- Carnegie Institution for Science
The Carnegie Institution for Science (also called the Carnegie Institution of Washington (CIW)) is a organization in the United States established to support
Today the CIW directs its efforts in six main areas: plant molecular biology at the Department of Plant Biology (
Stanford, California), developmental biologyat the Department of Embryology ( Baltimore, Maryland), global ecologyat the Department of Global Ecology (Stanford, CA), earth science, materials science, and astrobiologyat the Geophysical Laboratory ( Washington, DC); earth and planetary sciencesas well as astronomyat the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (Washington, DC), and (at the " Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington" (OCIW; Pasadena, CA and Las Campanas, Chile)).
The Carnegie Institution was established by
Andrew Carnegieas a unique organization dedicated “in the broadest and most liberal manner” to scientific discovery. The guiding doctrine during the institution's history has been to devote its resources to “exceptional” individuals who can explore, in an atmosphere of complete freedom, complex scientific problems . Realizing that the institution’s success depended upon flexibility and freedom, Carnegie and his trustees established that tradition as the foundation of the institution which continues to support Earth, space, and lifesciences.
"It is proposed to found in the city of Washington, an institution which...shall in the broadest and most liberal manner encourage investigation, research, and discovery [and] show the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind..." — Andrew Carnegie,The Carnegie Institution was founded by Andrew Carnegie in 1902. Its first president was
January 28, 1902 Daniel Coit Gilman, founder of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. One of the first grant recipients was George Halein 1904.
Beginning in 1895, Andrew Carnegie donated his vast fortune to establish 23 organizations around the world that today bear his name and carry on work in fields as diverse as
art, education, international affairs, world peace, and scientific research. (See Andrew Carnegie's 23 Organizations [http://www.ciw.edu/andrew_carnegies_organizations] ). The organizations are independent entities and are related by name only.
In 2007, the institution adopted the name "Carnegie Institution for Science" to better distinguish it from the other organizations established by and named for Andrew Carnegie. The new name closely associates the words “Carnegie” and “
science” and thereby reveals the core identity. The institution remains officially and legally the Carnegie Institution of Washington, but now has a public identity that more clearly describes its work.
Observatories of the CIW
The Institution's grant to George Hale was used for the construction of a
telescopebuilt around a large mirror blankthat he had received as a gift from his father. The OCIW funded the completion of the convert|60|in|mm|sing=on Hale Telescopeon Mount Wilson in the San Gabriel Mountainsabove Pasadena. Immediately work began on designing the even larger Hooker Telescope(100-inch), completed in 1917. Two solar telescopes were also constructed with Carnegie support and together they form the Mount Wilson Observatory, still chiefly supported by the Carnegie Institution after 100 years.Fact|date=February 2007 The OCIW went on to help Hale design and build the convert|200|in|mm|sing=on telescope of the Palomar Observatory(although construction was mostly paid for by a Rockefeller grant).
The OCIW's chief observatory is now the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile, where two identical 6.5 metre Magellan telescopes operate. OCIW is the lead institution in the consortium building the
Giant Magellan Telescope, which will be made up of seven mirrors each 8.4 meters in diameterfor a total telescope diameter of 25.4 metres (83 ft). The telescope is expected to have over four times the light-gathering ability of existing instruments.
upport for genetic research
In 1920 the
Eugenics Record Officein Cold Spring Harbor, New Yorkwas merged with the Station for Experimental Evolution to become the CIW's "Department of Genetics". The CIW funded that laboratory until 1939. It closed in 1944 and its records were retained in a university library. The CIW continues its support for genetic research, and among its notable grantees in that field are Nobel laureates Barbara McClintock, Alfred Hersheyand Andrew Fire.
upport for archeological research
The Institution supported
archaeologyin the Yucatán Peninsulain the 1910s through the 1930s, including extensive excavations (under Carnegie associate and Mayanistscholar Sylvanus G. Morley) of Chichen Itza, Copán, and other sites of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization.
Presidents of the CIW
*Daniel Coit Gilman (1902-1904)
Robert S. Woodward(1904-1920)
John C. Merriam(1921-1938)
*Caryl P. Haskins (1956–1971)
James D. Ebert(1978–1987)
Edward E. David, Jr.(Acting President, 1987–1988)
Maxine F. Singer(1989-2002)
Michael E. Gellert(Acting President, Jan.- April 2003)
Richard A. Meserve(April 2003-present)
* [http://www.ciw.edu/ Official website]
* [http://www.ciw.edu/about/whoweare/administration Administration]
* [http://www.ciw.edu/first_light_case/ Carnegie Academy for Science Education and First Light]
* [http://www.ciwemb.edu/ Department of Embryology]
* [http://globalecology.stanford.edu/DGE/CIWDGE/CIWDGE.HTML Department of Global Ecology]
* [http://www-ciwdpb.stanford.edu/ Department of Plant Biology]
* [http://www.dtm.ciw.edu/ Department of Terrestrial Magnetism]
* [http://www.gl.ciw.edu/ Geophysical Laboratory]
* [http://www.ociw.edu/ Observatories]
"This article is about a scientific institution. For the center of higher learning which is not a part of
Carnegie Mellon University, refer to Carnegie Institute of Technology. For the Carnegie Institute which operates the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, see that article.
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