original name, "Presoner", was forbidden by the censors), by Jordi de Sant Jordi; a fragment of the "Llibre dels bons amonestaments", of Anselm Turmeda, titled "Elogi dels diners", and four poems of Ausiàs March: "Veles e vents", "Així com cell", "Quins tan segurs consells" and "Si com lo taur". Side B featured "Indesinenter" and five songs written by Raimon: "Societat de consum" (one of his few songs with an ironic treatment), "Quan creus que ja s'acaba", "De nit a casa", "T'ho devia" and "Sobre la pau".
In 1971 he released another LP with included "13 de març, cançó dels creients" and the love song "Quan te'n vas". Other releases appeared in France, the U.S. and
Uruguay, and he toured in Uruguay, Chile, and Argentina. The following two years he released further international discs and gave hundreds of live shows. In 1973 he published the book "Poemes i cançons", with a prologue by Manuel Sacristán.
In 1974 the album "A Victor Jara" was released, collaborating with a number of avant-garde French musicians like
Michel Portal. It includes some settings, of Ausias March ("No em pren així", "Lo jorn ha por"), Joan Roís de Corella("Si en lo mal temps"), Joan Timoneda("So qui so") and Pere Quart("Una vaca amb un vedellet en braços"). Raimon's originals were "T'he conegut sempre igual", a song about secrecy written as a result of his fortuitous encounter with the persecuted Gregori López i Raimundo; "Molt lluny", a nostalgic revisitation of adolescence; "Morir en aquesta vida", a rejection of suicide which contains a literal citation of Mayakovsky; "Amb tots els petits vicis", about being in one's thirties; and the sober love song "Com un puny". It was dedicated to Victor Jara, Chilean singer assassinated by the Pinochetgovernment in September 1973.
This same year, two more albums appeared; the first in France, "T'adores, amic", had several songs banned in Spain. The other, "Campus de Bellaterra", was recorded live at a performance at the
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Many of the songs had strong social/political overtones: "Qui ja ho sap tot", "A un amic", "18 de maig a la Villa", "No em mou al crit", "Quan jo vaig nàixer", and the poem of Espriu, dedicated to Pompeu Fabra, "El meu poble i jo".
In 1975, while Franco ailed, Raimon sang at the
Palau dels Esports de Barcelona, where he debuted one of his classics, "Jo vinc d'un silenci".
The democratic era
The following year, during the optimism preceding democratic rule, he sang in the sports pavilion of
Real Madridon April 1. This was originally to be the first of four concerts, but the final three were cancelled. The performance was captured on a double album, "El recital de Madrid". In the spring of this same year, he appeared for the first and only time at the Sis Hores de Cançóin Canet de Mar. More than sixty thousand people filled the Pla d'en Sala de Canet. During Raimon's performance, while he performed the song "Inici de càntic en el temple", a crane elevated an enormous Catalan flag on the side of the stage.
From this moment, Raimon dedicated much effort to avoiding irrelevance as a resistance artist. Despite making four appearances at the Palacio de los Deportes de Barcelona in 1977, he began eschewing large concerts and took leave of participation in organized actions for political parties. Also, he began to play accompanied by a
contrabass, before assembing a full backing group. Up until then, Raimon always had played solo, with his guitar.
Japanfor the first time in 1977 he released the album "Lliurament del cant", which combined settings of Joan Timoneda("Bella, de vós so enamorós", "Qui té anguila per la cua"), Espriu ("Potser arran de l'alba"), and some of his own texts: "Qui pregunta ja respon", "Un lleu tel d'humitat", "Tristesa el nom"," Com una mà", "Que tothom", "A Joan Miró" (not precisely a new song, but unreleased in Spain), and a studio version of "Jo vinc d'un silenci".
Two years later, in 1979, a new album appeared, "Quan l'aigua es queixa", assembled from six concerts in the
Palau de la Música Catalana. It includes poems of Espriu ("Nous cants de llibertat" and the ironic swing "I beg your pardon"), Ausiàs March ("Si em demanau" and "On és lo lloc"), and his own texts: "Als matins a ciutat", "L'última llum", "Un sol consell", "No el coneixia de res", "Fou un infant", "Perquè ningú no em contarà els seus somnis", "I després de creure tant" "Andreu, amic", dedicated to the sculptor Andreu Alfaro. This album displayed a maturation in his poetic style.
In order to regroup all his work, in 1981 he re-recorded all his songs with new arrangements by
Manel Campand Antoni Ros Marbà. The result was a set of ten discs, whose songs were grouped thematically: "Orígens", "Cançons d'amor", "Ausiàs March", "Dedicatòries", "Cançons de la roda del temps" (Espriu), "He mirat aquesta terra" (Espriu), "Poetes dels segles XV i XVI", "Amb els silencis i les nostres paraules" and "L 'aigua del temps que vius". The tenth disc, "Testimonis", is dedicated to live recordings and includes a version of "Al vent" sung in Japanese by a choir from that country. The only unreleased songs incorporated in "Raimon. otes les cançons" were some settings of Joan Roís de Corella, Joan Timoneda, Ausiàs March and Espriu.
In 1983 he released "Les hores guanyades", which included his thoughts on the political scene (including the failed
coup d'etatof February 23), the life of the artist and many other themes. From this moment, Raimon appeared rarely in public and recorded sparingly. He released a new album in 1984, "Entre la nota i el so", with songs like "Lluny de la pedra i de l'aigua" and "Al meu país la pluja".
The following album ("Presències i oblit", 1987) marked a brief experimentation with
electronic musicand with instruments like a drum kitand a synthesizer(with arrangements made by the percussionist Ezequiel Guillén Saki). On this disc are found songs of a markedly intimate character: "Del blanc i el blau", "La mar respira calma" (written in the style of Espriu), "Primer parlaré de tu", etc. In the presentation of the disc at the Palau de la Música Catalana, Raimon performed for the first time almost entirely without using the guitar, gesturing to great effect during the concert.
Raimon then took exactly a decade to record an album of new songs, but this was not a time of inactivity; he formed a stable group of accompanists - guitar, double bass, cello and accordion - and performed together with them as well as solo, under conditions he found artistically optimal.
In 1992 he toured Japan again, and also sang in various universities in the United States. The same year, he surprised many by making an appearance on "Literal", a program on
TVE- Catalunyadedicated to the world of the book.
On Saint George day 1993, a large concert took place in the
Palau Sant Jordiat Barcelona, before some eighteen thousand spectators, to celebrate the thirtieth anniversary of the released of "Al vent". Raimon sang many songs, but also on stage were many artists who had shared experiences with him over many years: the Uruguayan Daniel Vigiletti, the Basque Mikel Laboa, the Portuguese Luis Cilia, the American folk singer Pete Seeger, and others. The invited Catalans were Serrat(a former rival, but reconciled friend), Ovidi Montllor, and Pi de la Serra. Also in attendance were Japanese group Warabi-za, the Coral Sant Jordidirected by Oriol Martorelland the band La Lira Ampostina.
the same year a new complete works was released, this time on CD. The work, which won the Palmarès des Palmarès given by the Nouvelle Académie du Disque Français, collected a total of 121 songs divided into the following: "Orígens i dedicatòries", "Cançons d'amor i de lluita", "Cançons de la roda del temps i d'altres poemes de Salvador Espriu", "Ausiàs March i alguns poemes dels segles XV i XVI", "Aquest cant vol ser plural" and "Coincidències, dissidències, indecències i algunes rareses", the last being dedicated to live recordings.
At the beginning of 1997 a new album finally appeared, "Cançons de mai" with arrangements by Manel Camp. It consisted of seven settings of
Ausiàs Marchand six of his own poems, including the ironic "Soliloqui solipsista", which was accompanied by a video clip.
That same year he was granted the Medalla de Oro of the
Generalitat de Catalunya. Under the title "Cançons de mai. Cançons de sempre", Raimon made appearances in Perpinyà, Xàtiva, Majorca, and in the Palau de la Música Catalana. He also toured Britain. He was heckled [ El País, 11-9-1997. "El público abucheó a Raimon por cantar en catalán, y a Sacristán, por comunista". [http://www.elpais.com/articulo/espana/RAIMON_/MUSICA/BLANCO_GARRIDO/_MIGUEL_ANGEL_/ASESINADO_POR_ETA/SACRISTAN/_JOSE/ETA/publico/abucheo/Raimon/cantar/catalan/Sacristan/comunista/elpepiesp/19970911elpepinac_13/Tes] ] at the madrileña Plaza de las Ventas, where he sang an homage to Miguel Ángel Blanco, assassinated by the ETA. Some of the public did not accept that he sang in Catalan, that he affirmed publicly singing in the Catalan dialect of the Valencian country, and that the song "País Basc" was prohibited during the Franconian dictatorship. The act was rebroadcast on TVE, and provoked a great scandal.
At the end of 1997 appeared the CD "Recitals al Palau" and in 1999 he published a compilation of all his love songs, "Les cançons d'amor". In 2000, he published a new complete works with many unreleased songs, settings of 15th century authors:
Francí Guerau, Jordi de Sant Jordi, Mossèn Estanya, Bernat Metgeand Jaume Roig. The new complete works also included the only two songs he recorded written by other songwriters: "Se'n va anar" and "Amanda".
*1964: "Disc antològic de les seves cançons"
*1966: "Raimon a l'Olympia"
*1966: "Cançons de la roda del temps"
*1967: "Raimon al Palau"
*1967: "Raimon música sola"
*1968: "Raimon en directe"
*1969: "Raimon a Montserrat"
*1969: "Sobre la pau. Contra la por (Olympia 2)"
*1970: "Per destruir aquell qui l'ha desert"
*1971: "Raimon en Montevideo"
*1971: "Raimon. Catalonian protest songs"
*1972: "En vivo"
*1972: "Diguem no"
*1972: "La noche"
*1974: "A Víctor Jara"
*1974: "Campus de Bellaterra"
*1974: "T'adones amic...?"
*1976: "El recital de Madrid"
*1977: "Lliurament del cant"
*1979: "Quan l'aigua es queixa"
*1981: "Totes les cançons"
*1984: "Entre la nota i el so"
*1985: "Raimon canta"
*1987: "Presències i oblit"
*1989: "Canta Ausiàs March"
*1995: "I després de creure tant"
*1997: "Ausiàs March / Raimon"
*1997: "Cançons de mai"
*1997: "Recitals al Palau"
*1999: "Dotze cançons"
*1999: "Les cançons d'amor"
*2000: "Nova Integral 2000"
*2003: "Clàssics i no"
*2003: "Raimon-Espriu Poesia cantada"
*2006: "Raimon a l'Olympia (1966-2006)"
*Mainat, Joan Ramon: "Tretze que canten". Editorial Mediterránea, 1982.
*Pomar, Jaume: "Raimon", colección Los Juglares, Ediciones Jucar, Madrid, 1983.
*Pujadó, Miquel: "Diccionari de la Cançó. D'Els Setze Jutges al Rock Català", April 2000.
*Escamilla, David: "Raimon. L´art de la memòria". Editorial Planeta, 2004.
*Batista, Antoni: "Raimon. La construcció d´un cant" and "Raimon. La construcción de un canto". Ediciones La Magrana. RBA, 2005. In Catalan and Spanish.
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