:"For the forested area on the island of
La Palma, Canary Islands—see Los Tilos."Infobox Greek Isles
name = Tilos
native_name = Τήλος
skyline = Livadhia tilos.jpg
sky_caption = View over Livadhia, the port and main village on Tilos
coordinates = coord|36|26|N|27|22|E
chain = Dodecanese
isles = 3
area = 64.525
highest_mount = Mt. Profítis Ilías
elevation = 654
capital = Megálo Chorió
population = 533
pop_as_of = 2001
postal = 850 02
telephone = 22460
license = ΚΧ, ΡΟ, PK
website = [http://www.tilos.gr http://www.tilos.gr]
Tílos ( _el. Τήλος; ancient form: Telos) is a small Greek island and municipality located in the
Aegean Sea. It is part of the Dodecanesegroup of islands, and lies midway between Kosand Rhodes. It has a population of 533 inhabitants (2001 census). [http://www.ellada.net/ellada/regions/tilos.php] Along with the uninhabited offshore islets of Antitilosand Gaidaros, it forms the Municipality of Tilos, which has a total land area of 64.525 km².
Popularly, Telos was the son of
Heliosand Halia, the sister of the Telchines. He came to the island in search of herbs to heal his ill mother, and later returned to found a temple to Apolloand Neptune. However, Telos (Telo or Tilo) does not appear in Greek mythologyand the name probably has an unknown pre-Hellenic origin. Pliny the Eldernotes that in antiquity Telos was known as Agathussa (Αγαθούσσα) (also Agathusa and Agathousa). In the Middle Ages, it was known by the Italian Piscopi or Episcopi (also Pisconia). The island has also been called Turkish: "İlyaki"; Italian: "Piscopi".
Potteryand stone toolsdiscovered in Kharkhadió indicate human activity on Tilos in the early Neolithic period 8000 BC - 7000 BC, along with the large assembly of dwarf (1.20-1.60 m tall) elephant bones, carbon datedat 4000 - 7000 BC (some now in the museum). Masseti (2001) suggests coexistence of these animals with humans, possibly into the historic period.
Aegean Bronze Age
*The island flourished during the classical era, minting its own
coinage and being famed for clothingand perfumes.
*Telos claims that poet
Erinna(said to be Sappho's equal) was born on the island around 350 BC. Charles Anthon (1853) describes her thus: "Erinna (Ήριννα) friend & contemporary of Sappho (about 612 BC) died at 19, left behind her poems which were thought worthy to rank with those of Homer. Her poems were of the epic class; the chief of them was entitled Ήλακάτη, " The Distaff" it consisted of three hundred lines, of which only four are extant. It was written in a dialect which was a mixture of the Doric and Aeolic, and which was spoken at Rhodes, where, or in the adjacent island of Telos, Erinna was born. She is also called a Lesbian and a Mytilenean, on account of her residence in Lesbos with Sappho. There are several epigrams upon Erinna, in which her praise is celebrated, and her untimely death is lamented. Three epigrams in the Greek Anthology are ascribed to her, of which the first has the genuine air of antiquity, but the other two, addressed to Baucis, seem to be a later fabrication."
*In the 7th century BC, colonists from Tilos and
Lindossettled in Sicilyand founded the city of Gelas.
Herodotus(484 BC – c. 425 BC) described the centuries preceding him as the golden age of Tilos.
*In the 5th century BC, Tilos was a member of the First
Delian Leagueand kept its independence until the end of the Peloponnesian War.
*From the turn of the 4th century BC, for the next 200 years, Tilos was subject to the
Seleucid Empire, Cariaand then Ptolemaic Egyptunder the influence of Rhodes, until in 200 BC, the island was incorporated in to the Rhodian confederacy.
*The island was conquered by the Romans in 42 BC. Archaeological finds from Roman and early-Christian times demonstrate the prosperity of the island until the great earthquake of 551 AD.
Tilos followed Rhodes into the
Byzantine Empirefollowing the death of Theodosius Iand was a member of the naval Theme of Samos between the 9th and 14th centuries.
The Knights of Saint John took control of Tilos from 1309, restoring the Byzantine castles, and building new ones in order to defend against pirate raids. It was evacuated in 1470 as the Ottomans began the Siege of Rhodes and control passed to
Suleiman Iin 1522 when Rhodes fell.
In 1523, Tilos was occupied by the
Ottoman Empireand the island was put under the privileged administrative and tax system known as "maktou." Christian pirates, under the pretext of revenge against the Turks, pillaged the island constantly.
Ottoman rule lasted until 1912, when the island was ceded to
Italy. In 1943, it was invaded by German troops and in 1948, Tilos united with Greece, as did all the Dodecanese islands. Since 1948, the population of the island has declined rapidly, as many Tilians migrated to the United Statesor Australia.
In June 2008, Anastassios Aliferis, the Socialist mayor of the island performed the first
same-sex marriages in Greece, citing a legal loophole and defying claims of illegality by a Greek prosecutor. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/04/world/europe/04greece.html?_r=1&ref=europe&oref=slogin "Mayor Performs Greece’s First Same-Sex Marriages"] , " New York Times" 4 June 2008]
Tílos has an inverted 'S' shape, is about 14.5 km long, north-west to south-east, with a maximum width of 8 km and an area of about 61 km². The island has a mountainous
limestoneinterior, volcanic lowlands, pumicebeds and red lava sand, like its north western neighbour Nisyros. It is well supplied by springs, and is potentially very fertile and productive. Its coasts are generally rocky or pebbled, but there are also a number of sandy beaches.
At the north-west end of the island, the Monastery of Áyios Pandeleímon, (also the island's patron saint), sits on the slopes of Mount Profítis Ilías (654 m). The mountain borders a fertile plain running across the island's width, with the settlements of Áyios Andónis to the north and Éristos to the south. To the north-east of the plain is the island's capital, Megálo Chorió, built in the early 19th century at the foot of the ancient city of Telos. The archaic ruins stretch up to the site of the acropolis of the ancient city, dedicated to Pythios Apollo and Poliada Athina, and the Venetian Kástro, built over it. To the west is Kharkhadió Cave, where excavations in 1971 unearthed
Neolithicfinds and bones of dwarf elephant.
Above the cave stand the ruins of the medieval Fortress of Mesariá. At southern end of the island, bordered by more fertile meadows, is Livádhia, the major harbour and economic centre of the island. The island's old capital, Mikró Chorió, first settled in the 15th century by the Knights of the Order of St John, overlooks the bay. It has been completely abandoned since 1960, its inhabitants having moved down to the harbour in the 1930s. A number of other settlements such as Lethrá, Gherá, and Panó Méri have similarly been abandoned. Mount Áyios Nikoláos (367 m) stands to the south of the bay.
Kástros (castles) have protected the island's inhabitants from
pirateraids since the Dark ages.
*cite web |title=Book IV, CHAP. 23.--THE SPORADES. |work=Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (eds. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) |url=http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0137&query=head%3D%23172 |accessmonthday=March 27 |accessyear=2005
*cite conference |author=M. Masseti |title=Did endemic dwarf elephants survive on Mediterranean islands up to protohistorical times? |booktitle=Atti Congresso Internazionale “La Terra degli elefanti”, CNR Roma 46-52 |year=2001 |pages=402–406 [http://www.cq.rm.cnr.it/elephants2001/pdf/402_406.pdf]
*cite web |title=The Aegean Islands| work=Regnal Chronologies | url=http://www.hostkingdom.net/aegean.html#Tilos |accessmonthday=March 28 |accessyear=2005
*cite book |author=Anthon, Charles |title=A Manual of Greek Literature from the Earliest Authentic Periods to the Close of Byzantine Era |publisher=Harper & brothers |year=1853 [http://www.ancientlibrary.com/greek-lit/0125.html]
*cite web |title=Tilos |work=Tilos Park website |url=http://www.tilos-park.org |accessmonthday=April 23 |accessyear=2005
*cite web |title=Tilos for sailors |work=Tilos sailor information |url=http://www.greece.charterpartner.com/tilos.html |accessmonthday=June 18 |accessyear=2007
* [http://www.tilos.gr/ Official website] en el icon
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