Basile Bouchon was a
textileworker in the silkcenter in Lyonwho invented a way to control a loomwith a perforated paper tape in 1725. The son of an organ maker, Bouchon partially automated the tedious setting up process of the drawloomin which an operator lifted the warp threads using cords.
The cords of the warp were passed through the eyes of horizontal needles arranged to slide in a box. These were either raised or not depending on whether there was not or was a hole in the tape at that point. [cite book|title=Charles Babbage and his Calculating Machines|pages=xxxiv|author=Philip and Emily Morrison(eds)|publisher=Dover Publications, Inc, New York|date=1961] This was similar to the
piano rolldeveloped at the end of the 19th century and may have been inspired by the patterns that were traditionally drawn on squared paper.
Three years later, Jean Fouchon expanded the number of cords that could be handled by arranging the holes in rows and using rectangular cards that were joined together in an endless loop.
Though this eliminated mistakes in the lifting of threads, it still needed an extra operator to control it and the first attempt at automation was made by
Jacques Vaucansonin 1745. But it was not until 1805 that the wildly successful Jacquard loomwas finally produced.
*Poncelet, Jean-Victor, "Travaux de la Commission Francaise. L’Exposition Universelle de 1851", vol. 3, part 1 (Machines et outils appliqués aux arts textiles), section 2, pages 348-349 (1857). [Poncelet’s history of the Jacquard loom is the basis for most subsequent accounts.]
*Usher, Abbot Payson. "A History of Mechanical Inventions". Revised edition. (Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, Inc., 1988), pages 289-291. (Originally published in 1929 by Harvard University Press in Cambridge, Mass.)
*Randell, Brian, ed. "The Origins of Digital Computers: Selected Papers" , 3rd ed. (N.Y., N.Y.: Springer-Verlag, 1982), page 5.
*Eymard, Paul (1863) “Historique du metier Jacquard,” "Annales des Sciences physiques et naturelles"*, 3rd series, vol. 7, pages 34-56; see especially page 37. (* published in Lyon, France by Barret)
*Ballot, Charles. "L’introduction du machinisme dans l’industrie française". (Lille-Paris: F. Rieder, 1923), page 339.
*Ballot, Charles. "Revue d'histoire de Lyon: Études, Documents, Bibliographie" (Lyon, France: A. Rey et Co., 1913), vol. 2, pages 6-10.
*Barlow, Alfred. "The History and Principles of Weaving by Hand and by Power" (London, England: Kessinger Publishing, 2007). See Chapter 11. (Originally published in 1876 by Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington in London.)
Photograph of replica of Bouchon loom: http://cs-exhibitions.uni-klu.ac.at/index.php?id=315
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