Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
native_name = Silchar | type = city | latd = 24.82 | longd = 92.8
locator_position = left | state_name = Assam
district = Cachar
leader_title =
leader_name =
altitude = 22
population_as_of = 2001
population_total = 142,393| population_density =
area_magnitude= sq. km
area_total =
area_telephone =91 (0) 3842
postal_code =7880xx
vehicle_code_range =AS-11
sex_ratio =
unlocode =INIXS
footnotes =

Silchar ( _bn. শিলচর "Shilchôr", Assamese: শিলচৰ "Xilsôr", Sylheti: শিলচর "Hilsôr") is the headquarters of Cachar district in the state of Assam in India. It is the economic gateway to the state of Mizoram and part of Manipur. The town of Silchar has tremendous commercial importance. It consequently, witnesses the settlement of a sizeable population of traders from distant parts of India.

Being a peaceful place in the North-East earned it the bon mot of "Island of Peace" from India's Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. The majority of natives in Silchar are Sylhethi, earlier a part of district under the erstwhile Sylhet district of undivided india. A sizeable fraction of the citizens also consist of people originally living here before the partition of Bengal. Silchar is situated by the banks of the Barak River in what is popularly known as Barak Valley.Rice is the staple cereal. Fish is also available. "Shuţki" (the local name for dried fish) "tôrkari", "shidal chutney", "chungar peetha" are some of the local delicacies.


Silchar is located at the southern part of Assam. [ [] ] [ [ Maps, Weather, and Airports for Silchar, India ] ] . Situated on the Barak River near the Bangladesh border, it is a trade and processing centre for tea, rice and other agricultural products. There is limited industry, principally papermaking and tea-box manufacturing. The city has an airport and lies on both a rail head and national highways connecting Guwahati, Assam; Agartala, Tripura; Imphal, Manipur and Aizawl in Mizoram state. It has an average elevation of 22 metres (72 feet).


As of 2001 India census [GR|India] , Silchar had a population of 143,003. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Silchar has an average literacy rate of 79%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 83%, and female literacy is 76%. In Silchar, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Major religions followed are Hinduism and Islam.


At Silchar the wind generally blows from the northeast in the morning and from the southeast in the afternoon. Summer is hot, humid and interspersed with rains and thunderstorms. Winter generally starts towards the end of November and lasts till February. Towards the start of the Bengali month of Baishakh (mid-April) rain clouds start covering the skyline. Silchar is inundated almost every year due to excessive rain fall and flooding by the river Barak.


Silchar has some of the best educational institutes in the whole of North East India. One of the 20 National Institutes of Technology (formerly known as Regional Engineering Colleges), NIT Silchar is one of the oldest engineering colleges in the North-Eastern region. REC Silchar as it was known previously is now an Institute of National Importance in India.

Silchar also has Silchar Medical College, a Polytechnic Institute, B.Ed colleges, two Law colleges and an Industrial Training Institute (ITI).

After several years of persistent efforts Silchar got its own university Assam University a central university, which imparts education in both the general as well as professional streams. The university, which came in to existence in 1994, has 9 schools and 29 departments under them. The university also has 51 affiliated colleges under it. [ [ Assam University Homepage] ]

Some reputed schools in Silchar include Adhar Chand H.S. School, Holy Cross School, Silchar Collegiate School, South Point School,Oriental High School,Maharishi Vidya Mandir, Narsing School, Govt. Boys School, Govt. Girls school and a couple of Kendriya Vidyalayas amongst others. Among the colleges the best known ones are Guru Charan College, Ramanuj College, Cachar College, Radhamadhav College etc. Guru Charan College is one of the most respected and reputed colleges in the whole of Assam. On the other hand, Ramanuj College is known to be the most successful institution for +2 level studies, now-a-days, in the entire Barak valley. The colleges are credited with producing some of the best intellectuals of the region.

Recent years have seen Silchar emerge as a potential educational place where denizens from the trouble-torn North-Eastern region come to the town for their children's education. Today a large number of professionals from Silchar are to be found around the globe in almost all countries and regions. Students today can educate themselves in almost all fields.


Silchar is connected by road, rail and air to the rest of the country.

Silchar is connected through meter gauge rail network with Lumding and this is currently being updated to broad gauge lines. The railways station is located at Tarapur, Silchar. There are regular inter state bus services connecting Silchar with Guwahati, Shillong, Aizawl, Agartala and other places. The airport is located at Kumbhirgram, about 22 km from Silchar and there are regular flights connecting Silchar with Kolkata, Guwahati and Agartala.

Historical Background

Cachar district records

"The management of the affairs of the district was entrusted after annexation, to Lieutenant Fisher, an officer of approved ability and great local experience. for some months Cachar continued to be administered from Cherrapunji, the head quarters of the Agent to the Governor General, but in consideration of practical difficulties early in 1833 Fisher had his head quarters at Dudputli which however were soon shifted to Silchar for the sake of convenience."

In the 1850s, British tea planters re-discovered the game polo in Manipur on the Burmese border with India. The first polo club in the world was formed at Silchar. The first competitive modern form of Polo was also played out in Silchar and the plaque for this feat still stand at the back side of the District Library, Silchar. Other clubs followed and, today, the oldest in the world is the Calcutta Club, founded in 1862.

Railway Link

The Assam Bengal Railway brought Silchar into the Indian railway map in 1899. The railway line from Lumding to Silchar is hailed as one of the most exciting pristine railway tracks of India. Built by the British during the colonial rule, the Meter Gauge line stands testimony to the grandiose of what was once a highly popular city in the North-East.

Language Martyrs

Silchar saw one of the uprising in favour of the Bengali language. When the Assam Government, under Chief Minister Bimala Prasad Chaliha, passed a circular to make Assamese mandatory, Bengalis of Barak Valley protested. On 19th May, 1961, Assam Police opened fire on unarmed protesters at Silchar Railway Station in which 11 agitators died. After the popular revolt, Assam Government had to withdraw the circular and Bengali was ultimately given official status in the three districts of Barak Valley. [ 6]



Silchar is part of Silchar (Lok Sabha constituency). [cite web
url =
title = List of Parliamentary & Assembly Constituencies
accessdate = 2008-10-05
work = Assam
publisher = Election Commission of India


External links

* [ Govt. site on Silchar]
* [ Barak Valley]
* [ Silchar on the net]
* [ : Silchar online]
* [ NIT, Silchar]
* [ Assam University, Silchar]
* [ Guru Charan College, Silchar]
* [ Cachar College, Silchar]

ee also

* Silchar (Lok Sabha constituency)

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