- Yokutsan languages
Infobox Language family
San Joaquin Valley, California
map_caption=Pre-contact distribution of Yokutsan languages
Yokutsan (also known as Yokuts and Mariposan) is an endangered
language familyspoken in the interior of Northern and Central Californiain and around the San Joaquin Valleyby the Yokut people. The speakers of Yokutsan languages were severely affected by disease, missionaries, and the Gold Rush: most are now extinct.
Yawelmani dialectof Valley Yokuts has been a focus of much linguistic research.
The Yokutsan family consists of 3 languages which in turn consist of numerous
dialects and subdialects. The following classification appears in Mithun (1999) and is based on Whistler & Golla (1986) and Gamble (1987).
Foothill Yokuts:* Buena Vista:: Tulamni
Hometwali:* Gashowu:* Kings River:: Chukaymina
Ayitcha(a.k.a. Aiticha, Kocheyali)
Choynimni(a.k.a. Choinimni):* Tule- Kaweah:: Wikchamni
Bokninuwad2. Palewyami(a.k.a. Poso Creek, Altinin) "(†)"
Valley Yokuts"(†)":* Far Northern Valley Yokuts"(†)":: Yachikumne(a.k.a. Chulamni)
Lower San Joaquin
Tawalimni:* Northern Valley Yokuts"(†)":: Nopṭinṭe
Dumna:* Southern Valley Yokuts"(†)":: Wechihit
Koyeti- Yawelmani(a.k.a. Yowlumni)
Pawelyami is apparently extinct. Many other Yokuts dialects and subdialects are extinct. An estimated 40 linguistically distinct groups existed before Euro-American contact. All Yokutsan
lects are endangered. Tachi has a Head Startprogram. A few other Yokuts languages also have language programs of one type or another, or did in recent years. In recent years, Choinimni, Wikchamni, Chukchansi, Kechayi, Tachi, and Yawelmani all had a few fluent speakers and a variable number of partial speakers. Wikchamni, Chukchansi, Tachi, and Yawelmani were being taught to at least a few children during this time. Chukchansi is now a written language, as an alphabet was developed on a federal grant. Chukchansi also has a phrase book and dictionary that are partially completed.
It has been proposed that the Yokutsan family is related to the hypothetical
Penutianstock. The proposed relationship is currently undemonstrated, but many linguists find the evidence so far to be promising, especially regarding the relationship between Yokutsan and the Utianfamily (termed " Yok-Utian" by Catherine Callaghan).
* [http://www.fourdir.com/yokuts.htm Yokuts]
* [http://www.languagegeek.com/california/yokuts.html Yokuts languages]
* [http://www.language-museum.com/y/yokuts-northern-foothill.php Yokuts (Northern Foothill): Lord's prayer]
* [http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/~ehume/metathesis/Chawchila.html Chawchila metathesis]
* [http://www.rosettaproject.org/archive/penutian/americas/yok/view?searchterm=yok The Yokuts Language of South Central California]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yok Ethnologue: Yokuts]
* [http://www.californiaprehistory.com/tribmap.html Native Tribes, Groups, Language Families and Dialects of California in 1770] (map after Kroeber)
* Callaghan, Catherine. (1997). Evidence for Yok-Utian. "International Journal of American Linguistics", "63", 121-133.
* DeLancey, Scott; & Golla, Victor. (1997). The Penutian hypothesis: Retrospect and prospect. "International Journal of American Linguistics", "63", 171-202.
* Gamble, Geoffery. (1988). Reconstructed Yokuts pronouns. "Diachronica", "5", 59-71.
* Golla, Victor. (1964). "Comparative Yokuts phonology". University of California publications in linguistics (No. 34); Studies in Californian linguistics. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
* Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005). "Ethnologue: Languages of the world" (15th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. (Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com).
* Hockett, Charles. (1973). Yokuts as a testing ground for linguistic methods. "International Journal of American Linguistics", "39", 63-79.
* Mithun, Marianne. (1999). "The languages of Native North America". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
* Powell, John Wesley Powell. (1891). "Indian Linguistic Families Of America, North Of Mexico, Government Printing Office", Washington, 1891, pages 90-91. [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/17286/17286-8.txt]
* Whistler, Kenneth; & Golla, Victor. (1986). Proto-Yokuts reconsidered. "International Journal of American Linguistics", "52", 317-358.
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