CST4


CST4

Cystatin S, also known as CST4, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: CST4 cystatin S| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=1472| accessdate = ]

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summary_text = The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. Some of the members are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired this inhibitory activity. There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the kininogens. The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions. The cystatin locus on chromosome 20 contains the majority of the type 2 cystatin genes and pseudogenes. This gene is located in the cystatin locus and encodes a type 2 salivary cysteine peptidase inhibitor. The protein is an S-type cystatin, based on its high level of expression in saliva, tears and seminal plasma. The specific role in these fluids is unclear but antibacterial and antiviral activity is present, consistent with a protective function.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: CST4 cystatin S| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=1472| accessdate = ]

References

Further reading

PBB_Further_reading
citations =
*cite journal | author=Brown WM, Dziegielewska KM |title=Friends and relations of the cystatin superfamily--new members and their evolution. |journal=Protein Sci. |volume=6 |issue= 1 |pages= 5–12 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9007972 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Saitoh E, Isemura S, Sanada K, Ohnishi K |title=Characterization of two members (CST4 and CST5) of the cystatin gene family and molecular evolution of cystatin genes. |journal=Agents Actions Suppl. |volume=38 ( Pt 1) |issue= |pages= 340–8 |year= 1993 |pmid= 1334620 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Takahashi M, Honda Y, Ogawa K, Barka T |title=Immunofluorescence localization of cystatins in human lacrimal gland and in the exorbital lacrimal gland of the rat. |journal=Acta ophthalmologica |volume=70 |issue= 5 |pages= 625–31 |year= 1993 |pmid= 1471486 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Johnsson M, Richardson CF, Bergey EJ, "et al." |title=The effects of human salivary cystatins and statherin on hydroxyapatite crystallization. |journal=Arch. Oral Biol. |volume=36 |issue= 9 |pages= 631–6 |year= 1992 |pmid= 1741693 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Ramasubbu N, Reddy MS, Bergey EJ, "et al." |title=Large-scale purification and characterization of the major phosphoproteins and mucins of human submandibular-sublingual saliva. |journal=Biochem. J. |volume=280 ( Pt 2) |issue= |pages= 341–52 |year= 1992 |pmid= 1747107 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Isemura S, Saitoh E, Sanada K, Minakata K |title=Identification of full-sized forms of salivary (S-type) cystatins (cystatin SN, cystatin SA, cystatin S, and two phosphorylated forms of cystatin S) in human whole saliva and determination of phosphorylation sites of cystatin S. |journal=J. Biochem. |volume=110 |issue= 4 |pages= 648–54 |year= 1992 |pmid= 1778989 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Saitoh E, Isemura S, Sanada K, Ohnishi K |title=The human cystatin gene family: cloning of three members and evolutionary relationship between cystatins and Bowman-Birk type proteinase inhibitors. |journal=Biomed. Biochim. Acta |volume=50 |issue= 4-6 |pages= 599–605 |year= 1992 |pmid= 1801729 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Lamkin MS, Jensen JL, Setayesh MR, "et al." |title=Salivary cystatin SA-III, a potential precursor of the acquired enamel pellicle, is phosphorylated at both its amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions. |journal=Arch. Biochem. Biophys. |volume=288 |issue= 2 |pages= 664–70 |year= 1991 |pmid= 1898055 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Bobek LA, Aguirre A, Levine MJ |title=Human salivary cystatin S. Cloning, sequence analysis, hybridization in situ and immunocytochemistry. |journal=Biochem. J. |volume=278 ( Pt 3) |issue= |pages= 627–35 |year= 1991 |pmid= 1898352 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Freije JP, Abrahamson M, Olafsson I, "et al." |title=Structure and expression of the gene encoding cystatin D, a novel human cysteine proteinase inhibitor. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=266 |issue= 30 |pages= 20538–43 |year= 1991 |pmid= 1939105 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Saitoh E, Isemura S, Sanada K, "et al." |title=Cystatin superfamily. Evidence that family II cystatin genes are evolutionarily related to family III cystatin genes. |journal=Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler |volume=369 Suppl |issue= |pages= 191–7 |year= 1989 |pmid= 3202964 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Hawke DH, Yuan PM, Wilson KJ, Hunkapiller MW |title=Identification of a long form of cystatin from human saliva by rapid microbore HPLC mapping. |journal=Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. |volume=145 |issue= 3 |pages= 1248–53 |year= 1987 |pmid= 3496880 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Isemura S, Saitoh E, Ito S, "et al." |title=Cystatin S: a cysteine proteinase inhibitor of human saliva. |journal=J. Biochem. |volume=96 |issue= 4 |pages= 1311–4 |year= 1985 |pmid= 6394600 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Isemura S, Saitoh E, Sanada K |title=Isolation and amino acid sequence of SAP-1, an acidic protein of human whole saliva, and sequence homology with human gamma-trace. |journal=J. Biochem. |volume=96 |issue= 2 |pages= 489–98 |year= 1985 |pmid= 6501254 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Dickinson DP, Thiesse M, Dempsey LD, Millar SJ |title=Genomic cloning, physical mapping, and expression of human type 2 cystatin genes. |journal=Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. |volume=4 |issue= 3-4 |pages= 573–80 |year= 1993 |pmid= 7690606 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Dickinson DP, Zhao Y, Thiesse M, Siciliano MJ |title=Direct mapping of seven genes encoding human type 2 cystatins to a single site located at 20p11.2. |journal=Genomics |volume=24 |issue= 1 |pages= 172–5 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7896273 |doi= 10.1006/geno.1994.1595
*cite journal | author=Thiesse M, Millar SJ, Dickinson DP |title=The human type 2 cystatin gene family consists of eight to nine members, with at least seven genes clustered at a single locus on human chromosome 20. |journal=DNA Cell Biol. |volume=13 |issue= 2 |pages= 97–116 |year= 1994 |pmid= 8179826 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Henskens YM, van den Keijbus PA, Veerman EC, "et al." |title=Protein composition of whole and parotid saliva in healthy and periodontitis subjects. Determination of cystatins, albumin, amylase and IgA. |journal=J. Periodont. Res. |volume=31 |issue= 1 |pages= 57–65 |year= 1996 |pmid= 8636877 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Baron A, DeCarlo A, Featherstone J |title=Functional aspects of the human salivary cystatins in the oral environment. |journal=Oral diseases |volume=5 |issue= 3 |pages= 234–40 |year= 2000 |pmid= 10483070 |doi=

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