- Jewish medical ethics
Jewish medical ethics is a modern scholarly and clinical approach to
medical ethicsthat draws upon Jewish thought and teachings. Pioneered by Rabbi Immanuel Jakobovitsin the 1950's, Jewish medical ethics centers mainly around an applied ethicsdrawing upon traditional rabbinic law (halakhah). In addition, scholars have begun examining theoretical and methodological questions, while the field itself has been broadened to encompass bioethicsand non-halakhic approaches.
In its early years, Jewish medical ethics addressed a range of ethical dilemmas, as well as general questions about the
professional ethicsfor doctors.
Major issues have included abortion,
artificial insemination, brain death, cosmetic surgery, euthanasia, genetic screening, hazardous medical operations, oral suction in circumcision (metzitzah b'peh), organ donation, psychiatric care, and smoking cigarettes. In recent years, Jewish bioethics has examined questions of medical technology, the allocation of medical resources, and the philosophy of Jewish ethics.
In 19th century "
Wissenschaft des Judentums", scholars like Julius Preussstudied Talmudic approaches to medicine.
Immanuel Jakobovitswas the most prominent figure in 20th century Jewish medical ethics, a subdiscipline in applied ethicswhich he virtually created, and a pioneer in religious bioethics. His specialty was the interaction between medical ethicsand " halakha". Thanks to his academic training in Ireland, Rabbi Jakobovits approached his comprehensive volume, "Jewish Medical Ethics", in light of Catholic medical ethics, with which he often compares Jewish ethics. Whether developing or disputing his analysis, subsequent Jewish bioethicists have utilized his work on abortion, euthanasia, the history of Jewish medical ethics, palliative care, treatment of the sick, and professional duties. Likewise, he is credited with popularizing the claim that Judaism supports the nearly absolute sanctity of life.
In its early years, Jewish medical ethics was predominantly an
applied ethics, led primarily by Orthodox rabbis and scholars. Pioneers included J. David Bleich, Fred Rosner, Abraham Steinberg, Moshe David Tendler, as well as major rabbinic authorities, such as Rabbis Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, Moshe Feinsteinand Eliezer Waldenberg. Among the non-Orthodox, there were early responsaby the reform movement's Solomon Freehof, and later involvement by Walter Jacoband Moshe Zemer, and, in the Conservative movement, Elliot Dorffand David Feldman. Among those oriented to bioethics, leading thinkers include Daniel Sinclairand Noam Zohar.
Organizationally, Jewish medical ethics and bioethics has grown, especially in the United States and
Israel. Journals dedicated to medical ethics and an encyclopediahave been published. In Israel, hospitals supports Jewish clinical ethicists and there is an institute. Jewish medical ethics and bioethics has been the topic of numerous scholarly conferences, educational workshops, and lectureships. The next international conference on Jewish medical ethics was slated for March 2008 in Fürigen, Switzerland. [C [http://www.jmec.ch onference program] ]
* Avraham, A.S. "Lev Avraham: Hilchot Refuah le-Kholeh v'le-meshamesh", Jerusalem: Feldheim Publishers, 1976
* _________. "Nishmat Avraham, Hilchot Cholim, Rofim ve-Refuah" Jerusalem: Schlesinger Institute, 1983-2000. "Note: This is a codificatory publication on halakhah pertaining to medical ethics."
*Bleich, J. David. 1981. "Judaism and Healing'. New York: Ktav.
*"Conservative Judaism". 2002. Vol. 54(3). Contains a set of six articles on bioethics.
Elliot Dorff. 1998. "Matters of Life and Death: A Jewish Approach to Modern Medical Ethics". Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
* Eisenberg, Daniel. [Various articles. http://www.daneisenberg.com/]
David Feldman. 1974. "Marital Relations, Birth Control, and Abortion in Jewish Law". New York: Schocken Books.
*Freedman, B. 1999. "Duty and Healing: Foundations of a Jewish Bioethic". New York: Routledge.
*Halperin, Mordechai. "Milestones in Jewish Medical Ethics Medical-Halachic Literature in Israel, 1948-1998" [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/Milestones.pdf online version]
*Jakobovits, Immanuel. 1959. "Jewish Medical Ethics". New York:
*Katznelson, Y. "Ha-Talmud ve-Hokhmat ha-Refu’a". Berlin: Haim Press, 1928
*Mackler, Aaron L., ed. 2000. "Life & Death Responsibilities in Jewish Biomedical Ethics". JTS.
*Maibaum, M. 1986. "A 'progressive' Jewish medical ethics: notes for an agenda." "Journal of Reform Judaism" 33(3): 27-33.
* Perlman, Moshe. "Midrash ha-Refu’a", Tel Aviv: Dvir 1926-34
* Preuss, Julius. "Biblisch-Talmudische Medizin"
*Rosner, Fred. 1986. "Modern Medicine and Jewish Ethics". New York: Yeshiva University Press.
Byron Sherwin. 2004. "Golems among us: How a Jewish legend can help us navigate the biotech century"
*Sinclair, Daniel. 1989. "Tradition and the biological revolution: The application of Jewish law to the treatment of the critically ill"
*_________. "Jewish biomedical law." Oxford
*Zohar, Noam J. 1997. "Alternatives in Jewish Bioethics". Albany: State University of New York Press.
*Zoloth Laurie. 1999. "Health care and the ethics of encounter: A Jewish discussion of social justice." Univ. of North Carolina Press.
* "Assia", Hebrew journal on Jewish medical ethics. [http://www.medethics.org.il/siteEng/PagesEn.asp?cat_id=4&page_id=19] . [http://www.medethics.org.il/db/jme.asp English selections are available.]
* "Encyclopedia of Medical Halacha" by Avraham Steinberg. "Note: The leading resource for this topic."
* Association of Orthodox Jewish Scientists, [http://www.aojs.org/pmh.asp Medical halakhah information]
* Dr.Falk Schlesinger Institute for Jewish Medical Ethics & Halacha Research,
Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem[http://www.medethics.org.il/ website] and a [http://www.medethics.org.il/articles/bib/bib2001.asp bibliography of responsa and journal articles]
* Nishmat's Women's Online Information Center, primarily on family purity practices. [http://www.yoatzot.org/]
Yeshiva University's [http://www.yu.edu/medicalethics/page.aspx?ID=3952 YU Medical Ethics Society ]
* International Conference on Jewish medical Ethics March 2008 in Switzerland [http://www.jmec.ch]
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