Solar power in the European Union

Map of solar electricity potential in Europe

Solar power in the European Union

Solar power consists of photovoltaic and solar thermal power.

During 2010, the European solar heating yield was 17.3 TWh, annual turnover 2.6 Billion € and employment 33,500 persons (1 job for 80 kW new capacity). Turnover is concentrated in local small and medium businesses.[1]

Contents

Photovoltaic solar power

Photovoltaic cells in use on top of a building in Berlin.
PV in Europe (MWpeak)[2][3][4][5]
# Country 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
1  Germany 1,910 3,063 3,846 6,019 9,959 17,370
2  Spain 58 118 733 3,421 3,438 3,808
3  Italy 46 58 120 458 1,157 3,478
4  Czech Republic 0 1 4 55 463 1,953
5  France 26 33 47 104 335 1,054
6  Belgium 2 4 22 71 574 787
7  Greece 5 7 9 19 55 205
8  Slovakia 0 0 0 0.07 0.2 144
9  Portugal 3 4 18 68 102 131
10  Austria 24 29 27 32 53 103
11  Netherlands 51 51 53 57 68 97
12  United Kingdom 11 14 19 23 30 75
13  Slovenia 0.2 0.4 1 2 9 36
14  Luxembourg 24 24 24 25 26 27
15  Bulgaria 0.8 1 6 17
16  Sweden 4 5 6 8 9 10
17  Finland 4 4 5 6 8 10
18  Denmark 3 3 3 3 5 7
19  Cyprus 0.5 1 1 2 3 6
20  Romania 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.6 2
21  Poland 0.3 0.4 0.6 1 1 2
22  Hungary 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.7 2
23  Malta 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 2 2
24  Ireland 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.6
25  Lithuania 0 0 0 0.06 0.07 0.1
26  Estonia 0 0 0 0.01 0.05 0.08
27  Latvia 0 0 0 0.004 0.008 0.008
EU 27 (GWp) 2.17 3.42 4.94 10.38 15.86 29.33
PV per capita 2010[5]
# Country W/capita
1  Germany 212.3
2  Czech Republic 185.9
3  Spain 82.8
4  Belgium 72.6
5  Italy 57.6
6  Luxembourg 54.3
7  Slovakia 26.5
8  Greece 18.2
9  Slovenia 17.8
10  France 16.3
11  Portugal 12.3
12  Austria 12.2
13  Cyprus 7.8
14  Netherlands 5.8
15  Malta 4.0
16  Bulgaria 2.3
17  Finland 1.8
18  Denmark 1.3
19  United Kingdom 1.2
20  Sweden 1.1
21  Hungary 0.2
22  Ireland 0.1
23  Romania 0.1
24  Estonia 0.1
25  Poland 0.0
26  Lithuania 0.0
27  Latvia 0.0
EU27 (W/capita) 58.5

The need for the strategic development of photovoltaic systems in the EU has led to the creation of PV-NET, a network that gathers representatives from all the sectors of the research and development community concerned with the photovoltaic solar energy industry (see solar cell). The network promotes communication between speakers through the organisation of specialised conferences, workshops and congresses.

This interaction has led to the editing of a waybill, finished in 2003 with the aim of providing a solid basis for EU leaders and European citizens to base their decisions and policy making and in order to help reach the objective set by the European Commission to multiply the use of photovoltaic systems by thirty times by 2010. In 2002, the world production of photovoltaic modules surpassed 550 MW, of which more than the 50% was produced in the EU. At the end of 2004, 79% of all European capacity was in Germany, where 794 MWp had been installed.

In 2010, Spain had the largest photovoltaic power station in the world – 60 MWp Olmedilla Photovoltaic Park, which was completed in 2008. Germany is on the top of installed capacity with 17,370 MW (almost two thirds of whole EU27 capacity) and also for installed capacity per capita with 212 W.[5]

Solar thermal

Solar heating in Europe* (MWthermal)[6][7]
# Country Add
2006
Add
2007
Add
2008
Total
2008
Total
2009
Total
2010
1  Germany 1,050 665 1,470 7,766 9,036 9,831
2  Austria 205 197 243 2,268 3,031 3,227
3  Greece 168 198 209 2,708 2,853 2,855
4  Italy 130 172 295 1,124 1,410 1,753
5  Spain 123 183 304 988 1,306 1,543
6  France 154 179 272 1,137 1,287 1,470
7  Netherlands 10 14 18 254 533 557
8  Portugal 14 18 60 223 395 526
9  Cyprus 42 46 48 485 490 491
10  Czech Republic 15 18 25 116 362 471
11  Poland 29 47 91 254 357 459
12  Denmark 18 16 23 293 339 379
13  United Kingdom 38 38 57 270 333 374
14  Sweden 20 18 19 202 295 312
15  Belgium 25 30 64 188 232 261
16  Slovenia 5 8 11 96 111 116
17  Ireland 4 11 31 52 85 106
18  Romania 0 0 6 66 80 101
19  Slovakia 6 6 9 67 73 84
20  Hungary 1 6 8 18 59 71
21  Bulgaria 2 2 3 22 56 62
22  Malta 3 4 4 25 31 37
23  Finland 2 3 3 18 20 23
24  Luxembourg 2 2 3 16 14 16
25  Latvia 1 1 1 5 6 7
26  Lithuania 0 0 1 3 3 4
27  Estonia 0 0 0 1 2 2
27 EU27 (GW) 2.10 1.93 3.33 19.08 22.80 25.14
2004–2006
The relation between collector area and rated power: 1m2 = 0.7 kW thermal

Over the next 10 years the European solar thermal will grow on average at a rate of 15% per annum. According to the National Renewable Energy Action Plans the total solar thermal capacity in the EU will be 102 GW in 2020 (while 14 GW in 2006).[1]

In June 2009, the European Parliament and Council adopted the Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from Renewable Energy Sources (RES). For the first time, heating and cooling accounting for half of the final energy demand will be covered by a European directive promoting renewable energies. The overall renewable target is legally binding but renewable mix is free. According to the delivered national plans the highest of solar heating markets during 2010-2020 will be in Italy, Germany, France, Spain and Poland in respect to the national target in 2020 and capacity increase. Top countries per capita will be Cyprus, Greece, Austria, Italy and Belgium.[1]

In some European countries the solar thermal market is still in its infancy. Bulgaria, Denmark, Netherlands, Sweden, and United Kingdom have extremely low targets in their plans. Estonia, Finland, Latvia, and Romania have not included solar thermal in their national plans at all.[1]

Solar heating is the usage of solar energy to provide space or water heating. Worldwide the use was 88 GWthermal in 2005. Growth potential is enormous. The EU have been second after China in the installations. If all EU countries had used solar thermal as enthusiastically as the Austrians, the EU’s installed capacity would have been 91 GWth (130 million m2, far beyond the target of 100 million m2 by 2010, set by the White Paper in 1997. In 2005 solar heating in the EU was equivalent to more than 686,000 tons of oil. ESTIF’s minimum target is to produce solar heating equivalent to 5,600,000 tons of oil (2020). A more ambitious, but feasible, target is 73 millions tons of oil per year (2020) – a lorry row spanning 1,5 times around the globe.[8]

Solar heating
per capita 2010[7]
# Country W/
capita
1  Cyprus 611
2  Austria 385
3  Greece 253
4  Germany 120
5  Malta 90
6  Denmark 68
7  Slovenia 57
8  Portugal 49
9  Czech Republic 45
10  Netherlands 34
11  Spain 34
12  Sweden 33
13  Luxembourg 32
14  Italy 29
15  Belgium 24
16  Ireland 24
17  France 23
18  Slovakia 15
19  Poland 12
20  Bulgaria 8
21  Hungary 7
22  United Kingdom 6
23  Romania 5
24  Finland 4
25  Latvia 3
26  Estonia 1
27  Lithuania 1
EU27 (W/capita) 50

Organizations

The European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) is the world's largest industry association devoted to the solar electricity market. The association aims to promote photovoltaics at the national, European and worldwide levels.[9]

EPIA organizes the International Thin Film Conference.[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d [Solar Thermal Markets in Europe Trends and Market Statistics 2010], European Solar Thermal Industry Federation (ESTIF) June 2011 p. 14-15, Figure Capacity in operation 2010/2020
  2. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2007 – EurObserv’ER Systèmes solaires Le journal des énergies renouvelables n° 178, p. 49-70, 4/2007
  3. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2009 – EurObserv’ER Systèmes solaires Le journal des énergies renouvelables n° 190, p. 72-102, 3/2009
  4. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2010 – EurObserv’ER
  5. ^ a b c Photovoltaic energy barometer 2011 – EurObserv’ER
  6. ^ Solar thermal market grows strongly in Europe Trends and Market Statistics 2008, ESTIF 5/2009
  7. ^ a b EurObserv'ER 203 (2011) - Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer
  8. ^ Solar Thermal Action Plan for Europe ESTIF, 1/2007
  9. ^ http://www.epia.org/index.php?id=4
  10. ^ http://www.thinfilmconference.org

External links


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