Yokutsan languages

Yokutsan languages

Infobox Language family
region=San Joaquin Valley, California
fam1=Yok-Utian ?

map_caption=Pre-contact distribution of Yokutsan languages

Yokutsan (also known as Yokuts and Mariposan) is an endangered language family spoken in the interior of Northern and Central California in and around the San Joaquin Valley by the Yokut people. The speakers of Yokutsan languages were severely affected by disease, missionaries, and the Gold Rush: most are now extinct.

The Yawelmani dialect of Valley Yokuts has been a focus of much linguistic research.

Family division

The Yokutsan family consists of 3 languages which in turn consist of numerous dialects and subdialects. The following classification appears in Mithun (1999) and is based on Whistler & Golla (1986) and Gamble (1987).

1. Foothill Yokuts:* Buena Vista:: Tulamni
:: Hometwali:* Gashowu:* Kings River:: Chukaymina
:: Michahay
:: Ayitcha (a.k.a. Aiticha, Kocheyali)
:: Choynimni (a.k.a. Choinimni):* Tule-Kaweah:: Wikchamni
:: Yawdanchi (a.k.a. Nutaa)
:: Bokninuwad2. Palewyami (a.k.a. Poso Creek, Altinin) "(†)"
3. Valley Yokuts "(†)":* Far Northern Valley Yokuts "(†)":: Yachikumne (a.k.a. Chulamni)
:: Lower San Joaquin
:: Chalostaca
:: Lakisamni
:: Tawalimni:* Northern Valley Yokuts "(†)":: Nopṭinṭe
:: Merced
:: Chawchila
:: Northern Hill
:: Chukchansi
:: Kechayi
:: Dumna:* Southern Valley Yokuts "(†)":: Wechihit
:: Nutunutu-Tachi
:: Chunut
:: Wo’lasi-Choynok
:: Koyeti-Yawelmani (a.k.a. Yowlumni)
:: Wowol
:: Telamni

Pawelyami is apparently extinct. Many other Yokuts dialects and subdialects are extinct. An estimated 40 linguistically distinct groups existed before Euro-American contact. All Yokutsan lects are endangered. Tachi has a Head Start program. A few other Yokuts languages also have language programs of one type or another, or did in recent years. In recent years, Choinimni, Wikchamni, Chukchansi, Kechayi, Tachi, and Yawelmani all had a few fluent speakers and a variable number of partial speakers. Wikchamni, Chukchansi, Tachi, and Yawelmani were being taught to at least a few children during this time. Chukchansi is now a written language, as an alphabet was developed on a federal grant. Chukchansi also has a phrase book and dictionary that are partially completed.

Genetic relations

It has been proposed that the Yokutsan family is related to the hypothetical Penutian stock. The proposed relationship is currently undemonstrated, but many linguists find the evidence so far to be promising, especially regarding the relationship between Yokutsan and the Utian family (termed "Yok-Utian" by Catherine Callaghan).

ee also

* Yokut

External links

* [http://www.fourdir.com/yokuts.htm Yokuts]
* [http://www.languagegeek.com/california/yokuts.html Yokuts languages]
* [http://www.language-museum.com/y/yokuts-northern-foothill.php Yokuts (Northern Foothill): Lord's prayer]
* [http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/~ehume/metathesis/Chawchila.html Chawchila metathesis]
* [http://www.rosettaproject.org/archive/penutian/americas/yok/view?searchterm=yok The Yokuts Language of South Central California]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yok Ethnologue: Yokuts]
* [http://www.californiaprehistory.com/tribmap.html Native Tribes, Groups, Language Families and Dialects of California in 1770] (map after Kroeber)


* Callaghan, Catherine. (1997). Evidence for Yok-Utian. "International Journal of American Linguistics", "63", 121-133.
* DeLancey, Scott; & Golla, Victor. (1997). The Penutian hypothesis: Retrospect and prospect. "International Journal of American Linguistics", "63", 171-202.
* Gamble, Geoffery. (1988). Reconstructed Yokuts pronouns. "Diachronica", "5", 59-71.
* Golla, Victor. (1964). "Comparative Yokuts phonology". University of California publications in linguistics (No. 34); Studies in Californian linguistics. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
* Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005). "Ethnologue: Languages of the world" (15th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. (Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com).
* Hockett, Charles. (1973). Yokuts as a testing ground for linguistic methods. "International Journal of American Linguistics", "39", 63-79.
* Mithun, Marianne. (1999). "The languages of Native North America". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
* Powell, John Wesley Powell. (1891). "Indian Linguistic Families Of America, North Of Mexico, Government Printing Office", Washington, 1891, pages 90-91. [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/17286/17286-8.txt]
* Whistler, Kenneth; & Golla, Victor. (1986). Proto-Yokuts reconsidered. "International Journal of American Linguistics", "52", 317-358.

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