The Theyyam or Theyyattam is a popular ritual dance of north Kerala, south India, particularly presented in the Kolathunadu (of the present Kannur and Kasargod districts). As a living cult with centuries old traditions, ritual and custom, it embraces almost all castes and classes of Hindu religion in this region. The term Theyyam is a corrupt form of "daivam" or God. People of these districts consider Theyyam as a God and they seek blessings from Theyyam.


According to the legendary Keralolpathi, Parasurama sanctioned the festivals like Kaliyattam, Puravela and Deivattam or Theyyattam to the people of Kerala. He assigned the responsibility of Theyyam dance to the indigenous communities like Panan, Malayar, Velan and Vannan. These traditions explain how the indigenous cults like Theyyam were incorporated and metamorphosed under the religious supremacy of the Brahmanism. In the long historical process a social system evolved in Kerala in which the little culture like Theyyam belonged to the depressed castes and classes where as the temple oriented culture belonged to the dominant castes and classes. There were no violent confrontations between these two cultures as there was no total destruction of the indigenous culture. "“There can be no doubt”, say Bridget and Raymond Alchin, ‘that a very large part of this modern folk religion is extremely ancient and contains traits which originated ruing the earliest periods of Neolithic, Chalcolithic settlement and expression" (The Birth of Indian Civilization 1968 p.3039). It is permormed by people of the lower castess such as shudras, vaishyas etc. The lower castes were denied entry to temples or even to come close to persons of the brahmin and kshatriya castes. This led to the lower castes creating their own temples in afforested areas known as "kavu."

Classification of Sub Cults

It can be stated that all prominent characteristics of a primitive tribal religious worship had widened the stream of Theyyam cult and made it a deep rooted folk religion of the millions. For instance, the cult of "Mother Goddesses" had an important place in Theyyam. Besides this, the practice like spirit-worship, hero-worship, masathi-worship, tree-worship, ancestor-worship, animal worship, serpent-worship, worship of the goddesses of disease and gramaadevata-worship are included in the main stream of Theyyam cult. Along with these gods and goddesses there exist innumerable folk gods and goddesses. Most of these goddesses are known as Bhagavathis (encorporating Durga, Lakshmi, Saraswati.

Different branches of mainstream Hindu religion such as Saktism, Vaishnavism and Saivism now dominate the cult of Theyyam. However the forms of propitiation and other rituals are continuation of a historical past. In several cult-centers, blood offering is forbidden under the influence of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.fact|date=September 2007 In such centres separate places outside the outer wall of the shrine are selected for blood offering and preparation of the traditional kalam known as vatakkanvathil. The Theyyam deities propitiated through cock-sacrifice will not enter inside such shrines walls.

On account of the later origin of Vaishnavism in Kerala, it has no wide-spread influence on Theyyam cult. Only a few deities are available under this category. This may probably be due to the lesser influence of Vishnu on the village folk who had an uninterrupted tradition of the worship of Mother goddess for fertility and the god Siva and his son Murukan for protection and security even during the Sangam age. Two major Theyyam deities of Vaishnavism are Vishnumoorthi and Daivathar. Vaishnavism was very popular in Tuluva country during the 13th century under Vishnuvardhana of Hoysalas. He was a great champion of Vaishnavism. Most probably he was deified as Vishnumoorthi and propitiated in the Bhoota cult of Tuluva and then propitiated as a prominent folk deity in the Theyyam also. The legend of Vishnumoorthi is identified the God's migration from Mangalore to Kolathunadu.

All other categories of Theyyam deities can be incorporated in Saivism and Saktism. Even ancestors, heroes, animals etc are deified and included in those categories. In brief Theyyam provides a good example for the religious evolution and its different stages in Hinduism.


The communities like the Peruvannan and the Nambiars etc were patrons of Theyyam, and it was not uncommon for every Tharavadu (clan) to have its own Theyyam. They even established their own shrines and kavus (groves) for Theyyam deities where non-brahmanical rituals and customs are observed. The goddesses like Rakteshwari, Chamundi, Someshwari, Kurathi, and the gods like Vishnumoorthi are propitiated in these house-hold shrines. There, the Theyyam dancers appear during the annual festivals of gods and goddesses. The rituals in such shrines are different from those of the Brahmanical temples. Such a cultural fusion or inter-action between the ‘little’ and ‘great’ cultures makes Theyyam an interesting field of research for social scientists. The impact of this cultural fusion could be traced on social organization based on caste system and in the agrarian relations. Once the cult is patronized by the Brahmins, the intermediary and lower castes also took it as a major religious practice. In fact the cult has become the religion of the masses.

A Paragraph on Performance

The dance or invocation is generally performed in front of the village shrines. It is also performed in the houses as ancestor worship with elaborate rite and rituals.

There is no stage or curtain and other arrangements for the performance. The devotees would be standing or some of them would be sitting on a sacred tree in front of the shrine. In brief it is an open theatre. A performance of a particular deity according to its significance and hierarchy in the shrine continues for 12 to 24 hours with intervals. The chief dancer who propitiates the central deity of the shrine has to reside in the rituals. This may be an impact of Jainism and Buddhism. Further after sun set this particular dancer would not eat anything as legacy of Jainism. His make-up is done by specialists and other dancers. First part of the performance is usually known as vellattam or thottam. It is performed without proper make-up or decorative costume. Only a small red headdress is worn on this occasion.

The dancer along with drummers recites the particular ritual song, which describes the myths and legends of the particular ritual song, which describes the myths, and legends of the particular deity of the shrine or the folk deity to be propitiated. This is accompanied by the playing of folk musical instruments. After finishing this primary ritualistic part of the invocation the dancer returns to the green room. Again after a short interval he appears with proper make-up and costumes. There are different patterns of face-painting. Some of these patterns are called vairadelam, kattaram, kozhipuspam, kotumpurikam, and prakkezhuthu. Mostly primary and secondary colours are applied with contrast for face painting. It had effected certain stylization also. Then the dancer comes in front of the shrine and gradually “metamorphosises” as the particular deity of the shrine. He, after observation of certain rituals places the head-dress on his head and dances. In the background folk musical instruments like chenda, tuti, kuzhal and veekni are played with rhythm. All dancers take a shield and kadthala (sword) in their hands as continuation of the cult of weapon. Then the dancer circumambulates the shrine, runs in the courtyard dances. The Theyyam dance has different steps known as kalaasams. Each kalaasam is repeated systematically from first to eight step of footwork. A performance is a combination of playing of musical instruments, vocal recitation, dance and strange makeup and costumes. The stage-practices of Theyyam and its ritualistic observations make it one of the fascinating theatrical arts of India.


An inevitable theyyam in 90 % of the kaliyattams is the performance of Vishnumoorthi theyyam. And its performance included complicated rites and rituals. The peculiar drums sound reveals to the people in a distance of 2 km the performance of Vishnumoorthi.The enactment of Narasimhavathara of Mahavishnu by the koladhari thrilled the devotees and the specators as a result of the body movements of the theyyam. Historian Nandakumar Koroth through his work 'Vishnumoorthi: More than a Myth' describes the origin, features, rites , worshipping places etc. of the Vishnumoorthi theyyam.

tory of Vishnumoorthi

Most popular among the vaishnava theyyam is Vishnumoorthi. It is associated with Nileshwar and Mangalore. It tells the story of Palanthai Kannan a great devotee of god Vishnu. Palanthai Kannan, a native of Nileshwar in his boyhood tried to pick mangoes from a mango tree owned by Kuruvat nair. Without considering his age or the thirst for food Kuruvat nair and his body guards beat him and drove away from Nileshwar. After that incident Palanthai Kannan went to Mangalore and shelterded in a Vishnu temple. There he got the blessings of God Vishnu and years after he returned to his homeland, Nileshwar. On the way Palanthai Kannan stayed one day in Moolapally in the house of a black smith [now near railway line] and took rest in the Kanakkappalli Anikkil tharavad [ situated near Nileshwar bus stand - koroth- N.H road and once up on a time famous as the centre of martial arts and education] . Then he proceeded to kundon kadav and leaving his Olakkuda [umbrella] and Churika [Shield] went to Kadalikulam [ a pond near Nileshwar Market junction] for taking bath. Within a short time the news of the arrival of Palanthai Kannan spread in the bredth and corner of Nileshwar. Hearing the news Kuruvat nair and his men came to the Kadalikulam and killed Palathai Kannan. That time onwards he became the Vioshnumoorthi and began to reside in Vaikundeswara temple , Kottappuram,Nileshwar.

Vishnumoorthi in Ottakolams

In Ottakolams [ means only one theyyam] Vishnumoorthi theyyam entered in the pyre and returned into the middle of the devotees [ called as agnipravesam] . It is repeated several times and crossing the 100 times helped the koladhari to became Panikker.In April 2008 Ottakkolam was performed in a grand manner in Velu vayal ottakkuthiru, Nileshwar with the presence of thousands of devotees after a gap of 47 years. It is associated with veethuveppu [ a rite in connectioon with agriculture] .Four people take kayar [rope] from Vishnumoorthi and became Kayattukar. Their duty is to protect agricultural land from cattles. With kayar [ rope ] and vadi [ rod] they roamed the area from Karyamkode to Thalachai and caught them with the kayar or drove them by using the vadi.

Vishnumoorthi and Edus

Edus are semi circular built mud platforms. An example for it is in the east of N.H 17 in Kovval bus stop , Cheruvathur. Itb associated with ambeythu [ archerry] .It served as the obstructer for the arrows and the trainning ground or competition ground of the men skilled in archerry. Edus are seen in Nileshwar Eduvinkal, Elambachi near Payyanur, Kalanad near Kasaragod, Edu near Mannanpurath kav, Nileshwar, etc. Vishnumoorthi theyyam [ ottakkolams] are performed in most of the edus.

Vishnumoorthi temples

Visnumoorthi is an inevitable theyyam in most of the kaliyattams.Kottappuram Sree Vaikundeswara temple is the famous among the Vishnumoorthi temples.The temple is considered as the seat of Vishnumoorthi. In every year in the malayalam month of Medam 12 Vishnumoorthi theyyam has been performed in the Kottappuram Vaikunda temple with the presence of thousands of devotees. Vishnumoorthi theyyam became an ineitable theyyam in most of the kaliyattams. Another important Vishnumoorthi temple is in Cheemeni near Cheruvathur. Here the temple was installed by the famous Koroth namboothiri [ priests associated with the famous Koroth Naga Bagavathi and now a days resided in Chovva, Kannur] .People from all parts of Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu attended the festival [ kaliyattam] of this temple regularly held in the malayalam month of Meadm. In Koroth tharavad the Vishnumoorthi theyyam has been performed by the famous Kothorman.

Sree Muthappan Theyyam

While other theyyams are seasonal (the season lasting October to May), but Muthappan theyyam is performed year round.Muthappan temples are erected in hundreds of places in North Malabar.Each of them tells the story of its origin.Among the theyyams only Muthappan temples are constructed near the railway stations in Kannur and Kasaragod district.This shows the importance given to the Muttappan temples by the Indian railway employees. Among the Muthappan temples Kunnathur padi and Parassinikkadav attained fame.

tory of Sree Muthappan Madappura Nileshwar

Several Muthappan Temples are seen in different parts of Kannur and Kasaragod district. This shows the popularity of the God in the minds of the people of north Malabar. The Sree Muthappan temple near National Highway No 17 in Nileshwar has a rich heritage. It tells philosophical, devotional and educational importance of Nileshwar.There is an interesting story regarding the construction of Sree Muthappan Temple. It is connected with Sri.Koroth Raman Nair famous as Ezuthachan (expert in teaching). He had a practice of drinking Madhu (taken from coconut tree with out mixing any intoxicant, fresh and good for health popularly called as 'neera'). Before drinking madhu he pour some drops of madhu in front of a jackfruit tree by saying it is for god Muthappan. After his death the natives faced lot of disturbances. They examined it with the assistance of an astrilloger. He reveals that as a result of the regular practice of giving madhu to Muthappan the god statrted residing there. The death of Sree Raman Nair provoked Muthappan and he created troubles. So a temple was erected there by the people. The temple developed as famous pilgrim centre and daily hundreds of people visited there. There is a strong belief that the God will cure all diseases and will give prosperity to the devotees. The devotees will get Payakutti from the temple and stood developing as a great temple like the Sree Muthappan temple at Parassini kadavu.

Padikutti amma

Padikuttiyamma is the mother of god Muthappan. She took care of Muthappan for several years. After Muthappan became a god, Padikutti amma has been worshipped as a goddess. The theyyam Padikutti amma has been performed in the famous Palaprath temple, at Kodallur. Kodallur a place near Parassinikadav that attained fame as a result of the performance of Padikutti Amma theyyam in the Malayalam month of Meenam every year.

Muthappan Anthithira

Muthappan Anthithira performed only once in all the Muthappan temples of North Malabar. The decoration of Muthappan Anthithira resembles that of Vettakorumakan in front view and Muthappan in back view that is god Vishnu and Shiva. In 2008 July Muthappan Anthithira was performed in front of thousands of devotees in the famouse Muthappan Madappura [tem ple] , Nileshwar.

Puliyur kali

Performed in Karakkakav, near Cheruvathur every three years.

Pullikarim Kali

Pullikarimkali is performed in karakkakav, near Cheruvathur in a gap of three years & koovapratthu kaavu kavinisseri (cherukunnu) in a gap of 2 years .The theyyam is worshipped as the goddess Parvathi.


The theyyam is worshipped as god Siva in Karakkakav and other Aiver [Iver] temples.


Marapuli theyyam is considered as the son of Pulikandan and Pullikarimkali.


The theyyam is considered as the son of Pulikandan and Pullikarimkali.It is performed in early morning about at 3o'clock


Pulimaruthan theyyam is considered as the son of Pulikandan and Pullikarimkali. One among the Iver theyyams , Pulinmaruthan is worshipped in different kavus [temples] by the devotees.

Karinthiri Nair

The theyyam is associated with the Pulidaivangal.

Puthiya Bagavathi

Puthiya Bhagavathi is the main godness of "Thiyya" category performed in Koovapratthu Kaavu kavinisseri,Morazha Koorumba Kaavu in Pazhangottu,Matul,Thavam


There is an interesting story behind the performance of Vannathan theyyam. The theyyam is performed only in one temple, Karakkakav temple in Kasaragod district. It is perfoormed in memory of a kolakkaran [ theyyam artist] who died while staging theyyam in the famous Karakkakav.


Muchilot Bagavathi

Muchilot Bagavathi is one of the most popular deities worshipped in North Kerala. There is a practice pf supplying food to the thousands of devotees in connection with the Muchilot Bagavathi.'Muchilot Bagavathi'by Nandakumar Koroth narrates the origin and establishment of Muchilot Kavu in different parts of Kannur and Kasaragod District. The highly decorative figure of Muchilot Bagavathi attracts the minds of devotees and the men of aesthetic sense. In Cherukunnu and Kannapuram, Muchilot Bagavathi Theyyam is performed every year. But in several other Kavus [worshipping place] Muchilot Bagavathi Theyyam performing in a gap of 12 to several years like one at Kayyur [near Nileshwar] in Jan 2008 after a term of 47 years. Ramanthali [near Payyanur] also came into the fore in 2008 January as a result of the Muchilot Bagavathi Perumkaliyattam. Perumkaliyattam at Muyyam near Taliparamba was a great experience to the devotees in the month of December 2007.

Kadamkot Makkam

Kunhimangalam near Payyanur is famous as the seat of Kadamkot Makkam Theyyam. Every year in the month of February Kadamkot Makkam Theyyam festival in Kunghimangalam attracts large number of devotees from different parts of Kerala and Karnataka. The story of Kadamkot Makkam depicting the social life of the Nair community in the 18th and 19th centuries.Yearly malayam date kumbam 11 is fixed as the day for the performance of Kadamkot Makkom theyyam.

Bhairavan theyyam

Worshipped as God Shiva. Bhairavan theyyam performed in the tharavads of nair community in Nileshwar yearly. 18 Makaram as per the Malayalam calendar is fixed as the day for the performance of Bhairavan theyyam in the Koroth tharavad of Nileshwar. The theyyam is also known as the karnor theyyam. Devotees from different walks of life will be there on the occasion to receive blessings from the god.

Thiruvarkat Bagavathi

The story of Thiruvarkat bagavathy connected with the history of Chirakkal Kovilakam , Rajarajeswari temple and Madayi kavu.

Kannangat Bagavathi

In every year Kannangat bagavathi has been performed in Kannangat bagavathi temple, Payyanur.In several Muchilot Kavu Kannangat bagavati was performed along with Muchilot bagavati.there are 11 kannangattu temple in kannur district they are situated in payyanur area1.Adi kotti kannangattu temple. Naer Rly station payyanur2.payyanur sree kokkanisheri kannagattu temple.At payyanur town3.kandangali karalikkara kannangattu temple.Near Municipal HSS payyanur4.Ramanthali thamarathuruthi kannangattu temple.Ramanthali 6kmfrom payyanur5.Kankol kannangattu temple.10Km from payyanur6.Alapadamba kannangattu temple. Near Mathil7.Vellora kannangattu temple.8.Edanadu kannangattu temple.Edat near payyanur 2 km from payyanur 9.Kuttor kannangattu temple.10.peringom kannangattu temple.Near CRPF camp peringom11.Kizhakke allakadu kannangattu temple.

Moovalamkuzhi Chamundi

The very name itself shows the story behind the origin of Moovalamkuzhi chamundi. Moovalam means three men and kuzhi means well. So moovalamkuzhi means a well with a deapth of three men's height.The god is the main deity of the temples of weaver caste in north Malabar.The theyyam season begins in every year with the performance of moovalam kuzhi chamundi and the related theyyams on 10 and 11 of the malayalam month Thulam [ 1st half of October] in the famous Anjoottabalam Verar Kavu, Nileshwar.

Palot Daivam

Yearly performed in the Palot kavus [ temples] in Nileshwar Vadayanthur Kazakam, Kunhimangalam Malyot Palot kavu, Azhikode Palot Kavu, Keecheri Palot Kavu etc.The theyyam is considered as the incarnation of God Vishnu [ Matsyavatara] .

Dandinganath Bagavathi

Yearly performed in the koroth tharavad, Nileshwar.Aracanut leaf with paintings in decoration is the unique feature of Dandiganath Bagavathi.

Padarkulangara Bagavathi

The Padarkulangara Bagavathi attracts the attention of devotees as a result of the divine and beautiful paintings in the face of the koladhari. The persons with the title Anjootan has the right to perform as Padarkulangara Bagavathi in Koroth tharavad and Mannanpurath kavu kalasam festival.

Padamadakki Bagavathi

The origin of Padamadakki thamburati is related to the battle between Nileshwar raja and a powerful force from Karnataka. The strength of the Karnataka forces frightened the Nileshwar rajas nair soldiers under the command of the kalari experts koroth nairs. They prayed to the koroth naga bagavathi, kuttichathans [ sasthappan] and Bairavan. The gods listen the voice of devotees and sent Padamadakki Bagavathi. Seeing the Padamadakki bagavathi the invading troops became unconscious and the goddess averted a battle. Yearly Padamadakki Bagavathi theyyam has been performed in the Karoth temple in Kunhimangalam panchayath in memory of the incident.


There is an interesting story behind the performance of Manakottamma. In the countryside of Nileshwar there existed a powerful nair tharavad (household) known as Manakkott. Here lived a beautiful and educated woman. She wanted to challenge the caste rigidities and untouchability prevailing in the area. While she was carrying a child she broke the caste law by drinking water from a pot made off arrocanut leaf used by an a outcaste. The incident provoked the tharavad karanavar (head) and he murdered the woman. The murder of a pregnant woman created lot of troubles in the tharavad and it ceased to exist. Gradually the natives realised that the assassinated woman emerged as god and they called her Manakkottamma. Yearly the Theyyam was performed in the Vairajathan temple, Malappacherry, Nileshwar in the month of April..

Kizhakkeveettil Chamundi

Karim Chamundi

Performed in the regions of Perumba river. Earlier the theyyam fastival of Karim Chamundi requires the sacrifice of goat. With dark coloured face paintings the theyyam performed in the mid night frightened the devotees. Women and children were not permitted to see the karim chamundi theyyam.


Adukunnath Bagavathi

Performed at Adukunnath tharavad temple, Koroth near Payyanur.

Narambil Bagavathi

Narambil Bagavathi originated from the famous Rayaramangalam Temple. The theyyam was performed in the Kodakkal Koroth tharavad, Ramanthali,Muchilot temples,etc as a god with anger against evils. At Narambil tharavad near Cherupuzha theyyam has been performed in a peaceful mood. There is an interesting myth behind the origin of Narambil Bagavathi.

Chembilot Bagavathi

It tells the story of a brahmin who came from Chembilot a place near Kannur to Chandera, in Kasaragod district. The priest started his livelihood as a priest in the temple in Chandera.After several years of serving the god he got the blessings og god. The he left Chandera giving priestly rights to Olavara theeyan. The brahmin was worshipped as Chembilot Bagavati by the natives there after.



Performed in the KurunthilKottaram, Karivellur yearly . It is the seat of a group of Pothuvals.

Vellarangara Bagavathi

Worshipped by the Pothuval community of Thayineri, Annur, Vellur and Karivellur.

Mayyakkal Bagavathi

With lighted torches in the stomach the Mayyakal Bagavathi create a sensation in Mayyal in Kasaragod district on 30 March 2008.

Koroth Naga Bagavathi

Considered as a most powerful god of snake Koroth Naga Bagavathi was performed in Ayiyur near Mahe every year in the malayalam month Kumbam. It is more like a thira than a theyyam. The Koroth Naga Bagavathi temple situated in the middle of a forest. It is protected by walls and in the centre Nagathara was built. For curing diseases and for getting child thousasdnds come here and pray to the god. All the devotees has been getting prasadam and drinking water mixed with sugar free of cost.


Also known as Sasthappan , Kuttichathan theyyam attracts the attention of thousands of devotees. At Pallor koroth tharavad several kuttichathan theyyams has come together to give blessings to the devotees. In 2008 around 40 kuttichathan theyyams were performed in the presence of several people.

Chooliyar Bagavathi

Padinhare Chamundi

Performed in the malayalam month of medam in the gap of two years . The festival is to be held on 15th and 16th April 2008 in the Chamundi kavu situating near the Nileshwar bus stand-koroth-N.H 17 road.

Karimanal Chamundi

Peruvamba Chamundi

Eroth Chamundi

Rakta Chamundi

Madayil Chamundi


Performed in several nair tharavad from Payyanur to Kannur.


Performed in several nair tharavad from Payyanur to Kannur.

Kandanar Kelan

Regularly Kandanar Kelan theyyam performed as a part of the Vayanat Kulavan Theyyamket Utsavam. There is an interesting ritual in olden days. Hundreds of hunters went into the forest and captured large number of animals. The hunted animals were cut into pieces in front of the Kandanar kelan theyyam. The Marapilarkal ritual attracts thousands of people. The theyyam jumbs over a huge pyre.

Vayanat Kulavan

The Vayanat Kulavan theyyam performed in an elaborate manner in Kasaragod district. In 2008, The Vayanat Kulavan theyyamket Mahotsavam held in the Pattayil tharavad. It remembered as a huge step in the direction of communal harmony. Hindus and Muslims participated in the arrangements of the festival with great enthusiasm.

Kunhiraman Gurukkal

More than three meter long knife is used by the Kunhiraman Gurikkal [ gurukkal] theyyam. The theyyam staged in association with the Kathivanur Veeran theyyam festival.

Kathivanur Veeran

For the performance of Kathivanur Veeran great excellence is needed in the martial art of Kalaripayattu.


Performed with great divinity in every year in the famous thuluvarvanath bagavathi temple of kizhake kovilakam, near Panathur.Munnayareeshwaran was once the diwan of thulurvanam swaroopam ruled by kattoor Nair.


Yearly performed in the famous Madiyan Koolom temple, Kanhangad.


Yearly performed in the famous Madiyan Koolom temple, Kanhangad.


Yearly performed in the famous Madiyan Koolom temple, Kanhangad.


Kammadathamma theyyam is performed in the nair tharavads of Nileshwar and surroundings. Aracanut leaf is used in the decoration of the theyyam.

Nagacherry Bagavathi

Perum Kaliyattam

In some kavus theyyam festival conducted in a gap of 12 or more years. These type of festivals are called as Perumkaliyattam. In 2008 Perumkaliyattams celebrated in Ramanthali Muchilot Kavu, Klayikode muchilot Kavu and Mandur Padinjatta Thiruvarkat Bagavathi temple. From 19 to 24 February 2008 Perumkaliyattam held in Kenamangalam Kazhakam , Pallikkera near Nileshwaram.

See also

*Muthappan theyyam
*Sree Muthappan
*Bhuta Kola


*Killius, Rolf. 2006 Ritual Music and Hindu Rituals of Kerala. New Delhi: BR Rhythms. ISBN 81-88827-07-X
*Theyyam – A Ritual Dance of Kerala by Dr. KKN Kurup. Published by Director of Public Relations, Government of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram in March 1986
*Vishnumoorthi:More than a Myth by Nandakumar Koroth.

External links

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