F-Zero (series)

nihongo|"F-Zero"|エフゼロ|Efu Zero is a series of futuristic racing video games originally created by Nintendo EAD with multiple games developed by outside companies. The first game appeared on the Super Nintendo in 1990 and was very successful, prompting Nintendo to create multiple sequels on succeeding gaming consoles.

The series has been known for its high-speed racing, unique characters and settings, difficult gameplay, stirring original music and pushing the limits of its technology to be one of the fastest racing games ever. The franchise has been recognized for having the first racing game to be developed this realistically which also offered an original scenario and style of gameplay. It is regarded as an influential video game franchise for its genre inspiring the creation of titles such as "Daytona USA" [cite web|last=Bryant|first=Paul |date=2002-03-29|url= http://www.gaming-age.com/news/2002/3/28-106|title= Interview: F-Zero press conference|publisher= Gaming Age Online|accessdate=2007-04-04] and the "Wipeout" series.cite web|url= http://wii.ign.com/articles/759/759087p1.html |title= F-Zero (Virtual Console) review|last=Thomas|first=Lucas|date=2007-01-26|publisher=IGN |accessdate=2007-02-27]

Overview

Each of the games in "F-Zero" series requires the player to beat opponents to the finish line while avoiding obstacles such as land mines and slip zones. The games usually require a mixture of memorization of the tracks and quick reflexes for its fast-paced racing gameplay. With "F-Zero" and an approximate four second speed boost is given to the player to use whenever for each lap completed. Starting with "F-Zero X", throughout the duration of the race players may execute speed boosts, but now in exchange for losing energy. It is therefore necessary to use recharge strips around the course to replenish this energy, or risk exploding when it drops to zero. Strategically situated dash plates allow boosts without energy loss. In combination with course obstacles, drivers are allowed to attack each other with their vehicle bodies.

The games' fantasy worlds includes different climates and terrains, and are home to many different races and tribes of aliens. There are geographical differences from game to game, but distinctive locations recur, such as Big Blue, Mute City, and Port Town.

Characters

While there were originally four "F-Zero" pilots in the first game, this has grown with each title to over forty characters in the later games of the series. Each character has their own unique vehicle, story and reason for entering the F-Zero Grand Prix. The winner of the Grand Prix receives a huge sum of prize money, but many pilots have been lost pursuing it. Some of the characters are superheroes, supervillains, cyborgs, mutants, and the like, which makes the series akin to something out of an American comic book.

F-Zero machines

The vehicles used to race in these video games are called "F-Zero machines", which are designed to hover, rather than travel on wheels. An anti-gravity unit, known as the "G-Diffuser System", allows them to drive at high speeds, while retaining a hold of the magnetic track, located from a few inches to a foot below it.cite web|author=IGN Staff |date=1998-07-14 |title=F-Zero X| publisher=IGN|url= http://ign64.ign.com/articles/120/120418p1.html|accessdate=2007-05-30] However, the slip zones, also referred to as the "magnetic field block coat" in the first "F-Zero" game, blocks the vehicle from retaining a hold on the track. The racing machines developed for these tracks used the latest in this magnetic technology, and are able to perform tune-ups.cite book | year=1991 | editor=Nintendo EAD | title=F-Zero instruction manual | pages=pp. 3-4, 20-28 | publisher=Nintendo | date=1991-08-15 | language=English] Out of the over forty-four known machines, only about five do not weigh over a ton. "F-Zero" machines have a maximum speed exceeding that of sound. This is possible due to the ultra-compact micro-plasma engines used by the machines.

Each machine has four basic performance attributes: body, boost, grip and weight. Body, boost, and grip are rated on a scale from A to E (A being the best, E, the worst).cite web|last=Schneider|first=Peer|authorlink=Peer Schneider |date=2003-08-25 |title=F-Zero GX Tips & Techniques| publisher=IGN|url= http://guides.ign.com/guides/480123/page_2.html|accessdate=2006-11-12] The higher a machine's Body rating, the more durable it is and the less damage it will sustain in a collision. Machines with a good Body rating are, therefore, able to withstand more attacks before exploding.Cite book |last=Pelland |first=Scott (ed.) |title=F-Zero GX Player's Guide |year=2003 |publisher=Nintendo of America, Inc |location=Redmond, Washington |isbn=1930206-35-6] The Boost rating takes into account the duration of a vehicle's boost, and how great a speed increase it provides. A machine with a high rating can travel at higher than normal speeds for a longer period of time. Grip determines how well a machine negotiates turns. A higher Grip rating means that the player's vehicle will execute steadier turns, while a low one will cause the vehicle to drift more, especially when turning tightly. Weight affects a vehicle's acceleration, grip, cornering ability, maximum speed, and the amount of damage it sustains in a collision. A lighter vehicle is superior in the first three categories, while a heavier vehicle has the advantage in the latter two.

F-Zero circuits

Circuits are usually set on the outskirts of cities or above them situated high in planet atmospheres at an elevation as much as 300 feet above ground. They contain anti-gravitational guide beams on both sides of the course that keep them in place. Rich merchants from cities in the clouds or asteroids with almost uninhabitable environments invested their wealth in the construction of racing circuits. Some cities have multiple circuits--circuits not used for the Grand Prix are open to pilots for practice. The dynamic structure of the courses are colossal in scale, as most circuits feature a single lap that spans over six miles.cite book | year=2003 | editor=Amusement Vision | title=F-Zero GX instruction manual | pages=pp. 6-7, 33, 41 | publisher=Nintendo |date=2003-08-25 | language=English | id=]

History

ImageSize = width:200 height:500PlotArea = left:50 bottom:10 top:10 right:0

DateFormat = yyyyPeriod = from:1990 till:2005TimeAxis = orientation:vertical order:reverseScaleMajor = unit:year increment:1 start:1990ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:1 start:1990

Colors = id:blue value:rgb(0,0,0) id:red value:rgb(0.9,0.05,0.05)

# there is no automatic collision detection,
# so shift texts up or down manually to avoid overlap

Define $dx = 25 # shift text to right side of bar

# shift texts up or down when two have same yearDefine $up = shift:($dx,1)Define $dw = shift:($dx,-8)

PlotData= bar:Games anchor:till color:green width:15 textcolor:blue align:left fontsize:S mark:(line,white) shift:($dx,-4) from:1990 till:2005 at:1990 text:"F-Zero" at:1996 text:"BS F-Zero" at:1997 text:"BS F-Zero 2" at:1998 text:"F-Zero X" at:2001 text:"" at:2003 text:"F-Zero GX" at:2003 shift:($dx,-14) text:"F-Zero AX" at:2003 shift:($dx,-21) text:"" at:2004 text:"Climax"

1990 — 2000

The premiere game in the series and a launch title for the SNES, "F-Zero" was also the first Super Nintendo title to use a technique that Nintendo called "Mode 7 Scrolling". When Mode 7 was combined with scaling and positioning of the layer on a scanline-by-scanline basis it could simulate 3D environments. Such techniques in games were considered to be revolutionary in a time when most console games were restricted to static/flat backgrounds and 2 dimensional (2D) objects. The result was developer Nintendo EAD creating the fastest and smoothest pseudo-3D racer ever on a console at that time.

A sequel of the first "F-Zero" game was canceled, but was still released under the names of "BS F-Zero Grand Prix" and a year later by "BS F-Zero 2 Grand Prix". This unfinished sequel was instead released for the Super Famicom's satellite-based expansion, Satellaview, during the mid-1990s in Japan. [cite web| title=BS F-Zero 2 Grand Prix| url= http://cheats.ign.com/objects/573/573890.html |accessdate=2006-12-17 |publisher=IGN] "Zero Racers" ("G-Zero"), was a canceled game for the Virtual Boy. The game was previewed by Nintendo Power. [cite journal | year = 1996| month = | title = Preview: Zero Racers| journal = Nintendo Power | volume = 87| pages = pp. 40-41 | publisher = Nintendo| location = | issn = ] Gameplay differs in one important point from its predecessor and all "F-Zero" games released afterwards. In "Zero Racers", the hovercrafts speed through the three physical dimensions of space in the turning tunnels.

After a roughly seven-year hiatus outside Japan, the series made the transition to 3D with the third installment, "F-Zero X" on the Nintendo 64. The game introduces 26 new vehicles, and brings back the four from the original "F-Zero" game. In addition to a Grand Prix mode, the title does introduce a "death race" mode and a random track generator called the "X Cup". In the death race, the player's objective is to annihilate the 29 other racers as speedily as possible, while the X-Cup "creates" a different set of tracks each time played.cite web |url= http://ign64.ign.com/articles/150/150418p1.html |title=F-Zero X|accessdate=2007-05-22 |author= Schneider, Peer |authorlink=Peer Schneider| coauthors= Casamassina, Matt|date= 1998-10-27 |publisher=IGN] Despite the hardware limitations of the gaming console, "F-Zero X" used the N64's power to its full extent. This resulted in the game running at 60 frames per second with thirty machines on screen at the same time, however this left little processor power for graphical detail and music. [cite web| url= http://guides.ign.com/guides/480123/page_12.html| title=F-Zero GX guide: History|last=Schneider|first=Peer|authorlink=Peer Schneider|date= 2003-08-25|publisher=IGN |accessdate=2008-05-10]

A Nintendo 64DD expansion known as "F-Zero X Expansion Kit" was released only in Japan as the last add-on disk for the system. The "Expansion Kit" added a course editor, a vehicle editor, two new cups for advanced players, three new machines, and some new background tracks. The course editor was the main attraction of this expansion, and was praised for its amazing amount of depth, as it was virtually the same program the game's designers used to make the courses. [cite web|last=Schneider|first=Peer|authorlink=Peer Schneider|date=2000-07-18 |title=F-Zero X Expansion Kit (Import) review| publisher=IGN|url= http://ign64.ign.com/articles/155/155488p1.html|accessdate=2006-11-14]

2001 — 2004

' was the series fourth released installment, but the first incarnation of the franchise for Nintendo's Game Boy handheld. It was the first title developed by first party subsidiary NDCUBE. [cite web | url= http://www.n-sider.com/articleview.php?articleid=98 |title= Maximum Velocity review|author=JC, Anthony |accessdate=2006-11-16 |publisher=N-Sider ] This GBA launch title returned to the SNES "F-Zeros gameplay with a Mode 7-styled game engine.cite web |url= http://gameboy.ign.com/articles/165/165423p1.html|title=F-Zero: Maximum Velocity review |last=Harris |first=Craig|authorlink=Craig Harris (journalist) |date=2001-06-14| publisher=IGN |accessdate=2006-12-10] The next "F-Zero" title, "F-Zero GX" was the first game in the series to appear on the Nintendo GameCube. It surprised many fans when it was announced that the new game would be developed by Sega's Amusement Vision team (known for the "Super Monkey Ball" games) and would feature a story mode for the first time ever. This game, initially known as "F-Zero GC", retained the core gameplay of the previous games, with a huge focus being on the game's single player mode this time around. The arcade counterpart of "GX" was called "F-Zero AX", which was released alongside of its Nintendo GameCube counterpart in mid-2003. The game had three types of arcade cabinets; standard, the "Monster Ride" and the deluxe which resembled an "F-Zero" vehicle. "F-Zero AX" had six original courses and ten original characters. However, by certain difficult means, the six courses and ten characters could be unlocked in "F-Zero GX". [cite web|last= Gerstmann|first=Jeff|authorlink=Jeff Gerstmann |date=2003-08-25|title= F-Zero GX for GameCube review |url=http://www.gamespot.com/gamecube/driving/fzero/review.html |publisher=GameSpot |accessdate=2006-12-10] [cite web|url= http://www.gamespot.com/arcade/driving/fzeroac/news.html?sid=6071127&mode=previews |title=F-Zero AX Impressions |last=Torres|first=Ricardo |date=2003-07-08 |publisher=GameSpot |accessdate= 2006-12-10 ]

is the second game featuring a story mode, however this one is based on the anime series of the same name. This results in Captain Falcon sharing the spotlight with a new character named Rick Wheeler. [cite web|url= http://gameboy.ign.com/objects/608/608773.html|title=F-Zero: GP Legend |publisher=IGN |accessdate=2006-12-10] Unlike the rest of the titles before it, "GP Legend" takes place in a different period of time happening in the twenty-second century rather than the twenty-sixth.cite web|url=http://cube.ign.com/articles/434/434548p1.html|title=F-Zero: The Cartoon| author=IGN Staff| publisher=IGN| date=2003-08-20 |accessdate=2007-05-30]

The third GBA incarnation was released only in Japan. "F-Zero Climax" was the first title in the series to feature a built-in track editor without the need for an expansion or add-on. Custom tracks can be saved to the cartridge for future use and they can be exchanged with other players via link cable. If memory becomes full or link cable connection cannot be done, the game can generate a password for the track; when it is inputted on any "F-Zero Climax" cartridge, the password will generate the track instantly. [cite web|url=http://gameboy.ign.com/articles/558/558768p1.html| title=F-Zero Climax Playtest|last=Gantayat|first=Anoop|date=2004-10-21|publisher=IGN |accessdate=2006-12-10]

Fictional universe

The "F-Zero" games derives from the 20th and 21st century Formula One races and the fictitious F-Max Grand Prix races from the 24th century. The games portrays races in the future as having come under the influence of wealthy ex-space merchants. They thought that a fast and violent race would be an effective way to get people to gamble, so the ex-merchants established the "F-Zero" Execution Project.cite web |url=http://www.world-of-video-games.com/n64/manuals/f-zero_x.shtml| title=F-Zero X manual| publisher= World of Video Games|accessdate=2006-07-01] The "F-Zero" Grand Prix dates to the 26th century, and is still sponsored by the wealthy elite who originally organized the Execution Project for those events. These races feature the most technologically advanced racing machines, competing in numerous circuits of fast-paced action. It is known for its wild fans, and usually eccentric competitors. Winners of the Grand Prix receive large sums of money, as well as a great deal of prestige throughout the universe.

History

The "F-Zero" games are primarily set on a futuristic Earth in the 26th century, although some games take place much earlier and some circuits have been set on different planets. "F-Zero X" defined the F-Max Grand Prix as the precursor to the "F-Zero" races which took place during the 24th century. According to "F-Zero GX", the greatest driver in the F-Max Grand Prix was Sterling LaVaughn; a statement that would lead to inconsistencies in the sequence of events of "F-Zero"'s storyline.

"F-Zero" begins in the year 2560 where human race's countless encounters with alien life forms throughout the universe greatly expanded Earth's social framework resulting in trade, technology transfer, and cultural interchange are carried out on an interplanetary basis. An association of wealthy space merchants created the "F-Zero Grand Prix", in an attempt to add some excitement to their opulent lifestyles. When the first race was held, people were angered at the brutality of the competition, due to the various obstacles and traps along the raceway. As time passed, however, they became accustomed to these dangers, and even began to demand more excitement and danger in the races. Winning the "F-Zero" championship soon became the highest claim to fame in the universe. This period of time is called the "old-school" "F-Zero" days where the rules seemed non-existent in "F-Zero X".

"F-Zero X"'s storyline starts after the seven-year suspension of Grand Prix races due to the Horrific Grand Finale.cite web|title=The Skull |url=http://www.allgame.com/cg/agg.dll?p=agg&sql=2:3276 |last= Sackenheim|first=Shawn |publisher=All Game Guide |accessdate=2006-12-16] The game explains the "Horrific Grand Finale" was a violent and fiery accident that burnt fourteen drivers to death, including Sterling LaVaughn during the old days of F-Zero. A racer named Super Arrow escaped unscathed as the only survivor. No racing was allowed by the Federation after the crash; despite the "F-Zero" racing prohibition, the sport went underground where many racers went to hone their skills in secret.cite web| url=http://www.allgame.com/cg/agg.dll?p=agg&sql=2:3284 |title= Dr. Stewart|last=Sackenheim |first=Shawn| publisher=All Game Guide |accessdate=2007-06-18] The crash ushered in the establishment of the "F-Zero Racing Academy", after a speech, by Super Arrow to the Federation Congress, which helped to lift the ban.cite web |url=http://www.allgame.com/cg/agg.dll?p=agg&sql=2:3286 |title=Super Arrow|last=Sackenheim |first=Shawn |publisher=All Game Guide |accessdate=2006-12-16] The fictional competition was brought back with the rules and regulations revised.

"F-Zero GX" does not mention the Grand Finale event, but instead the game states Sterling LaVaughn was racing during the "F-Max" era and the F-Zero Grand Prix was suspended four years ago. This game states the character Mighty Gazelle was injured in the huge accident four years ago. However, the Nintendo 64 game mentions that Mighty Gazelle's accident and the accident that suspended the Grand Prix were two separate events.

"" takes place twenty-five years after the SNES title in the year 2585. Players race against the descendants of the original F-Zero racers. [cite web |author=T.J. Deci |title=F-Zero: Maximum Velocity |url=http://www.allgame.com/cg/agg.dll?p=agg&sql=1:33373 |publisher=All Game Guide |accessdate=2006-10-22] "Maximum Velocity" is considered a reboot continuity to the rest of the home console titles since the game has made no indication of the safety revisions carried forth after the huge accident, in fact it states just like the original "F-Zero" game, the extreme danger involved when participating in those races.

Another reboot continuity of the series has "F-Zero" started with "" in the year 2201. and continued with "F-Zero Climax". These games feature some different incarnations of Captain Falcon, Zoda, and other characters.

Critical reception

Matt Casamassina of IGN has said that the "F-Zero" franchise is one of the best video game series in the racing genre. [cite web|url=http://cube.ign.com/articles/434/434947p1.html|last= Casamassina|first=Matt|authorlink=Matt Casamassina | title=F-Zero GX|publisher=IGN| date=2003-08-22 |accessdate=2007-07-24]

An editor from Pro-G stated "F-Zero GX" "still ranks as one of the best high-speed racers ever made". [cite web|url= http://www.videogamer.com/features/article/20-03-2008-344-4.html|title= Top 10: Nintendo games we'd love to see on Wii |accessdate= 2008-09-29 |last= Yin-Poole|first= Wesley |date= 2008-03-20 |work= Pro-G|publisher= VideoGamer.com]

The editors of GameRankings.com have declared "F-Zero GX", the latest Nintendo home console game in the series, the second highest-ranking futuristic racing game of all time by compiling every major numeric review given to the game upon its release.cite web | title=F-Zero GX reviews | publisher=Gamerankings.com | url=http://www.gamerankings.com/htmlpages2/560617.asp | accessdate=2007-07-24] The highest-ranking futuristic game of all time as determined by GameRankings.com is "Wipeout XL".cite web | title=WipeoutXL reviews | publisher=Gamerankings.com | url=http://www.gamerankings.com/htmlpages2/199318.asp | accessdate=2007-12-06]

Their compilation of multiple reviews has "F-Zero X" as the next highest rated game in the series [cite web | title=F-Zero X reviews | publisher=Gamerankings.com | url=http://www.gamerankings.com/htmlpages2/197414.asp | accessdate=2007-07-24] followed by "F-Zero" [cite web | title=F-Zero reviews | publisher=Gamerankings.com | url=http://www.gamerankings.com/htmlpages2/588351.asp | accessdate=2007-07-24] and"F-Zero Maximum Velocity" [cite web | title=F-Zero Maximum Velocity reviews | publisher=Gamerankings.com | url=http://www.gamerankings.com/htmlpages2/468549.asp | accessdate=2007-06-08] and lastly [cite web | title=F-Zero GP Legend reviews | publisher=Gamerankings.com | url= http://www.gamerankings.com/htmlpages2/919100.asp | accessdate=2007-07-24] .

Shigeru Miyamoto commented that past "F-Zero" and "Star Fox" collaborations with outside development houses turned out to be a disappointment for Nintendo. He stated "consumers got very excited about the idea of those games, but the games themselves did not deliver". [cite web|url= http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,20037961,00.html?cid=recirc-peopleRecirc|title=The Man Who Made "Mario" Super|last=Keighley|first=Geoff |date=2007-05-04|publisher= Entertainment Weekly| accessdate=2007-05-09]

Other incarnations

There are a number of "F-Zero" video games and other media creations that have been officially licensed by Nintendo but the anime is not acknowledged by fans as part of the series canon.

Anime

"F-Zero: GP Legend" originally aired all fifty-one episodes from 2003 - 2004 in Japan as a part of TV Tokyo’s lineup. Fifteen episodes were produced before the GP Legend's cancellation in America. Based on the video game "F-Zero GP Legend", the anime have been officially licensed by Nintendo but not acknowledged by fans as part of the series canon. One of the numerous differences the show presented was that the F-Zero racers has a radical different appearance from the home console games. However, most of their persona is done the same way. While not exactly having Captain Falcon as the main star, it still has some familiar faces, including new ones as well.

"F-Zero - The Story of Captain Falcon" comic

An eight-paged comic was included in the manual of the 1990 SNES "F-Zero" game. It had the original character designs of Captain Falcon, the three other original pilots, unknown (or radically designed) "F-Zero" pilots and the "F-Zero" announcer - Mr. Zero. Unlike most of the video games, the comic carried the reader fully through one of Falcon's bounty missions for the first time. Also, the comic had the first and only full appearance in the F-Zero series of Captain Falcon using his sidearm and him using his Falcon Flyer cruiser.

"F-Zero" in other video games

Characters from and references to the "F-Zero" series have appeared in a variety of other video games. Captain Falcon appears as a playable fighter in all three installments of the "Super Smash Bros." series (the original for the Nintendo 64, "Melee" for the GameCube, and "Brawl" for the Wii).

' and , features a simplified "microgame" based on "F-Zero". [cite web| url= http://www.gamespot.com/gba/puzzle/warioware/review.html|title=WarioWare Inc.: Mega MicroGame$ review|accessdate= 2008-05-11|last=Gerstmann |first= Jeff|authorlink=Jeff Gerstmann | date=2007-05-27|publisher= GameSpot] [cite web| url= http://www.cubed3.com/review/110/|title=Wario Ware, Inc: Mega Party Game$ review|accessdate= 2008-05-11|last=Riley |first= Adam | date=2007-09-07|publisher= Cubed³] The "F-Zero" vehicles named Blue Falcon, and Fire Stingray cameos in '. At the back of Hinopio's Inn, deep within Barrel Vocano, these vehicles, along with an Arwing, are displayed as models sitting on top of boxes. The Blue Falcon is also a lightweight kart in Mario Kart Wii.

"F-Zero" and the "Star Fox" series of video games share some similarities inside of their fictional worlds. The "F-Zero" character James McCloud, shares the same name as Fox McCloud's father. James also has a similar resemblance to Fox's father and his vehicle shares some the Arwing's attributes. His "F-Zero" machine and the Arwings, which are piloted by the "Star Fox" main characters, use G-Diffuser systems developed by Space Dynamics. This is the same system "F-Zero" machines use to travel at high speeds. In the game "", one of the obtainable endings has Fox and Falco becoming racers in the "G-Zero Grand Prix" which is also a former name to the canceled "F-Zero" game, "Zero Racers". The "F-Zero" character Octoman also appears as a character.

Notes

External links

* [http://guides.ign.com/guides/480123/page_12.html "F-Zero" series] at IGN


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