Topic outline of human anatomy

:"For a more comprehensive list on anatomy, see the List of anatomical topics."

Human anatomy, a branch of anatomy, is the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human. It is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unaided vision. Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes, and includes histology (the study of the organization of tissues), and cytology (the study of cells).

The following outline is provided as an overview of and introduction to human anatomy:

Essence of human anatomy

: "Main article: Human anatomy"

* Human body

body an human parts

* Gross anatomy
* Microscopic anatomy
** Cytology
** Histology

human body parts

Upper limb

* Shoulder
* Arm
** Elbow
** Forearm
** Wrist
** Hand
*** Fingers
**** Knuckles

Torso

* Thorax — (the region of the chest from the thoracic inlet to the thoracic diaphragm)
* Abdomen (everything from the thoracic diaphragm to the pelvic brim or to the pelvic inlet)
* The back
** Vertebral column (the spine)
*** Vertebrae
*** Sacrum
*** Coccyx
*** Intervertebral disks .

Pelvic region

The pelvic region includes everything from the pelvic inlet to the pelvic diaphragm:
* Pelvis
* Perineum
* Sex organs
* Anus

Major organ systems

: "Main article: Organ"

Circulatory system

The "circulatory system" pumps and channels blood to and from the body and lungs, and includes the:
* Heart
* Blood
* Blood vessels

Digestive system

The "digestive system" digests and processes food, and includes the:
* Salivary glands
* Esophagus
* Stomach
* Liver
* Gallbladder
* Pancreas
* Intestines
* Rectum
* Anus

Endocrine system

The "endocrine system" controls communication within the body using hormones made by endocrine glands, and includes the:
* Endocrine glands
** Hypothalamus
** Pituitary gland
** Pineal gland
** Thyroid
** Parathyroids
** Adrenal glands
* Hormones

Immune system

The "immune system" protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells. It includes the:
* Bone marrow
* White blood cells
* Antibodies
* Lymphatic system
** Lymph
** Lymph nodes
** Lymph vessels
** Leukocytes
** Tonsils
** Adenoids
** Thymus
** Spleen

Integumentary system

The "integumentary system" covers the human body, and provides some protection from the outside world. It includes the:
* Skin
* Hair
* Nails

Muscular system

The "muscular system" controls the bodies movement, using muscles:

Nervous system

The "nervous system" collects, transfers and processes information, and includes the:
* Brain
* Spinal cord
* Nerves
* Peripheral nerves

Reproductive system

The reproductive system enables humans to engage in sex in order to give birth to new humans (babies). The system includes the:
* Sex organs
** Female sex organs
*** ovaries
*** Fallopian tubes
*** Uterus
*** Vagina
*** Mammary glands (breasts)
** Male sex organs
*** Testes
*** Vas deferens
*** Seminal vesicles
*** Prostate
*** Penis

Respiratory system

The "respiratory system" includes the organs used for breathing, the:
* Pharynx
* Larynx
* Trachea
* Bronchi
* Lungs
** Bronchial tree
* diaphragm

Skeletal system

The human "skeletal system" provides structural support and protection, and includes:
* Bones
* Joints
** Cartilage
** Ligaments
* Tendons

More detail on these subsystems follows...

Bones

A typical adult human skeleton consists of 206 bones, though this number does vary owing to a variety of anatomical variations; for example, a small portion of the human population have an extra rib, or an extra lumbar vertebra. (Numbers in bold refer to the diagram at right.)

"In the skull (22)":
*1-9. cranium - 8 cranial bones (frontal, parietal (2), temporal (2), occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid) and 13 facial bones (nasal (2), maxilla (2), lacrimal (2), zygomatic (2), palatine (2), vomer, inferior nasal conchae(2))
*7. mandible "In the middle ears (6):
*malleus
*incus
*stapes "In the throat (1):"
*hyoid "In the shoulder girdle (4):"
*25. clavicle
*29. scapula"In the thorax (25)":
*10. sternum
*28. ribs "In the vertebral column (26)":
*8. cervical vertebrae
*thoracic vertebrae
*14. lumbar vertebrae
*16. sacrum
*coccyx "In the arms (6)":
*11. humerus
**26. condyles of humerus
*12. ulna
*13. radius
**27. head of radius"In the hands (54)":
*carpals:
**scaphoid
**lunate
**triquetrum
**pisiform
**trapezium
**trapezoid
**capitate
**hamate
*metacarpals
*phalanges:
**proximal phalanges
**intermediate phalanges
**distal phalanges "In the pelvis (2):"
*15. ilium and ischium"In the legs (8)":
*18. femur
**17. hip joint (joint, not bone)
**22. greater trochanter of femur
**23. condyles of femur
*19. patella
*20. tibia
*21. fibula "In the feet (52)":
*tarsals:
**calcaneus
**talus
**navicular bone
**medial cuneiform bone
**intermediate cuneiform bone
**lateral cuneiform bone
**cuboidal bone
*metatarsals
*phalanges:
**proximal phalanges
**intermediate phalanges
**distal phalanges

History of human anatomy

: "Main article: History of anatomy"

Basic human anatomy concepts

Human anatomy scholars

Human anatomy lists

: "Main article: List of anatomical topics"

* Glossary of anatomical terminology, definitions and abbreviations

See also

Physiology

External links


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