- Fula jihads
The Fula or Fulani jihads, were a series of independent but loosely connected events across
West Africabetween the late 17th century and European colonization, in which Muslim Fulas took control of various parts of the region. It is also sometimes referred to as "Fulani revolution."
A "jihad state" is a territory that was established by political and religious Muslim leaders who conquer a region by offensive war, invoking
jihad("struggle" in Arabic). The rulers often assumed honorific titles such as in the Fulani Empire, Emir, an Arabic title which can mean general as well as prince or governor, or a derivate in a local language. Another title was Almamy (from Imam) used by rulers of Kingdom of Fouta Djallon.
These states are listed in rough chronological order below.
A small state in present day
Senegalin which Muslim Fulas took control in the late 17th century.
Fouta Djallonlocated mainly in present day Guineaas well as parts of Guinea Bissau, Senegal, Sierra Leonewas a major state with a written constitution and ruling alternance between the 2 main parties: the Soriya and the Alphaya. The Fouta Djallon state was born in 1735 when Fulani Muslims decided to rise against the non-Muslim Fulanis and Djalonkes rulers to create a confederation of provinces. Alpha Ibrahima Sory Maoudhowas elected as the first Almaamy in 1735 at the capital Timbo in present day Guinea. The Fouta Djallon state lasted until 1898 when the French colonial troops defeated the last Almamy (Ruler) Bokar Biro Barry, dismantled the state and integrated it into their new colony of Rivières du Sud, which became Guinea.
Under the unifying banner of Islam, the
Muslim Fulas revolted in 1776 under the leadership of Sileymaani Baal. The following Islamic revolution created the new kingdom of Fuuta Tooro under a government called the "Almamate" (a term derived from the Pulaar borrowing of the Arabic "al-imaam"). Before formal colonization this state was weakened by French incursions and the effort by El Hadj Umar Tallto carry his jihad eastward (see also Toucouleur Empire, below).
At the beginning of the 19th century under
Usman dan Fodiothe Fulani became the leaders of a centralized Fulani Empirewhich continued until 1903 when the Fulani were divided up among European colonizers.
Fulani jihad states
The term "jihad state" is historically used in reference to the 19th century Islamic conquests in Western Africa, especially the Fulani jihad or Fulbe (from "Fulɓe") jihad, a phrase referring to the state-founding jihad led by
Usman dan Fodioin the first decade of the 19th century in and around Nigeria. Most of these states were in colonial times brought into the British Northern Nigeria Protectoratearound 1901-1903.
The jihad states in the region controlled by the empire included:
Abuja, replacing the former Zuba; the ruler's title was SarkinZazzau, from 1828 also Emir
*Adamawa (now partially in
Cameroon), founded in 1809; title Baban- Lamido
Agaie, founded in 1822; title emir
Bauchiemirate, founded in 1805; title Lamido("laamiiɗo" in Fula language), meaning "ruler" (similar meaning to Emir )
Gombe, founded in 1804; title ModiboGombe.
Gwandu, a major Fulbe jihad state, founded in 1817; title Emir
Hadejia, replaced Biram(title Sarkin Biram) in 1805; new title Sarkin Hadejia, from 1808 also styled Emir
Jama`are, founded in 1811; style Emir.
Jema`an Darroro, founded in 1810; title Emir
Kanoreplaced the old ( Hausa) Kano state in March 1807; the old title Sarkin Kano is still used, but now also styled Emir
Katagum, founded in 1807; title Sarkin Katagum, also styled Emir
Katsinareplaced the old (Hausa) Katsina state in 1805; the old title Sarkin Katsina is still used, but now also styled Emir.
Kazaure, founded in 1818; title Emir, also styled Sarkin *Arewa (apparently imitating neighbours)
Keffi, founded in 1802; title Emir
*Lafiagi, founded in 1824; new title Emir
Lapai, founded in 1825; style Emir
Mubi, founded in 18..; title Emir
*Muri, founded in 1817, style Emir; 1892-1893 de facto French protectorate, 1901 part of Northern Nigerian British protectorate
Sokoto, the center of the Fulani jihad, established on 21 February 1804by Usman dan Fodio, title Amir al-Mu´minin, also styled Lamido Julbe; on 20 April 1817Sokoto was styled sultanate (title sultan, also styled Amir al-Mu´mininand Sarkin Musulmi), the suzerain of all Fulbe jihad states; in 1903 the British occupied Sokoto Sultanate
Zaria, superseded the old Zazzaustate (title Sarkin Zazzau) on 31 December 1808; new style first Malam, since October/November 1835 Emir, also styled Sarkin Zaria and Sarkin Zazzau
Located in what is now central
Mali, this state lasted from 1818 until 1862. Inspired by the recent Muslimuprisings of Usman dan Fodioin nearby Hausaland, preacher and social reformer Seku Amaduled a Fula army in jihad against the Bambara Empire. The empire expanded rapidly, taking Djennéand establishing a new capital at Hamdullahi. It was eventually defeated by Umar Talland incorporated into the Toucouleur Empire.
El Hajj Umar Tallled armies east from his base in Futa Tooroand Dinguirayeto conquer Kaarta, the Bambara Empire, and Massinain the early 1860s. The Toucouleur controlled the region until French colonization, at which time the last leader of the state, Ahmadu Tall, fled to Sokoto.
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