Edward D. Thalmann

Infobox Military Person
name= Edward Deforest Thalmann
born= birth date|1945|04|03-Death date and age|2004|07|24|1945|04|03
died=
placeofbirth= Jersey City, New Jersey
placeofdeath= Durham, North Carolina


caption=
nickname=|allegiance= flagicon|United States United States of America
branch=United States Navy
serviceyears= 1971 - 1993
rank= Captain
commands=
unit=
battles=
awards= Legion of Merit Meritorious Service Medal
Navy Unit Commendation
Navy and Marine Corps Meritorious Unit Commendation with service star
National Defense Service Medal with service star
Navy and Marine Corps Overseas Service Ribbon with service star
laterwork= Naval Medical Research Institute Duke University Divers Alert Network

Capt. Edward Deforest Thalmann, USN (ret.) (b. 3 April, 1945-d. 24 July, 2004; age 59) was an American hyperbaric medicine specialist who was principally responsible for developing the current United States Navy dive tables for mixed-gas diving, which are based on his eponymous Thalmann Algorithm (VVAL18). [cite web|url=http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7644/20874/00968236.pdf?arnumber=968236|title=The U.S. Navy Dive Computer|first=D.G.|last=Southerland|coauthors=Butler, F.K.|date=2001|format=PDF|publisher=] At the time of his death, Thalmann was serving as Assistant Medical Director of the Divers Alert Network (DAN) and an Assistant Clinical Professor in Anesthesiology at Duke University’s Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology. [cite web|url=http://www.supsalv.org/pdf/faceplatefebruary2005.pdf |work=Faceplate|publisher=U.S. Navy|date=February, 2005|title=Hard Hat History: Obituaries|format=PDF|page=20]

Education

Thalmann graduated from Sayreville High School, Sayreville NJ in 1962. He attended the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, graduating in 1966 with a bachelor of science degree. [cite web|url=http://www.rpi.edu/news/magazine/winter2004/memoriam.html |work=Rensselaer Magazine|title=In Memoriam|date=Winter 2004|publisher=Rensselaer Alumni Association] He attended medical school at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. From 1970-1971, Dr. Thalmann was a surgical intern at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, Quebec. It was there that he met his future wife, a nursing student.

While on active duty, from 1975-1977, Dr. Thalmann conducted a two-year postdoctoral fellowship under the guidance of Claes Lundgren and Hermann Rahn, at the State University of New York at Buffalo, studying the effects of immersion and breathing bag placement in rebreathers on underwater exercise. [cite web|url=http://www.diversalertnetwork.org/news/article.asp?newsid=442|publisher=Divers Alert Network|title=Ed Thalmann, M.D., Assistant Medical Director at DAN, Dies|date=2004-07-26]

Naval career

Dr. Thalmann served as Chief Medical Officer on board the ballistic missile submarine USS "Thomas Jefferson" for a single deployment, from 1971-1972 before being posted as a research diving medical officer at the Naval Experimental Diving Unit (NEDU) at the Washington Navy Yard, where he was stationed until 1975.

Following his post-doctoral fellowship in Buffalo, in 1977, Dr. Thalmann returned to NEDU, now located in Panama City, Florida, as Assistant Senior Medical Officer, where he began developing new dive tables and mixed-gas diving techniques. [cite web|url=http://www.divecochran.com/press_clippings/Skin_Diver/0701.html|publisher=Cochran Undersea Technology|first=Frank K.|last=Butler|title= The U.S. Navy Decompression Computer] [cite web|url=http://eubs.org/EJUHM%20Vol5No3%20Webversion.pdf|format=PDF|work=Underwater and Hyperbaric Medicine|publisher=European Underwater and Baromedical Society|date=September 2004|title=Ed Thalmann, M.D., Assistant Medical Director of Divers Alert Network for nine years, died July 24 in his Durham, North Carolina, home at the age of 59|page=42] While at NEDU, Thalmann created a number of unique and innovative underwater exercise devices, still in use today, intended to assist in gauging the underwater endurance of divers using various gas mixtures while performing physically-demanding tasks. [Anecdotal information provided by Dr. Thalmann's daughters.]

In 1985, Dr. Thalmann, now the Senior Medical Officer at NEDU, was selected for the NATO Undersea Medicine Personnel Exchange Program and assigned to the Royal Navy Institute of Naval Medicine, Alverstoke, United Kingdom. There he continued development of a new decompression table and worked on improving undersea thermal protection garments. Upon the conclusion of his exchange tour in 1987, Thalmann returned to Bethesda to serve as the commander of the Naval Medical Research Institute's diving medicine and physiology research division.

Civilian career

Following his retirement from the Navy in 1993, Thalmann stayed on at NMRI as a senior scientist in decompression research.cite web|url=http://anesthesia.mc.duke.edu/alumni/pdf/fall04mag.pdf|format=PDF|work=Duke Anesthesiology Alumnus|date=Fall 2004|title=In Memoriam: Edward Deforest Thalmann, 1945-2004|page=1|first=Claude|last=Pianadosi|publisher=Duke University Department of Anesthesiology] In July of 1994 took a position in Durham, North Carolina at Duke's Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology and later accepted a simultaneous position as the Assistant Medical Director of DAN in 1995.

Dr. Thalmann died on July 24, 2004 in Durham, due to congestive heart failure, at the age of 59. He was comitted to the sea on August 31, 2004 with services conducted aboard USS "Maryland", an "Ohio"-class submarine, off the coast of Kings Bay, Georgia at coord|30|57|00|N|79|53|30|W|. [cite news|title=Letter from Commanding Officer, USS "Maryland" to Ms. Katherine N. Thalmann|first=C.S.|last=Rausch|publisher=Department of the Navy|date=2004-08-31]

Contributions to hyperbaric medicine

Dr. Thalmann's initial studies were aimed at developing a mathematical algorithm that reflected, as closely as possible, the science of gas exchange in human tissues and which could replace early 20th century Haldanean procedures that had been modified in the mid-20th century based largely on trial and error.

Using the concepts of maximum likelihood as a theoretical foundation, Dr. Thalmann supervised hundreds of experimental dives to develop and verify a new set of decompression tables to protect divers. These tables were approved for use by the United States Navy and provide for much greater flexibility in depth and duration for safe diving and allow for the use of breathing gases other than air. This increased the operational capabilities of U.S. military divers, and the Thalmann Algorithm is being used by the United States Navy to develop diver-carried computers to calculate safe individual time limits for complex dive of varying depth.

In addition, Dr. Thalmann’s theoretical work is being used to revise the standard United States Navy Decompression Tables employed for less complex dives using compressed air. This will eventually benefit future military divers as well as the thousands of civilian recreational divers, worldwide. Dr. Thalmann was also part of the team that developed the protocols used to protect U.S. astronauts from decompression sickness when they leave the 1 atmosphere environment of the International Space Station for the lower atmospheric pressure in their space suits.

Awards

* Legion of Merit awarded in 1994
* Meritorious Service Medal awarded in 1985
* Navy Unit Commendation
* Navy and Marine Corps Meritorious Unit Commendation with bronze service star (2 awards)
* National Defense Service Medal with bronze service star (2 awards)
* Navy and Marine Corps Overseas Service Ribbon with bronze service star (2 awards)

*
*Diving Medical Officer badge
*

Bibliography

Refereed Journals

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*cite journal |last=Raymond |first=L. W. |coauthors=J. H. Crothers; G. Lindgren; E. D. Thalmann; W. H. Spaur; W. R. Braithwaite; H. C. Langworthy; T. E. Berghage |title=Indirect calorimetry in man in helium-oxygen at 50 atmospheres pressure. |journal=Clin. Res. |volume=21 |issue=4 |pages=848 |date=1973

*cite journal |last=Raymond |first=L. W. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann; G. Lindgren; H. C. Langworthy; W. H. Spaur; J. H. Crothers; W. R. Braithwaite; Berghage, T. E. |title=Thermal homeostasis of resting man in helium-oxygen at 1-50 atmospheres absolute. |journal=Undersea Biomed. Res. |volume=2 |issue=1 |pages=51–67 |date=1975 |issn=0093-5387 |oclc=2068005 |pmid=1181708 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2691 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Berghage |first=T. E. |coauthors=L. E. Lash; W. R. Braithwaite; E. D. Thalmann |title=Intentional tremor on a helium-oxygen chamber dive to 49.5 ATA. |journal=Undersea Biomed. Res. |volume=2 |issue=3 |pages=215–22 |date=1975 |issn=0093-5387 |oclc=2068005 |pmid=15622740 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2426 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Spaur |first=W. H. |coauthors=L. W. Raymond; M. M. Knott; J. H. Crothers; W. R. Braithwaite; E. D. Thalmann; D. F. Uddin |title=Dyspnea in divers at 49.5 ATA: Mechanical, not chemical in origin. |journal=Undersea Biomed. Res. |volume=4 |issue=2 |pages=183–98 |date=1977 |issn=0093-5387 |oclc=2068005 |pmid=878071 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2797 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Raymond |first=L. W. |coauthors=W. H. Spaur; E. D. Thalmann |title=Prevention of divers' ear. |journal=Br Med J. |volume=1 |issue=6104 |pages=48 |date=1978 |pmid=620150 |url=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=620150 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Spaur |first=W. H. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann; E. T. Flynn; J. L. Zumrick; T. W.Reedy; J. M. Ringleberg |title=Development of unlimited duration excursion tables and procedures for helium-oxygen saturation diving. |journal=Undersea Biomed. Res. |volume=5 |issue=2 |pages=159–177 |date=1978 |issn=0093-5387 |oclc=2068005 |pmid=675881 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2826 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Thalmann |first=E. D. |coauthors=D. K. Sponholtz; C. E. G. Lundgren |title=Chamber-based system for physiological monitoring of submerged exercising subjects. |journal=Undersea Biomed. Res. |volume=5 |issue=3 |pages=293–300 |date=1978 |issn=0093-5387 |oclc=2068005 |pmid=705946 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2828 |accessdate=2008-03-15
*cite journal |last=Van Liew |first=H. D. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann; D. K. Sponholtz |title=Diffusion-dependance of pulmonary gas mixing at 5.5 and 9.5 ATA. |journal=Undersea Biomed. Res. |volume=6 |issue=3 |pages=251–258 |date=1979 |issn=0093-5387 |oclc=2068005 |pmid=524527 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2863 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Thalmann |first=E. D. |coauthors=D. K. Sponholtz; C. E. G. Lundgren |title=Effects of immersion and static lung loading on submerged exercise at depth. |journal=Undersea Biomed. Res. |volume=6 |issue=3 |pages=259–290 |date=1979 |issn=0093-5387 |oclc=2068005 |pmid=524528 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2862 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Piantadosi |first=C. A. |coauthors=R. L. Clinton; E. D. Thalmann |title=Prolonged oxygen exposures in immersed exercising divers at 25 fsw (1.76 ATA). |journal=Undersea Biomed. Res. |volume=6 |issue=4 |pages=347–356 |date=1979 |issn=0093-5387 |oclc=2068005 |pmid=538863 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2858 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Piantadosi |first=C. A. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann |title=Thermal responses in humans exposed to cold hyperbaric helium-oxygen. |journal=J. Appl. Physiol. |volume=49 |issue=6 |pages=1099–1106 |date=1980 |issn=0021-8987 |oclc=11603017 |pmid=7440297 |url=http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/49/6/1099 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Piantadosi |first=C. A. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann; W. H. Spaur |title=Metabolic response to respiratory heat loss and core cooling. |journal=J. Appl. Physiol. |volume=50 |issue=4 |pages=829–830 |date=1981 |issn=0021-8987 |oclc=11603017 |pmid=7263366 |url=http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/50/4/829 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Van Liew |first=H. D. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann; D. K. Sponholtz |title=Diffusive gas mixing in the lung in hyperbaric environments. |journal=Prog. Resp. Res. |volume=16 |pages=110–114 |date=1981

*cite journal |last=Van Liew |first=H. D. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann; D. K. Sponholtz |title=Hinderance to diffusive gas mixing in the lung in hyperbaric environments. |journal=J. Appl. Physiol. |volume=51 |issue=2 |pages=243–247 |date=1981 |issn=0021-8987 |oclc=11603017 |pmid=7263431 |url=http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/51/2/243 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Butler |first=F. K. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann |title=Report of an isolated mid-frequency hearing loss following inner ear barotrauma. |journal=Undersea Biomed. Res. |volume=10 |issue=2 |pages=131–134 |date=1983 |issn=0093-5387 |oclc=2068005 |pmid=6612898 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2948 |accessdate=2008-03-15

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*cite journal |last=Thalmann |first=E. D. |title=Phenytoin sodium in oxygen-toxicity-induced seizures. |journal=Ann Emerg Med. |volume=12 |issue=9 |pages=592–3 |date=1983 |pmid=6614618 |doi=10.1016/S0196-0644(83)80324-2

*cite journal |last=Butler |first=F. K. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann |title=Central Nervous System Oxygen Toxicity in Closed Circuit SCUBA Divers II. |journal=Undersea Biomed. Res. |volume=13 |issue=2 |pages=193–223 |date=1986 |issn=0093-5387 |oclc=2068005 |pmid=3727183 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3045 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Thalmann |first=E. D. |title=Testing of revised unlimited-duration upward excursions during helium-oxygen saturation dives. |journal=Undersea Biomed. Res. |volume=16 |issue=3 |pages=195–218 |date=1989 |issn=0093-5387 |oclc=2068005 |pmid=2741254 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2524 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Weathersby |first=P. K. |coauthors=S. S. Survanshi; L. D. Homer; E. Parker; E. D. Thalmann |title=Predicting the time of occurrence of decompression sickness. |journal=J. Appl. Physiol. |volume=72 |issue=4 |pages=1541–1548 |date=1992 |issn=0021-8987 |oclc=11603017 |pmid=1592748 |url=http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/72/4/1541 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Stevens |first=D. M. |coauthors=B. G. Caras; E. T. Flynn; A. J. Dutka; J. W. Thorp; E. D. Thalmann |title=Management of herniated intervertebral disks during saturation dives: a case report. |journal=Undersea Biomed. Res. |volume=19 |issue=3 |pages=191–8 |date=1992 |issn=0093-5387 |oclc=2068005 |pmid=1534427 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2624 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Joye |first=D. D. |coauthors=J. R. Clarke; N. A. Carlson; E. D. Thalmann |title=Characterization and measurement of elastance with application to underwater breathing apparatus. |journal=Undersea Hyperb Med. |volume=21 |issue=1 |pages=53–658 |date=1994 |issn=1066-2936 |oclc=26915585 |pmid=8180567 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2159 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Ball |first=R. |coauthors=J. Himm; L.D. Homer; E. D. Thalmann |title=Does the time course of bubble evolution explain decompression sickness risk? |journal=Undersea Hyperb Med. |volume=22 |issue=3 |pages=263–280 |date=1995 |issn=1066-2936 |oclc=26915585 |pmid=7580767 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2187 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Jiang |first=Y. |coauthors=L.D. Homer; E. D. Thalmann |title=Development and interactions of two inert gas bubbles during decompression. |journal=Undersea Hyperb Med. |volume=23 |issue=3 |pages=131–140 |date=1996 |issn=1066-2936 |oclc=26915585 |pmid=8931280 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2234 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Thalmann |first=E. D. |coauthors=Parker E. C.; S.S. Survanshi; P. K. Weathersby |title=Improved probabilistic decompression model risk predictions using linear-exponential kinetics. |journal=Undersea Hyperb Med. |volume=24 |issue=4 |pages=255–274 |date=1997 |issn=1066-2936 |oclc=26915585 |pmid=9444058 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2276 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Clayton |first=C. E. |coauthors=M. S. Carraway; H. B. Suliman; E. D. Thalmann; K. N. Thalmann; D. E. Schmechel; C. A. Piantadosi |title=Inhaled carbon monoxide and hyperoxic lung injury in rats. |journal=Am J Physiol Cell Mol Physiol. |volume=281 |issue=4 |pages=L949–57 |date=2001 |pmid=11557599

*cite journal |last=Pollock |first=N. W. |coauthors=M. J. Natoli; W. A. Gerth; E. D. Thalmann; R. D. Vann |title=Risk of decompression sickness during exposure to high cabin altitude after diving. |journal=Aviat Space Environ Med. |volume=74 |issue=11 |pages=1163–8 |date=2003 |issn=0095-6562 |pmid=14620473 |url=http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asma/asem/2003/00000074/00000011/art00006 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Piantadosi |first=C. A. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann |title=Pathology: whales, sonar and decompression sickness. |journal=Nature. |volume=428 |issue=6984 |pages=1 p following 716; discussion 2 p following 716. |date=2004 pmid=15085881

*cite journal |last=Vann |first=R. D. |coauthors=W. A. Gerth; P. J. DeNoble; C. F. Pieper; E. D. Thalmann |title=Experimental trials to assess the risks of decompression sickness in flying after diving. |journal=Undersea Hyperb Med. |volume=31 |issue=4 |pages=431–44 |date=2004 |issn=1066-2936 |oclc=26915585 |pmid=15686274 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/4027 |accessdate=2008-03-15

*cite journal |last=Demchenko |first=I. T. |coauthors=Y. I. Luchakov; A. N. Moskvin; D. R. Gutsaeva; B. W. Allen; E. D. Thalmann; C. A. Piantadosi |title=Cerebral blood flow and brain oxygenation in rats breathing oxygen under pressure. |journal=J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. |volume=25 |issue=10 |pages=1288–300 |date=2005 |pmid=15789033 |doi=10.1038/sj.jcbfm.9600110 multicol-end

Non-Refereed Journals and Reports

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*cite journal |last=Thalmann |first=E. D. |title=A prophylactic program for the prevention of otitis externa in saturation divers. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=10-74 |date=1974 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3372 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Thalmann |first=E. D. |coauthors=M. M. Knott, and J. C. Crothers. |title=Determination of the adequacy of helmet ventilation in the Navy MK 12 and MK 5 hard-hat diving apparatus. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=16-74 |date=1974 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/4775 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Spaur |first=W. H. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann and R. C. Maulbeck. |title=Carbon dioxide absorbent canister studies of the hot water heated, helium-oxygen mode, MK 12 surface-supplied diving system. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=20-78 |date=1978 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3513 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Spaur |first=W. H. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann and R. C. Maulbeck. |title=MK 12 surface-supplied diving system helium-oxygen emergency mode study. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=8-79 |date=1979 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3286 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Piantadosi |first=C. A. |coauthors=D. J. Ball, M. L. Nuckols and E. D. Thalmann. |title=Manned evaluation of the NCSC diver thermal protection (DTP) passive system prototype. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=13-79 |date=1979 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3356 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Piantadosi |first=C. A. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann and W. H. Spaur. |title=Improved life support capability in the MK 11 semi-closed circuit UBA by modification of the carbon dioxide absorbent canister. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=5-80 |date=1980 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3287 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Thalmann |first=E. D. |coauthors=I. P. B. Buckingham and W. H. Spaur. |title=Testing of decompression algorithms for use in the U.S. Navy underwater decompression computer (Phase I). |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=11-80 |date=1980 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/4841 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Gray |first=C. G. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann. |title=Manned evaluation of the pre-production MK 16 underwater breathing apparatus. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=13-80 |date=1980 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3358 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Gray |first=C. G. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann and R. Syklawer. |title=United States Coast Guard emergency underwater escape rebreather evaluation. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=2-81 |date=1981 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3515 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Middleton |first=J. R. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann. |title=Manned evaluation of the pre-production MK 16 underwater breathing apparatus. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=3-81 |date=1981 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3297 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Gray |first=C. G. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann. |title=Manned evaluation of Field Change 9/85 to the MK 11 UBA CO2 absorbent canister. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=4-81 |date=1981 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/4845 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Thalmann |first=E. D. |title=Computer algorithms used in computing the MK15/16 constant 0.7 ATA oxygen partial pressure decompression tables. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=1-83 |date=1983 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3294 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Jaggaers |first=F. R. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann. |title=Manned evaluation of MK 15 closed circuit UBA canister duration at 13.4 °C and 2 °C. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=6-83 |date=1983 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3293 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Thalmann |first=E. D. |coauthors=F. K. Butler. |title=A procedure for doing multiple level dives on air using repetitive groups. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=13-83 |date=1983 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3376 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Thalmann |first=E. D. |title=Phase II testing of decompression algorithms for use in the U.S. Navy underwater decompression computer. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=1-84 |date=1984 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/4811 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Butler |first=F. K. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann. |title=Purging procedures for the Draeger LAR V underwater breathing apparatus. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=5-84 |date=1984 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3523 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Butler |first=F. K. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann. |title=Oxygen Toxicity in Closed-Circuit SCUBA Divers. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=11-84 |date=1984 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3378 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Thalmann |first=E. D. |title=Development of a Decompression Algorithm for Constant Oxygen Partial Pressure in Helium Diving. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=1-85 |date=1985 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/4816 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Thalmann |first=E. D. |title=Air-N202 Decompression Computer Algorithm Development. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=8-85 |date=1985 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/4820 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Thalmann |first=E. D. |title=Repetitive/Multi-Level Dive Procedures for Constant 0.7 ATA Oxygen Partial Pressure in Nitrogen Diving. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=9-85 |date=1985

*cite journal |last=Presswood |first=C. G. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann and M. D. Curley. |title=Test and evaluation of two prototype model underwater decompression monitors. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=10-86 |date=1986 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3377 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Thalmann |first=E. D. |coauthors=R. Schedlich, J.R. Broome and P.E. Barker. |title=Evaluation of Passive Thermal Protection Systems for Cold Water Diving. |journal=(Royal Navy) Institute of Naval Medicine Report. Alverstoke, England |volume=25-87 |date=1987

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*cite journal |last=Weinberg |first=R. P. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann. |title=Effects of Hand and Foot Heating on Diver Thermal Balance. |journal=Naval Medical Research Institute Report |volume=90-52 |date=1990 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/4247 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Albin |first=G. |coauthors=P. Massell and E. D. Thalmann. |title=Basic Operation and Preliminary Trials of a Detector for Stationary Gas Bubbles. |journal=Naval Medical Research Institute Report |volume=91-39 |date=1990

*cite journal |last=Thorp |first=J. W. |coauthors=D.M. Stevens, A.J. Dutka, T.J. Doubt and E.D. Thalmann. |title=Pyridostigmine Prophylaxis During Warm Water Diving Operations. |journal=Navy Medicine |volume=83 |issue=1 |pages=23–26 |date=1992

*Survanshi SS, Weathersby PK, Homer LD, Thalmann ED. Design of Dive Trials. In: Lang MA, Vann RD eds: [http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/4243 AAUS Repetitive Dive Workshop] . Costa Mesa, CA. American Academy of Underwater Scientists, 1992:287-292.

*cite journal |last=Weathersby |first=P. K. |coauthors=S.S. Survanshi, R.Y. Nishi, and E.D. Thalmann. |title=Statistically based decompression tables VII: Selection and treatment of primary air and N2O2 data. |journal=Joint Report: Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory and Naval Medical Research Institute |volume=NSMRL 1182 and NMRI 92-85 |date=1992 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3408 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Parker |first=E. C. |coauthors=S.S. Survanshi, P.K. Weathersby, and E.D. Thalmann. |title=Statistically Based Decompression Tables VIII: Linear Exponential Kinetics. |journal=Naval Medical Research Institute Report |volume=92-73 |date=1992 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3409 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Ball |first=R. |coauthors=J. Himm, L. D. Homer, and E. D. Thalmann. |title=A Model of Bubble Evolution During Decompression Based on a Monte Carlo Simulation of Inert Gas Diffusion. |journal=Naval Medical Research Institute Report |volume=94-36 |date=1994

*cite journal |last=Parker |first=E. C. |coauthors=S.S. Survanshi, E.D. Thalmann and P.K. Weathersby. |title=Statistically based decompression tables IX: probabilistic models of the role of oxygen in human decompression sickness. |journal=Naval Medical Research Institute Report |volume=96-05 |date=1996 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3410 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Survanshi |first=S. S. |coauthors=P. K. Weathersby, and E. D. Thalmann. |title=Statistically based decompression tables X: Real-time decompression algorithm using a probabilistic model. |journal=Naval Medical Research Institute Report |volume=96-06 |date=1996 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3411 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Thalmann |first=E. D. |coauthors=P. C. Kelleher, S. S. Survanshi, E. C. Parker, and P. K. Weathersby. |title=Statistically Based Decompression Tables XI: Manned Validation of the LE Probabilistic Model for Air and Nitrogen-Oxygen Diving. |journal=Naval Medical Research Institute Report |volume=99-01 |date=1999 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3412 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Survanshi |first=S. S. |coauthors=E. C. Parker, E. D. Thalmann, and P. K. Weathersby. |title=Statistically based decompression tables XII: Volume I. Repetitive decompression tables for air and constant 0.7 ata PO2 in N2 using a probabilistic model. |journal=Naval Medical Research Institute Report |volume=97-36 |date=1997

*cite journal |last=Survanshi |first=S. S. |coauthors=E. C. Parker, E. D. Thalmann, and P. K. Weathersby. |title=Statistically based decompression tables XII: Volume II. Repetitive dive tables: Air. |journal=Naval Medical Research Institute Report |volume=97-36 |date=1997

*cite journal |last=Survanshi |first=S. S. |coauthors=E. C. Parker, E. D. Thalmann, and P. K. Weathersby. |title=Statistically based decompression tables XII: Volume III. Exceptional exposure tables: Air. |journal=Naval Medical Research Institute Report |volume=97-36 |date=1997

*cite journal |last=Survanshi |first=S. S. |coauthors=E. C. Parker, E. D. Thalmann, and P. K. Weathersby. |title=Statistically based decompression tables XII: Volume IV. Repetitive dive tables: 0.7 ATA PO2 in N2. |journal=Naval Medical Research Institute Report |volume=97-36 |date=1997

*cite journal |last=Survanshi |first=S. S. |coauthors=E. C. Parker, E. D. Thalmann, and P. K. Weathersby. |title=Statistically based decompression tables XII: Volume V. Exceptional exposure tables: 0.7 ATA PO2 in N2. |journal=Naval Medical Research Institute Report |volume=97-36 |date=1997

*cite journal |last=Gerth |first=W. A. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann. |title=Vascular Effects of Underwater Low Frequency Sound in Immersed Individuals. |journal=Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory Report |date=1998

*cite journal |last=Latson |first=G. W. |coauthors=E. T. Flynn, W. A. Gerth, and E. D. Thalmann. |title=Accelerated Decompression Using Oxygen for Submarine Rescue - Summary Report and Operational Guidance. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=11-00 |date=2000 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3582 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Hamilton Jr |first=R. W. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann and D. J. Temple. |title=Multi-Day Air Saturation at 20 and 22 FSW With Direct Ascent: Data Report on Project 92-09. |journal=Naval Medical Research Institute Report Report |volume=02-01 |date=2002 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/4585 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Hamilton Jr |first=R. W. |coauthors=E. D. Thalmann and D. J. Temple. |title=Surface Decompression Diving: Data Report on Protocol 90-02. |journal=Naval Medical Research Institute Report Report |volume=ADA455075 |date=2002 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/4980 |accessdate=2008-03-16

*cite journal |last=Thalmann |first=E. D. |title=Suitability of the USN MK15(VVAL18) Decompression Algorithm for Air Diving. |journal=Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report |volume=03-12 |date=2003 |url=http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/4586 |accessdate=2008-03-16 multicol-end

Book Chapters

*cite book|last=Vann|first=R.D|coauthors=E.D. Thalmann|chapter=Decompression Modeling and Physiology|editor=Bennett, P.B. and Elliott, D.H. eds.|title=The Physiology and Medicine of Diving and Compressed Air Work|edition=Fourth Edition|location=London|publisher=Bailliere Tindall|date=1993|oclc=2000230

* Thalmann, E.D., editor of Chapter 8: "Diving Medicine", in: cite book|title=U.S. Navy Diving Manual, Vol 1. 1984, 1993 revisions. |url=http://www.supsalv.org/00c3_publications.asp?destPage=00c3&pageId=3.9

* Invited Reviewer for: "Treatment of decompression sickness", Chapter 13. In: cite book|last=Edmonds|first=C.|coauthors=Lowry, C., and Pennefather, J.|title= Diving and Subaquatic Medicine|edition= Third Edition|location=Oxford|publisher=Butterworth-Heinemann|date=1992|oclc=24009565

*cite book|last=Thalmann|first=E.D.|chapter=Gas Physiology in Diving: Decompression|editor=Fregley, M.J. and C.M. Batteis, eds.|title= Handbook of Physiology, Section 4: Environmental Physiology Volume II| publisher=The American Physiological Society. Oxford University Press.|location=New York|pages=pp. 1012-1015|date=1996

*cite book|last=Thalmann|first=E.D. |chapter=Diving Hazards|title=Safety and Health in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries|editor=Langley, R.L, McLymore, R.L., Meggs, W.J. and Roberson, G.T. eds.|publisher= Government Institutes|location=Rockville, MD|date=1997|oclc=35750471

ee also

References


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