House of Habsburg


House of Habsburg
"Habsburg" redirects here. For the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, please see House of Lorraine. For other uses, please see Habsburg (disambiguation).
House of Habsburg
Coat of arms of the House of Habsburg.png
Country Austria, Holy Roman Empire, Spain-Italy, Hungary-Croatia, Bohemia, England-Ireland (Jure uxoris), Portugal, Bosnia and Slovenia
Titles
Founding 12th century - Otto II, Count of Habsburg
Dissolution

Spain:
1700 - Charles II died without issue

Austria and Bohemia:
1780 - Maria Theresa wedded and merged into the House of Lorraine
Cadet branches

The House of Habsburg (English pronunciation: /ˈhæps.bɝːɡ/, German pronunciation: [ˈhaːps.bʊʁk]), also found as Hapsburg, and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and Spanish Empire and several other countries.

The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built around 1020–1030 in present day Switzerland by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who chose to name his fortress Habsburg. His grandson, Otto II, was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "von Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. By 1276, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant, Rudolph of Habsburg, had moved the family's power base from Habsburg Castle to the Archduchy of Austria. Rudolph had become King of Germany/Holy Roman Emperor in 1273, but the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was truly entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became sovereign ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled for the next six centuries.

A series of dynastic marriages[1] enabled the family to vastly expand its domains, to include Burgundy, Spain, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories into the inheritance. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty.

As a result of generations of Habsburg inbreeding, the House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century: The Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II in 1700 and was replaced by the Anjou branch of the House of Bourbon in the person of his great-nephew Philip V. The Austrian branch went extinct in 1780 with the death of Empress Maria Theresa and was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine in the person of her son Joseph II. The new successor house styled itself formally as House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen), although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg.

Contents

Principal roles

Their principal roles were as:

Numerous other titles were attached to the crowns listed above.

History

Counts of Habsburg

The Habsburg dominions around AD 1200 are shown as      Habsburg, among the houses of      Savoy,      Zähringer and      Kyburg
The Habsburg dominions within the Holy Roman Empire acquired before AD 1378 are shown as      Habsburg, among the houses of      Luxembourg and      Wittelsbach

The progenitor of the House of Habsburg may have been Guntram the Rich, a count in Breisgau who lived in the 10th century. His grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, after which the Habsburgs are named. The origins of the castle's name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. Most people assume the name to be derived from the High German Habichtsburg (Hawk Castle), but some historians and linguists are convinced that the name comes from the Middle High German word 'hab/ hap' meaning ford, as there is a river with a ford nearby. The first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108.[2][3][4] The Habsburg Castle was the family seat in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.

The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges, especially countship rights in Zürichgau, Aargau and Thurgau. In the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Alsace and Swabia. They were also able to gain high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they often profited from the extinction of other noble families such as the House of Kyburg.[5]

Kings of the Romans

By the second half of 13th century, count Rudolph IV (1218–1291) had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between Vosges mountains and Lake Constance. Due to these impressive preconditions, on 1 October 1273 Rudolph was chosen as the King of the Romans and received the name Rudolph I of Germany.[5]

In 1282, the Habsburgs gained the rulership of the Duchy of Austria, which they then held for over 600 years, until 1918. Through the forged Privilegium Maius document (1358/59), a special bondage was created between the House and Austria. The document, forged at the behest of Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria (1339–1365), also attempted to introduce rules to preserve the unity of the family's Austrian lands. In the long term, this indeed succeeded, but Rudolph's descendants ignored the rule, leading to the separation of the Albertian and Leopoldian family lines in 1379.[5]

By marrying Elisabeth of Luxembourg, the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund in 1437, Duke Albert V (1397–1439) became the ruler of Bohemia and Hungary, expanding the family's political horizons. The next year, Albert V was crowned as the King of the Romans and received the name Albert II. After his early death in war with the Turks in 1439, and after the death of his son Ladislaus Postumus in 1457, the Habsburgs lost Bohemia and Hungary again. National kingdoms were established in these areas, and the Habsburgs were not able to restore their influence there for decades.

Holy Roman Emperors

In 1440, Frederick III was chosen by the Electoral College to succeed Albert II as the king. After several Habsburg kings had attempted to gain the imperial throne over the years, success finally arrived on 19 March 1452, when Pope Nicholas V crowned Frederick III as the Holy Roman Emperor in a grand ceremony held in Rome. The Pope found in Frederick III an important political ally with whose help he was able to counter the conciliar movement. While in Rome, Frederick III married Eleanor of Portugal, enabling him to build a network of connections with dynasties in the west and southeast of Europe. In contrast to Frederick, who was rather distant to his family, Eleanor had a great influence on the raising and education of Frederick's children, and therefore played an important role in the family's rise to prominence. After Frederick III's coronation, the Habsburgs were able to hold the imperial throne almost continuously for centuries, until 1806.[5]

As Emperor, Frederick III took a leading role inside the family and positioned himself as the judge over the family's internal conflicts, often making use of the privilegium maius. He was able to restore the unity of the house's Austrian lands, as the Albertinian line was now extinct. Territorial integrity was also strengthened by the extinction of the Tirolian branch of the Leopoldian line in 1490/1496. Frederick's aim was to make Austria a united country, stretching from Rhine to Murr and Leitha.[5]

On the external front, one of Frederick's main achievements was the Siege of Neuss (1474–75), in which he forced Charles the Bold of Burgundy to give his daughter Mary of Burgundy as wife to Frederick's son Maximilian.[5] The wedding, which took place on the evening of August 16, 1477, ultimately resulted in the Habsburgs acquiring control of the Low Countries. After Mary's early death in 1482, Maximilian attempted to secure the Burgundian heritance to one of his and Mary's children, Philip the Handsome. Charles VIII of France contested this, using both military and dynastic means, but the Burgundian succession was finally ruled in favour of Philip in the Treaty of Senlis in 1493. After the death of his father in 1493, Maximilian was proclaimed the new King of the Romans, receiving the name Maximilian I. Maximilian was initially unable to travel to Rome to receive the Imperial title from the Pope, due to opposition from Venice and from the French, who were occupying Milan, as well a refusal from the Pope due to enemy forces being present on his territory. In 1508, Maximilian proclaimed himself as the "chosen Emperor", and this was also recognized by the Pope due to changes in political alliances. This had a historical consequence in that in the future, the Roman King would also automatically become Emperor, without needing the Pope's consent. In 1530, Emperor Charles V, became the last person to be crowned as the Emperor by the Pope.[6]

Maximilian's rule (1493–1519) was a time of great expansion for the Habsburgs. In 1497, Maximilian's son, Philip the Handsome (also known as Phillip the Fair) married Joanna of Castile, also known as Joan the Mad, heiress of Castile, Aragon and most of Spain. Phillip and Joan had six children, the eldest of whom became Charles V and inherited the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon, including their colonies in the New World; Southern Italy, Austria and the Low Countries.[7] The foundations for the later empire of Austria-Hungary were laid in 1515 by the means of a double wedding between Louis, only son of Vladislaus II, King of Hungary, and Maximilian's granddaughter Mary; and between her brother, Archduke Ferdinand and Vladislaus' daughter, Anna. The wedding was celebrated in grand style on 22 July 1515, and has been described by some historians as the First Congress of Vienna due to its significant implications for Europe's political landscape. As all the children were still minors, the wedding was formally completed in 1521. Vladislaus died on 13 March 1516, and Maximilian died on 12 January 1519, but his designs were ultimately successful: on Louis's death in 1526, Maximilian's grandson, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor became the King of Bohemia.

By the time of Charles V the "World Emperor" and his "empire on which the sun never sets", the Habsburg dynasty achieved, for the first and only time in their history, the position of a true world power.

Division of the house: Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs

After the April 21, 1521 assignment of the Austrian lands to Ferdinand I by his brother Emperor Charles V (also King Charles I of Spain) (1516–1556), the dynasty split into the junior branch of the Austrian Habsburgs and the senior branch of the Spanish Habsburgs. The Austrian Habsburgs held the title of Holy Roman Emperor after Charles' death in 1558, as well as the Habsburg Hereditary Lands and the Kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungary, while the senior Spanish branch ruled over the Spain and its colonial empire, the Netherlands, the Habsburgs' Italian possessions, and, for a time, Portugal. Hungary was partly under Habsburg rule from 1526. For 150 years most of the country was occupied by the Ottoman Turks but these territories were re-conquered in 1683–1699.

A map of the dominion of the Habsburgs following the Battle of Mühlberg (1547) as depicted in The Cambridge Modern History Atlas (1912); Habsburg lands are shaded green, but do not include the lands of the Holy Roman Empire over which they presided, nor the vast Castilian holdings outside of Europe, and particularly in the New World.

In the secret Oñate treaty, the Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs settled their mutual claims. The Spanish Habsburgs died out in 1700 (prompting the War of the Spanish Succession), as did the last male of the Austrian Habsburg line in 1740 (prompting the War of the Austrian Succession), and finally the last female of the Habsburg male line in 1780. The heiress of the last Austrian Habsburgs (Maria Theresa) had married Francis Stephan, Duke of Lorraine,[8] (both of them were great-grandchildren of Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand III, but from different empresses) and their descendants carried on the Habsburg tradition from Vienna under the dynastic name Habsburg-Lorraine, although technically a new ruling house came into existence in the Austrian territories, the House of Lorraine (see Dukes of Lorraine family tree). It is thought that extensive intra-family marriages within both lines contributed to their extinctions.

Extinction of the Spanish Habsburgs

Charles II's family tree showing the large amount of inbreeding

The Habsburgs sought to consolidate their power by the frequent use of consanguineous marriages, with ultimately disastrous results for their gene pool. Marriages between first cousins, or between uncle and niece, were commonplace in the family. A study of 3,000 family members over 16 generations by the University of Santiago de Compostela suggests that inbreeding directly led to their extinction. The gene pool eventually became so small that the last of the Spanish line Charles II, who was severely disabled by genetic disorders, possessed a genome comparable to that of a child born to a brother and sister, as did his father, likely due to "remote inbreeding".[9] The infamous Habsburg jaw was one such prominent manifestation of inbreeding.[10]

On August 6, 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved under the French Emperor Napoleon I's reorganization of Germany. However, in anticipation of the loss of his title of Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II declared himself hereditary Emperor of Austria (as Francis I) on August 11, 1804, three months after Napoleon had declared himself Emperor of the French on May 18, 1804.

Emperor Francis I of Austria used the official full list of titles: "We, Francis the First, by the grace of God Emperor of Austria; King of Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria; Archduke of Austria; Duke of Lorraine, Salzburg, Würzburg, Franconia, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola; Grand Duke of Cracow; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Sandomir, Masovia, Lublin, Upper and Lower Silesia, Auschwitz and Zator, Teschen, and Friule; Prince of Berchtesgaden and Mergentheim; Princely Count of Habsburg, Gorizia, and Gradisca and of the Tyrol; and Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and Istria".

Under the terms of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 effective autonomy was given to Hungary (see Austria-Hungary). Under this arrangement, the Hungarians referred to their ruler as king and never emperor. This prevailed until the Habsburgs' deposition from both Austria and Hungary in 1918 following defeat in World War I.

On November 11, 1918, with his empire collapsing around him, the last Habsburg ruler, Charles I (who also reigned as Charles IV of Hungary) issued a proclamation recognizing Austria's right to determine the future of the state and renouncing any role in state affairs. Two days later, he issued a separate proclamation for Hungary. Even though he did not officially abdicate, this is considered the end of the Habsburg dynasty. In 1919, the new republican Austrian government subsequently passed a law banishing the Habsburgs from Austrian territory until they renounced all intentions of regaining the throne and accepted the status of private citizens. Charles made several attempts to regain the throne of Hungary, and in 1921 the Hungarian government passed a law which revoked Charles' rights and dethroned the Habsburgs.

The Habsburgs did not formally abandon all hope of returning to power until Otto von Habsburg, Emperor Charles' eldest son, renounced all claims to the throne.

The dynasty's motto[citation needed] is "Let others wage wars, but you, happy Austria, marry!" (Bella gerant alii, tu, felix Austria, nube!), which indicates the knack of the Habsburgs to have their members intermarry into other royal houses, to make alliances and inherit territory. Empress Maria Theresa is recognized quite notably for it and is sometimes referred to as the "Great-Grandmother of Europe"[citation needed].

Family tree

This family tree only includes male scions of the direct House of Habsburg who survived to adulthood.

Habsburg Family Tree.jpg

Main line

Before Rudolph rose to German king, the Habsburgs were Counts in what is today southwestern Germany and Switzerland.

Ancestors

  • Guntram the Rich (ca. 930–985 / 990) Father of:
  • Lanzelin of Altenburg (d. 991). Besides Radbot, he had sons named Rudolph I, Wernher, and Landolf.

Counts of Habsburg

  • Radbot of Klettgau, built the Habsburg Castle (ca. 985–1035). Besides Werner I, he had two other sons: Otto I, who would become Count of Sundgau in the Alsace, and Albrecht I.
  • Werner I, Count of Habsburg (1025 / 1030–1096). Besides Otto II, there was another son, Albert II, who was reeve of Muri from 1111–1141 after the death of Otto II.
  • Otto II of Habsburg; first to name himself as "of Habsburg" (d. 1111) Father of:
  • Werner II of Habsburg (around 1135; d. 1167) Father of:
  • Albrecht III of Habsburg (the Rich), d. 1199. Under him, the Habsburg territories expanded to cover most of what is today the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Father of:
  • Rudolph II of Habsburg (b. circa 1160, d. 1232) Father of:
  • Albrecht IV of Habsburg, (d. 1239 / 1240); father of Rudolph IV of Habsburg, who would later become king Rudolph I of Germany. Between Albrecht IV and his brother Rudolph III, the Habsburg properties were split, with Albrecht keeping the Aargau and the western parts, the eastern parts going to Rudolph III. Albrecht IV was also a mutual ancestor of Sophia Chotek and of her husband Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

Dukes of Austria

In the late Middle Ages, when the Habsburgs expanded their territories in the east, they often ruled as dukes of the Duchy of Austria which covered only what is today Lower Austria and the eastern part of Upper Austria. The Habsburg possessions also included Styria, and then expanded west to include Carinthia and Carniola in 1335 and Tirol in 1363. Their original scattered possessions in the southern Alsace, south-western Germany and Vorarlberg were collectively known as Further Austria. The Habsburg dukes gradually lost their homelands south of the Rhine and Lake Constance to the expanding Old Swiss Confederacy. Unless mentioned explicitly, the dukes of Austria also ruled over Further Austria until 1379, after that year, Further Austria was ruled by the Princely Count of Tyrol. Names in italics designate dukes who never actually ruled.

  • Rudolph II, son of Rudolph I, duke of Austria and Styria together with his brother 1282–1283, was dispossessed by his brother, who eventually would be murdered by one of Rudolph's sons.
  • Albert I (Albrecht I), son of Rudolph I and brother of the above, duke from 1282–1308; was Holy Roman Emperor from 1298–1308. See also below.
  • Rudolph III, oldest son of Albert I, designated duke of Austria and Styria 1298–1307
  • Frederick the Handsome (Friedrich der Schöne), brother of Rudolph III. Duke of Austria and Styria (with his brother Leopold I) from 1308–1330; officially co-regent of emperor Louis IV since 1325, but never ruled.
  • Leopold I, brother of the above, duke of Austria and Styria from 1308–1326.
  • Albert II (Albrecht II), brother of the above, duke of Further Austria from 1326–1358, duke of Austria and Styria 1330–1358, duke of Carinthia after 1335.
  • Otto the Jolly (der Fröhliche), brother of the above, duke of Austria and Styria 1330–1339 (together with his brother), duke of Carinthia after 1335.
  • Rudolph IV the Founder (der Stifter), oldest son of Albert II. Duke of Austria and Styria 1358–1365, Duke of Tirol after 1363.

After the death of Rudolph IV, his brothers Albert III and Leopold III ruled the Habsburg possessions together from 1365 until 1379, when they split the territories in the Treaty of Neuberg, Albert keeping the Duchy of Austria and Leopold ruling over Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, the Windic March, Tirol, and Further Austria.

Albertine line: Dukes of Austria

  • Albert III (Albrecht III), duke of Austria until 1395, from 1386 (after the death of Leopold) until 1395 also ruled over the latter's possessions.
  • Albert IV (Albrecht IV), duke of Austria 1395–1404, in conflict with Leopold IV.
  • Albert V (Albrecht V), duke of Austria 1404–1439, Holy Roman Emperor from 1438–1439 as Albert II. See also below.
  • Ladislaus Posthumus, son of the above, duke of Austria 1440–1457.

Leopoldine line: Dukes of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol

  • Leopold III, duke of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol, and Further Austria until 1386, when he was killed in the Battle of Sempach.
  • William (Wilhelm), son of the above, 1386–1406 duke in Inner Austria (Carinthia, Styria)
  • Leopold IV, son of Leopold III, 1391 regent of Further Austria, 1395–1402 duke of Tyrol, after 1404 also duke of Austria, 1406–1411 duke of Inner Austria

Leopoldine-Inner Austrian sub-line

  • Ernest the Iron (der Eiserne), 1406–1424 duke of Inner Austria, until 1411 together and competing with his brother Leopold IV.
  • Frederick V (Friedrich), son of Ernst, became emperor Frederick III in 1440. He was duke of Inner Austria from 1424 on. Guardian of Sigismund 1439–1446 and of Ladislaus Posthumus 1440–1452. See also below.
  • Albert VI (Albrecht VI), brother of the above, 1446–1463 regent of Further Austria, duke of Austria 1458–1463
  • Ernestine line of Saxon princes, ancestor of George I of Great Britain-descended from sister of Frederick III; also Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse King of Finland 1918

Leopoldine-Tyrol sub-line

  • Frederick IV (Friedrich), brother of Ernst, 1402–1439 duke of Tyrol and Further Austria
  • Sigismund, also spelled Siegmund or Sigmund, 1439–1446 under the tutelage of the Frederick V above, then duke of Tyrol, and after the death of Albrecht VI in 1463 also duke of Further Austria.

Reuniting of Habsburg possessions

Sigismund had no children and adopted Maximilian I, son of duke Frederick V (emperor Frederick III). Under Maximilian, the possessions of the Habsburgs would be united again under one ruler, after he had re-conquered the Duchy of Austria after the death of Matthias Corvinus, who resided in Vienna and styled himself duke of Austria from 1485–1490.

Kings of England

King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors previous to the reunion of the Habsburg possessions

  • Rudolph I, emperor 1273–1291 (never crowned)
  • Albert I, emperor 1298–1308 (never crowned)
  • Albert II, emperor 1438–1439 (never crowned) -ancestor of Empress Catherine II of Russia
  • Frederick III, emperor 1440–1493

Kings of Hungary previous to the reunion of the Habsburg possessions

  • Albert, king of Hungary 1437–1439
  • Ladislaus V Posthumus, king of Hungary 1444–1457

Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria

Coat of arms of Spanish Habsburgs (1580-1621 Version)

Spanish Habsburgs: Kings of Spain, Kings of Portugal (1580–1640)

The War of the Spanish Succession took place after the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg line, to determine the inheritance of Charles II.

Austrian Habsburgs: Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria

The War of the Austrian Succession took place after the extinction of the male line of the Austrian Habsburg line upon the death of Charles VI. The direct Habsburg line itself became totally extinct with the death of Maria Theresa of Austria, when it was followed by the House of Lorraine, styled of Habsburg-Lorraine.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria

Queen Maria Christina of Austria of Spain, great-granddaughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor above. Wife of Alfonso XII of Spain and mother of Alfonso XIII of the House of Bourbon. Alfonso XIII's wife Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg was descended from King George I of Great Britain from the Habsburg Leopold Line {above}.

The House of Habsburg-Lorraine retained Austria and attached possessions after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire; see below.

A son of Leopold II was Archduke Rainer of Austria whose wife was from the House of Savoy; a daughter Adelaide, Queen of Sardina was the wife of King Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia and King of Italy. Their Children married into the Royal Houses of Bonaparte; Saxe-Coburg and Gotha {Bragança} {Portugal}; Savoy {Spain}; and the Dukedoms of Montferrat and Chablis.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Grand dukes of Tuscany

Francis Stephen assigned the grand duchy of Tuscany to his second son Peter Leopold, who in turn assigned it to his second son upon his accession as Holy Roman Emperor. Tuscany remained the domain of this cadet branch of the family until Italian unification.

  • Peter Leopold 1765–1790 (later Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor)
  • Ferdinand III 1790–1800, 1814–1824 (→Family Tree)
  • Leopold II 1824–1849, 1849–1859
  • Ferdinand IV 1859–1860
House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Tuscany line, post monarchy

See Line of succession to the Tuscan Throne

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Dukes of Modena

The duchy of Modena was assigned to a minor branch of the family by the Congress of Vienna. It was lost to Italian unification.

  • Francis IV 1814–1831, 1831–1846 (→Family Tree)
  • Francis V 1846–1848, 1849–1859
House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Modena line, post monarchy
House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Empress consort of France
  • Marie Louise of Austria 1810–1814
House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Duchess of Parma

The duchy of Parma was likewise assigned to a Habsburg, but did not stay in the House long before succumbing to Italian unification. It was granted to the second wife of Napoleon I of France, Maria Luisa Duchess of Parma, a daughter of the Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was the mother of Napoleon II of France. Napoleon had divorced his wife Rose de Tascher de la Pagerie (better known to history as Josephine de Beauharnais) in her favour.

  • Maria Luisa 1814–1847 (→Family Tree)
House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Emperor of Mexico

Maximilian, an adventurous younger son, was invited as part of Napoleon III's manipulations to take the throne of Mexico, becoming Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico. The conservative Mexican nobility, as well as the clergy, supported this Second Mexican Empire. His consort, Charlotte of Belgium, a princess of the House of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, encouraged her husband's acceptance of the Mexican crown and accompanied him as Empress Carlota of Mexico. The adventure did not end well. Maximilian was shot in "Cerro de las Campanas" in 1867 by the republican forces of Benito Juárez.

  • Maximilian I (1864–1867) (→Family Tree)

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Emperors of Austria

  • Francis I, Emperor of Austria 1804–1835: formerly Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (→Family Tree)
  • Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria 1835–1848
  • Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria 1848–1916.
  • Charles I, Emperor of Austria 1916–1918. He died in exile in 1922. His wife was of the House of Bourbon-Parma.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Heads of the House of Habsburg (post-monarchy)

Charles I was expelled from his domains after World War I and the empire was abolished.

see Line of succession to the Austro-Hungarian throne

Burials

Kings of Hungary

The kingship of Hungary remained in the Habsburg family for centuries; but as the kingship was not strictly inherited (Hungary was an elective monarchy until 1687) and was sometimes used as a training ground for young Habsburgs, the dates of rule do not always match those of the primary Habsburg possessions. Therefore, the kings of Hungary are listed separately.

Albertine line: Kings of Hungary

  • Albert, king of Hungary 1437–1439
  • Ladislaus V Posthumus, King of Hungary 1444–1457

Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Hungary

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Hungary

Coat of arms of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine
  • Maria Theresa, queen of Hungary 1741–1780
  • Joseph II, king of Hungary 1780–1790
  • Leopold II, king of Hungary 1790–1792
  • Francis, king of Hungary 1792–1835
  • Ferdinand V, king of Hungary 1835–1848
  • Francis Joseph I, king of Hungary 1867–1916
  • Charles IV, king of Hungary 1916–1918

Kings of Bohemia

The kingship of Bohemia was from 1306 a position elected by its nobles. As a result, it was not an automatically inherited position. Until rule of the Ferdinand I Habsburgs didn't gain hereditary accession to the throne and were shifted by other dynasties. Hence, the kings of Bohemia and their ruling dates are listed separately.

Main line

Albertine line: Kings of Bohemia

  • Albert, king of Bohemia 1437–1439
  • Ladislaus Posthumus, king of Bohemia 1453–1457

Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Bohemia

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Bohemia

From the accession of Maria Theresa, the kingship of Bohemia became united with the Austrian possessions.

  • Joseph II, king of Bohemia 1780–1790
  • Leopold II, king of Bohemia 1790–1792
  • Francis, king of Bohemia 1792–1835
  • Ferdinand V, king of Bohemia 1835–1848
  • Francis Joseph I, king of Bohemia 1848–1916
  • Charles III, king of Bohemia 1916–1918

Queens Consort of France

From the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries, the greatest non-Habsburg power in Europe was usually France. As a result, in usually futile attempts to either unite Europe under the Habsburg family or to prevent French enmity, Habsburg daughters were wed to successive kings of France.

Pre-division Habsburgs

Austrian Habsburgs

Spanish Habsburgs

Habsburg-Lorraine

Queens Consort of Portugal

Due to its proximity (geographic, strategic and religious) the Habsburgs always consolidated their alliances with the Portuguese Royal House of Aviz, which gave them this Kingdom in 1580. When the Braganzas expelled the Spanish Habsburgs (1640), new alliances were set-up, this time with the Austrian Habsburgs.

Pre-division Habsburgs

Austrian Habsburgs

Habsburg-Lorraine

  • Marie Leopoldina, Archduchess of Austria (1797–1826), first wife of Peter I, Emperor of Brazil, also known as Peter IV, King of Portugal. Marie Leopoldina was Marie Louise younger sister.

Empress Consort of Brazil

Habsburg-Lorraine

  • Marie Leopoldina, Archduchess of Austria (1797–1826), first wife of Peter I, Emperor of Brazil, also known as Peter IV, King of Portugal. Maria Leopoldina was also briefly Queen consort of Portugal, see above. She was politically active and acted as regent of the Empire of Brazil during her husband's absence from the imperial court in Rio de Janeiro. She had direct participation in the Brazilian Independence. Her son Dom Pedro II ruled Brazil as emperor and her daughter ruled Portugal as Queen Maria II of Portugal.
Tuscan Duchy and Salzburg descendants

The members of this family bear the titles Archduke (Archduchess) of Austria, Prince (Princess) of Hungary, Prince (Princess) of Tuscany (Imperial and Royal Highness). Descendants of morganatic marriages, except those granted specific titles such as the Princes von Altenburg, generally bear the title "Graf (Gräfin) von Habsburg-[Lothringen]".

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Paula Sutter Fichtner, "Dynastic Marriage in Sixteenth-Century Habsburg Diplomacy and Statecraft: An Interdisciplinary Approach," American Historical Review Vol. 81, No. 2 (Apr., 1976), pp. 243-265 in JSTOR
  2. ^ "Habsburger-Gedenkjahr im Aargau", Neue Zürcher Zeitung, (page 17) 23 May 2008.
  3. ^ art-tv.ch
  4. ^ Kanton Aargau (German)
  5. ^ a b c d e f Heinz-Dieter Heimann: Die Habsburger. Dynastie und Kaiserreiche. ISBN 3406447546.
  6. ^ Erbe, Michael: Die Habsburger 1493-1918. Eine Dynastie im Reich und in Europa. W. Kohlhammer, 2000. ISBN 3170118668
  7. ^ Great Events from History, The Renaissance & Early Modern Era, Vol I, p. 112–114, author-Clare Callaghan, ISBN 1-58765-214-5.
  8. ^ Maria Theresa was originally engaged to Léopold Clément of Lorraine, older brother of Francis Stephan
  9. ^ Gonzalo Alvarez, Francisco C. Ceballos, Celsa Quinteiro, Gonzalo; Ceballos, Francisco C.; Quinteiro, Celsa; Bauchet, Marc (April 15, 2009). Bauchet, Marc. ed. "The Role of Inbreeding in the Extinction of a European Royal Dynasty". PLoS ONE (PLoS ONE) 4 (4): e5174. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005174. PMC 2664480. PMID 19367331. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0005174. Retrieved 2009-04-19. 
  10. ^ https://www.msu.edu/course/lbs/333/fall/hapsburglip.html

Further reading

  • Brewer-Ward, Daniel A. The House of Habsburg: A Genealogy of the Descendants of Empress Maria Theresia. Clearfield, 1996.
  • Crankshaw, Edward. The Fall of the House of Habsburg. Sphere Books Limited, London, 1970. (first published by Longmans in 1963)
  • Evans, Robert J. W. The Making of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1550–1700: An Interpretation. Clarendon Press, 1979.
  • McGuigan, Dorothy Gies. The Habsburgs. Doubleday, 1966.
  • Palmer, Alan. Napoleón and Marie Louise Ariel Mexico, 2003.
  • Wandruszka, Adam. The House of Habsburg: Six Hundred Years of a European Dynasty. Doubleday, 1964 (Greenwood Press, 1975).

External links

Royal house
House of Habsburg
Founding year: 12th century
Preceded by
Přemyslid dynasty
Ruling House of the Duchy of Austria
1282–1453
Duchy Elevated
Became Archduchy
New title Ruling House of Archduchy of Austria
1453–1780
House of Habsburg-Lorraine
Extinction of direct male line
Preceded by
House of Jagiellon
Ruling House of Kingdom of Hungary
1526–1780
Ruling House of Kingdom of Croatia
1527–1780
Ruling House of Kingdom of Bohemia
1526–1780
Preceded by
House of Aviz
Ruling House of Kingdom of Portugal
1580–1640
Succeeded by
House of Braganza
Preceded by
House of Trastámara
Ruling House of Kingdom of Spain
1504–1700
Succeeded by
House of Bourbon
Preceded by
House of Savoy
Ruling House of Kingdom of Sicily
1720–1734
Preceded by
House of Valois
Ruling House of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands
1477–1700
Preceded by
House of Bourbon
Ruling House of Kingdom of Naples
1713–1735
Ruling House of Kingdom of Sardinia
1713–1735
Succeeded by
House of Savoy
Ruling House of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands
1713–1780
Succeeded by
House of Habsburg-Lorraine


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