Andrew Delmar Hopkins
Andrew Delmar Hopkins was an American
entomologistin the late 19th and early 20th centuries, becoming head entomologist for the U.S. Department of Agriculturein 1904. His research was primarily on bark beetlepopulation dynamics and impacts, and he also developed the Law of Bioclimatics. Hopkins’s research is the cornerstone of entomology in North America. Hence, he is referred as the “Father of North American entomology.”
A.D. Hopkins was born on
20 August, 1857in Jackson County, Virginia(later becoming Jackson County, West Virginia). Hopkins, who first developed the scope of forest entomology in North Americaas we know it today, obtained little formal education to begin with. Yet, he started at a young age in his industrious career, with an intense desire to study forest insects and their effectual changes in forests. Amount of pay was not important to him as he started work in the field of entomology at one dollar a day. His main experience before this had been farm work, where nature had been his teacher. Starting in the late 1880s, his work gradually shifted from farming to scientific research. His first main entomology job was based at his own farm in Wood County. Working for free, he investigated which insects were causing the worst damage in the State of West Virginia. To do this, he made local and statewide trips to get the data he needed, sometimes by interviewing state residents. He found that a major bark beetle outbreak was taking place in the eastern part of the state. Along with the Hessian fly's effects on wheat, these were the main focuses of his early work, which not only gave him a very positive reputation but caused our scientific understanding of entomology to reach higher levels. Also during this time, he taught Economic Entomology at the University of West Virginia where he obtained his doctorate. Through the 1890s and into the 20th century, he would only grow further in expertise. This led him being elevated to higher positions of status, which gave him even more opportunity to excel in his profession and for other entomologists to elaborate on his work. Leaving his work with the West Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, being the vice-director, he soon resumed his work with the U.S. Department of Agriculture in which he stuck with for the rest of his career. However, his position started with being a special agent, where most of his work was in the Wester United States studying the impact of bark beetles; then, in 1904, becoming the head of the Division of Forest Insects(Bureau of Entomology) in Washington D.C.. The year of 1923 marked Hopkins' retirement, at which time he returned back to where he started his career; his farm in Wood County, West Virginia. However, he continued to independently study bioclimatics, and thus the Department of Agriculture established a field station which was given the title "the Kanawha Farms Intercontinental Base Station for Bioclimatic Research." Another activity he undertook in his older age was breeding different plants. He passed away from unknown causes in 1948.
During his lifetime, he was a member of many scientific organizations and held leadership positions in many of them. He was a fellow of the American Academy for the Advancement of Science, having become a member in 1893, and an emeritus member in 1938, a fellow of the Entomological Society of America, a member of the Association of Economic Entomologists (vice-president in 1900 and president in 1902), first president of the West Virginia Academy of Sciences, president of the Entomological Society of Washington, president in 1920 of the Biological Society of Washington, vice president of the Washington Academy of the Sciences, life member of the American Meteorological Society, honorary member of the Society of Economic Biologists of England, and member of the Cosmos Club. andrew was elected to the Washington Biologists’ Field Club in 1904 and ended his membership in 1912.
Areas of Study
During his time as an entomologist, andrew Delmar Hopkins’ personal study also included bioclimatics. Hopkins described bioclimatics as the attempt to correlate phonological phenomena of plants and animals with the various elements which make up the climate of the region. In 1889, Hopkins formulated the relationship of elevation, latitude and longitude to seasonal events such as the coming of spring. The relationship was coined the “Hopkins Law of Bioclimatics”. Many horticulturalists and other plant enthusiasts use this law to determine a planting schedule. As an entomologist, his research was primarily focused on the control methods of beetles, especially the western pine beetle. Hopkins also described 196 new species and six genera of insectsHopkins Law of Bioclimatic
While living in West Virginia in 1889, A.D. Hopkins discovered that spring advances one day for every 15 minutes of latitude northward, 1.25 days for each degree of longitude westward, and one day for every 30 meters higher in elevation. Thus, for a site located 15 minutes of latitude north, one degree west and 60 meters higher than another chosen site, spring should arrive 4.25 days later. For example, according to the Hopkins Law, flowers should bloom, trees should bud, and geese should appear around 11 days later in Omaha, Neb. than in Kansas City, Kansas. The calculation is expressed in the appendix.
Bark Beetle Research
Many of Hopkins early research consisted of qualitative observations of the beetle family. Hopkins most famous bark beetle observation was coined the Hopkins' host-selection principle (HHSP), which refers to the observation that many adult insects demonstrate a preference for the host species on which they themselves developed as larvae. However, the practicality of HHSP has been debated significantly since its first proposal in 1916. Many modern scientists have even discounted the evidence that supports HHSP as speculation. Although he has written dozens of well renowned publications, Hopkins most popular on bark beetles include the “Catalog of West Virginia Scolytidae (Bark Beetles) and Their Enemies" and "Catalog of West Virginia Forest and Shade Tree Insects."
The diversity and volume of publications that Hopkins produced is unmatched by any other entomologist. Hopkins’ breakthrough research on North American beetles and quantifying Hopkins Law are still highly regarded in today’s scientific community. andrew Delmar Hopkins was a true pioneer of his time and it was of no coincidence of why he will forever be recognized as the “Father of North American Entomology.”
Hopkins, A. D. Nov-1903. Powder-post injury to seasoned wood products. Division of Entomology, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. 1904. Insect injuries to forest products. Bureau of Entomology, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. 1904. Catalogue of exhibits of insect enemies of forests and forest products at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, Mo., 1904. Division of Entomology, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. May-1905. Black check in western hemlock. Bureau of Entomology, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. 1905. Insect enemies of forest reproduction. Dept. of Agriculture, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. 1905. The Black Hills beetle. Bureau of Entomology, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. 1906. Some insects injurious to forests. pt. I, The locust borer. Bureau of Entomology, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. Jan-1907. Pinhole injury to girdled cypress in the South Atlantic and Gulf states. Bureau of Entomology, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. Feb-1907. The locust borer and methods for its control. Bureau of Entomology, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. Mar-1907. Some insects injurious to forests. pt. III, Additional data on the locust borer. Bureau of Entomology, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. Jun-1907. The Whitepine Weevil. Bureau of Entomology, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. 1907. Notable depredations by forest insects. Dept. of Agriculture, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. 1909-15. Contributions toward a monograph of the scolytid beetles. Bureau of Entomology, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. 1911. The dying of pine in the southern States: Cause, Extent, and Remedy. Department of Agriculture, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. 1915. List of generic names and their type-species in the coleopterous superfamily Scolytoidea. United States National Museum, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. and Snyder, T. E. Jan-1917. Powder-Post Damage by Lyctus Beetles to Seasoned Hardwood. Department of Agriculture, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. Mar-1921. The Southern Pine Beetle; A Menace to the Pine Timber of the Southern States. Department of Agriculture, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. Feb-1894. Black Holes in Wood. Entomological Department, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. Apr-1891. Preliminary investigation of insect ravages. Yellow Locust. Agricultural Experiment Station, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. Apr-1899. Report on Investigations to Determine the Cause of Unhealthy Conditions of the Spruce and Pine from 1880-1893. Agricultural Experiment Station, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. 1899. Preliminary report on the insect enemies of forests in the Northwest : an account of the results gained from a reconnaissance trip made in the spring and early summer of 1899. Division of Entomology, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. 1901. Insect enemies of the spruce in the Northeast : a popular account of results of special investigations, with recommendations for preventing losses. Division of Entomology, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. Jun-1902. On the study of forest entomology in America. Division of Entomology, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. 1902. Insect enemies of the pine in the Black Hills Forest Reserve: an account of results of special investigations, with recommendations for preventing losses. Division of Entomology, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. 1902. Some of the principal insect enemies of coniferous forests in the United States. Dept. of Agriculture, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. 1903. Insect injuries to hardwood forest trees. Dept. of Agriculture, United States.
Hopkins, A. D. 1903. The redwood. Bureau of Forestry, United States.Appendix
Example Calculations using Hopkins Law
If you were to travel from Kansas City (1000 ft elevation, 39.11 degrees N latitude, -94.63 longitude) to Omaha, Nebraska(1034 feet elevation, 41.26 degrees N latitude, -95.93 longitude), the delay in thecoming of spring would be…
[((1034 ft - 1000 ft)/100 ft * 1.25 days) + ((41.26 degrees - 39.11 degrees)* 4 days)+ ((-95.93 degrees - -94.63 degrees ) * 1.25 days)] =
(34 ft /100 ft * 1.25 days) + (2.15 degrees * 4 days) + (1.3 degrees * 1.25 days) =8.5 days + 2.6875 days + 1.625 days = 10.65 Days
Insect injuries to Forest Products, http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/dspace/handle/1957/6205
The Dying of Pine in the Southern States: Cause, Extent, and Remedy, By Andrew Hopkins, Bureau of Entomology
Powder-post damage by lyctus beetles to seasoned hardwood, By Andrew Hopkins
The Southern Pine Beetle, By Andrew Hopkins
Yellow Locust, By Andrew Hopkins
The Redwood. III. Insect Enemies of the Redwood, By Andrew Hopkins
Black Holes in Wood, By Andrew Hopkins
Report on Investigations to Determine the Cause of Unhealthy Conditions of the Spruce and Pine from 1880-1893, By Andrew Hopkins
Southern Forest Insect Work Conference [http://www.sfiwc.org/hopkins.html Andrew Delmar Hopkins - Southern Forest Insect Work Conference ] at www.sfiwc.org
Forest Entomology in the Northern Rocky Mountains: 1909-1917, as Reflected in the Correspondence between Josef Brunner and A. D. Hopkinshttp://www.entsoc.org/Pubs/Periodicals/AE/AE-2003/summer/Furniss-Heritage.pdf
The Green Wave: Background Information [http://pathfinderscience.net/phenology/cbackground.cfm KanCRN | The Green Wave | Creating the Context | Background ] at pathfinderscience.net
Andrew Delmar Hopkinshttp://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/resshow/perry/bios/hopkinsandrew?.htm
Weather Almanac for March 2003 [http://www.islandnet.com/~see/weather/almanac/arc2003/alm03mar.htm The Weather Doctor Almanac 2003 ] at www.islandnet.com
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