—  town  —
Location of Muzaffarpur
in Bihar and India
Coordinates 26°04′N 85°27′E / 26.07°N 85.45°E / 26.07; 85.45Coordinates: 26°04′N 85°27′E / 26.07°N 85.45°E / 26.07; 85.45
Country India
State Bihar
District(s) Muzaffarpur district
Mayor Vimla Devi Tulsyan
Parliamentary constituency Muzaffarpur
Assembly constituency Muzaffarpur


3,746,714 (2011)

929 /km2 (2,406 /sq mi)

Sex ratio (females per 1,000 males) 920 /

• Male
• Female


• 62%
• 57%

Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)


3172 km2 (1225 sq mi)

60 metres (200 ft)


Muzaffarpur Town (Hindi: मुज़फ़्फ़रपुर, Urdu: مُظفٌر پور About this sound pronunciation ) is a town in Muzaffarpur district in the Indian state of Bihar. It serves as the headquarters of Muzaffarpur district and Tirhut division.

Muzaffarpur, famous for Shahi lychees,[1] is the largest city of northern Bihar. It is situated on the banks of the perennial Burhi Gandak River, which flows from the Someshwar Hills [2] of Himalayas . Muzaffarpur is one of the many gateways to Nepal. Clothes and food-grains are traded between Nepal and Muzaffarpur.



Muzaffarpur, Bihar is located at 26°07′N 85°24′E / 26.12°N 85.4°E / 26.12; 85.4.[2] The town lies in a highly active seismic zone of India. In the disastrous earthquake on 15 January 1934, much of the town suffered severe damage and many lives were lost.[3] It has an average elevation of 47 meters (154 feet). This saucer shaped, low-centered town lies on the great Indo-Gangetic plains of Bihar, over Himalayan silt and sand brought by the glaciers-fed and rain-fed meandering rivers of the Himalayas. The soil of the town is highly fertile, well drained and sandy, white colored and very soft. The landscape is green all year round. The town is surrounded by the flood plain dotted with ponds and oxbow lakes, with sparkling sandy river banks and clean air and water. Numerous private fruit orchards and idyllic rivers are also nearby. The city has a water-table just 20 ft. below ground level. The city has a non-operational civil Aerodrome, Patahi, belonging to the Airport Authority of India which is now somewhat damaged. Muzaffarpur now is a rapidly growing city. The unplanned growth in the last decade has been phenomenal. Thousands of villagers migrated to this town from nearby villages in the rapid urbanization of post-independence India, and this has created serious infrastructure problem. The drainage system and garbage disposal system is disorderly and practically non-existent. The downtown areas of Muzaffarpur are Tilak Maidan Road, Kalyani and Saraiyagunj and Motijheel. These areas are densely populated with small shops as well as branded shops selling a plethora of goods and services. Motijheel is the main shopping area. Chakkar Maidan has a small encampment of members of the Territorial Army[4] non-departmental unit 151 Inf Bn (TA) JAT. Muzaffarpur Town has old temples like Baba Garib Nath (Shiva Temple) [3], Chaturbhuj-sthan,which has also a red light area, Raj Rajeswar Devi Kali (Durga)build by Darbhanga Maharaj, Temple of Raj Darbhanga and Kalibari, the Kali temple. There are also several large and small places of worship of other minority communities .


Muzaffarpur town was established by and named after an Afghan Md.Muzaffar Khan, an Amil (Revenue Officer) . The district is bounded by the East Champaran,Sitamarhi,Vaishali,Saran, Darbhanga and Samastipur districts . It has won international encomiums for its delicious Shahi(Royal) and China Lychee species.

While the history of this town is not available fully but that of the recorded history of the district dates back to the rise of the Vrijjan Republic, when the center of political power shifted from Mithila to Vaishali. The Vrijjan Republic was a confederation of eight clans of which the Licchavis were the most powerful and influential. Even the powerful kingdom of Magadh had to conclude matrimonial alliances in 519 B.C. with the neighboring estates of the Licchavis. Ajatshatru invaded Vaishali and extended his sway over Tirhut. It was at this time that Patliputra (the modern Patna) was founded at the village Patali on the banks of the sacred Ganges river, and Ajatshatru built an invincible fortress to keep vigil over the Licchavis on the other side of the river. Ambarati, 40 km from Muzaffarpur is believed to be the village home of Amrapali, the famous Royal court dancer of Vaishali.

From the visit of the Hieuen Tsang until the rise of the Pala dynasty, Muzaffarpur was under the control of Maharaja Harsha Vardhan, a powerful sovereign of North India. After 647 A.D. the district passed to the local chiefs. In the 8th century A.D. the Pala kings gained control over Tirhut and kept it until 1019 A.D. Chedi kings of Central India also exercised their influence over Tirhut until they were replaced by the rulers of the Sena dynasty towards the close of the 11th century.

Sometime between 1211 and 1226, Ghais-u-ddin Iwaz, the ruler of Bengal, became the first Muslim invader of Tirhut. However, he could not succeed in conquering the kingdom, merely extorting tributes. It was in 1323 that Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq established his control over the district.

The history of Muzaffarpur would be incomplete without a reference to the Simraon dynasty (in the north-east part of Champaran) and its founder, Nanyupa Deva, who extended his power over the whole of Mithila and Nepal. During the regime of Harasimha Deva, the last king of the dynasty, Tughlaq Shah invaded Tirhut in 1323 and gained control over the territory. Tughlaq Shah handed over the management of Tirhut to Kameshwar Thakur. Thus, the sovereign power of Tirhut passed from the Hindu chiefs to the Muslims.

Towards the close of the 14th century the whole of North Bihar, including Tirhut, passed to the kings of Jaunpur and remained under their control for nearly a century, until Sikandar Lodi of Delhi defeated the king of Jaunpur. Meanwhile, Hussain Shah, the Nawab of Bengal, had become so powerful that he exercised his control over large tracts including Tirhut. The emperor of Delhi advanced against Hussain Shah in 1499 and got control over Tirhut after defeating its Raja. The power of the Nawabs of Bengal began to wane and, with the decline and fall of Mahood Shah, north Bihar formed a part of the mighty Mughal Empire. Though Muzaffarpur with the entire north Bihar had been annexed, the petty chieftains continued to exercise effective control over this area until the days of Daud Khan, the Nawab of Bengal. Daud Khan had his stronghold at Patna and Hajipur, and after his fall, a separate Subah of Bihar was constituted under the Mughal dynasty, with Tirhut forming a part of it.

The victory of East India Company in 1764 at the battle of Buxar gave them control over the whole of Bihar and they succeeded in subduing the entire district. The success of the insurgency in Delhi in 1857 caused grave concern to the English inhabitants in this district and revolutionary fervor began to permeate the entire district. Muzaffarpur played its role and was the site of the famous bombing case of 1908. The young Bengali revolutionary, Khudi Ram Bose, a boy of barely 18 years, was hanged for throwing the bomb at the carriage of Pringle Kennedy, who was mistaken for Kingsford, the District Judge of Muzaffarpur. After independence, a memorial to this young revolutionary patriot was constructed at Muzaffarpur, which still stands. The political awakening in the country after the First World War stimulated nationalist movement in Muzaffarpur district as well. The visit of Mahatma Gandhi to Muzaffarpur district in December 1920 and again in January 1927 had tremendous political effect in arousing the latent feelings of the people and the district continued to play a prominent role in the country's struggle for freedom.

Muzaffarpur played a very significant role in the history of North-Eastern India. The peculiarity of Muzaffarpur in Indian civilization arises out of its position on the frontier line between two most vibrant spiritual influences. To this day, it is a meeting place of Hindu and Islamic culture and thoughts. All sorts of modified institutions, representing mutual assimilation, rise along this border line. It has undoubtedly been this highly diversified element within her boundaries that has so often made Muzaffarpur the birthplace of geniuses.

In January 1934, a colossal 8.1 magnitude earthquake struck the area, completely demolishing part of the city. The region was shaken strongly again in the 1988 Bihar earthquake.


The summer, between April and June, is extremely hot and humid (28/40 deg C,90% Max.) and winter is pleasantly cool, around 06/20 deg C. The air pollution is lower than in other areas, so the air is comparatively clean. The best months to visit are October through March. It is best to avoid visits in the summer and the monsoon season (Mid June to September) due to prolonged power cuts, the heat, and flooding in the town.


Muzaffarpur is famous for exporting Lichi. Long ago, the area was famous for hand-woven textiles, sugar cane, and other products. The district has a few sugar mills, which are now old and dilapidated. It is the commercial hub of North Bihar and the wholesale market of Mumbai, Surat and Ahmedabad. Textile mills in the famous Marwari community dominate Suta Patti. The commercial hub of the town is Motijheel.

The land use around Muzaffarpur is mainly agricultural and horticultural .While Litchee and Mangoes are abundantly grown, principal crops are rice, wheat, pulses, jute, maize and oil seeds. Vegetables like Cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, radish, carrot, beetroot, among others, are also grown. Sugar- cane, potato and barley are some of the non-cereal crops grown.

The main livestock of the town are cattle, buffalo, goats, and poultry. Muzaffarpur Town has several industries, big and small. The Railway wagon industry is one of the town's land-mark. Muzaffarpur is a important centre for the wholesale cloth trade.

Lychee [4]

The litchi crop, which is available from May to June, is mainly cultivated in the districts of Muzaffarpur and surrounding districts, in an area of about 25,800 hectare producing about 3 Lakh tonnes every year. Lychee is exported to big cities like Bombay, Kolkata and to other countries. India's share in the world litchi market amounts to less than 1%. The names of the litchi produced in Muzaffarpur are Shahi and China. The fruits are known for excellent aroma and quality.


As of the 2011 India census,[5] Muzaffarpur had a population of 3,746,714. Males constituted 54%(1951466) of the population and females 46%(1795248). Muzaffarpur had a literacy rate of 60%, close to the national average of 74%. Male literacy was 62%, and female literacy was 57%. Thirteen percent of the population was under 6 years of age.

Many languages are spoken in Muzaffarpur. The major dialect of the region is Vajjika – a mix of Maithili and Bhojpuri. Hindi and Urdu are the official languages. Other dialects spoken, from various regions of Bihar, include Angika, Bhojpuri, Maithili and Bengali, Nepali, Punjabi, Sindhi, Marwari etc. English is spoken by about 10 percent of the population.


There is no specific, authentic and purely "Muzaffarpur cuisine" as such: most of the cuisine can at best be termed regional cuisine. The basic ingredients are rice, wheat flour, lentils (green and yellow), root and leafy vegetables, Indian spices, ground nut oil, Mustard seed oil, ghee, sugar and jaggery, among others. The traditional breakfast includes jalebi, poori, samosa or potato curry served hot with any of a variety of chutneys and finished with milk tea. Indianised Chinese dishes such as noodles, Tandoori dishes and South Indian dishes are also eaten. Most of the ethnic cuisine and special dishes are cooked during festivals, religious functions and marriages. In modern Muzaffarpur, ethnic cuisines have given way to the oily, hot and spicy foods of the Pan-Indian type.

Toddy is a fermented juice of the palm tree which has about 5%–8% alcohol and is very popular as "Poor Man's Beer" in Muzaffarpur.

A variety of spicy dry, baked, fried, deep fried or curried mutton, chicken, fish and shellfish are prepared and eaten. Mughalai and a few Continental dishes, such as macaroni or spaghetti, duly Indianised, are home cooked and relished by some people. Pre- and post-dinner Betel nut (Paan) chewing is very popular, along with chewing tobacco.


Muzaffarpur Railway Station is a main railway junction, with two suburban stations, Ram Dayalu Nagar and Narayanpur. Local and inter-state buses start from Bairiya and Imli Chatti Bus Station. The airport, Patahi Aerodrome, had regular flights to some cities but does not operate any commercial flights now.


Muzaffarpur is the 3rd leading centre of education in Bihar after [Patna & darbhanga]. It has a medical and an engineering college and is seat of one of the oldest universities of Bihar (Bihar University, now known as B. R. Ambedkar Bihar University). The first President of Indian Republic – "Dr Rajendra Prasad" was a teacher in the Greer Bhumihiar Brahman College, Muzaffarpur.

Institutions of Higher Education

  • Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology (1954): Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology is one of the premier technical institutions of eastern India. It is under administrative control of the Department of Science and Technology and wholly funded by the Government of Bihar. It is affiliated with B.R.A. Bihar University, and offers UG courses in seven streams of engineering, with postgraduate specialisation in Machine Design and Thermal Engineering. The institute caters to the research and development activities of the state of Bihar.
  • Government Ploytechnic, Muzaffarpur: One of the oldest Technical Institute of eastern India, initially known as Trihut School of Engineering.
  • S.K.Medical College (1969)
  • B. R. Ambedkar Bihar University: Bihar University is a public university located in the north prime of Bihar state in the city of Muzaffarpur in India. This university has 37 constituent colleges. Distance education courses are also offered, and the university also organizes symposia, seminars and workshops. The university is a premier institution of teaching and learning in the city and has various full-time and part-time offerings ranging from undergraduate to postgraduate and research level courses. The university also acts as a link between colleges and institutes located across the state in providing higher education. The following colleges are associated with Bihar University.
    • Langat Singh College: This is the oldest college of Muzaffarpur. Affiliated to the University of Bihar, it has had the likes of Dinkar, a famous Hindi poet, Dr. Rajendra Prasad the first President of India, and Acharya J. B. Kripalani as its faculty members.
    • Ram Dayalu Singh College: The college has been established by and named after the first speaker of Bihar Vidhan Sabha (Shri Ram Dayalu Singh).

Schools of Muzaffarpur

  • Shantiniketan Awasiya Bal Vidyalaya, North Bihar's first CBSE affiliated School.
  • Zila School, Its a government high school once known for its proud students.
  • D.A.V. Public School, Khabra A very reputed school with good infrastructure.
  • The Jaintpur Public School, Founded by Late Sri Birendra Kumar Singh of Jaintpur State. Its situated in the heart of the city

and very close to government bus stand and Muzaffarpur Railway station.

  • Sunshine Preparatory High School, It is currently one of the leading schools of the city.
  • North Point High School, It is the only ICSE affiliated school of the city.
  • Prabhat Tara, A very famous girls' school affiliated to the state board.
  • Holy Mission Sr. Secondary School, In very short span of time the school has risen to become one of the reputed schools of

the city. It has been founded by the SMART group(represents the five rebellion teachers of Shantiniketan Awasiya Bal Vidayala.

  • St. Xavier's High School It is a school, one would ever have attended.
  • The Takshila School
  • Government High School, Jarang, Near Gayghat on Muzaffarpur Darbhanga Road.
  • Muradpur public school,Muradpur

There are several other schools for secondary and higher secondary studies.

Notable people of Muzaffarpur

  • Janki Ballabh Shastri, author [Late]
  • Khudi Ram Bose
  • Chandeshwar Prasad Narayan Singh, India's first ambassador to Nepal and later ambassador to Japan (from 1958). He was also the second Governor of Punjab in 1953 and then governor of Uttar Pradesh from 1980 to 1985.
  • Shri Mahesh Prasad, Prominent leader and politician and Minister.


External links

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