- African American literature
African American literature is the body of
literatureproduced in the United States by writers of African descent. The genre traces its origins to the works of such late 18th century writers as Phillis Wheatleyand Olaudah Equiano, reaching early high points with slave narrativesand the Harlem Renaissance, and continuing today with authors such as Toni Morrison, Maya Angelouand Walter Mosleybeing ranked among the top writers in the United States. Among the themes and issues explored in African American literature are the role of African Americans within the larger American society, African-American culture, racism, slavery, and equality. African American writing has also tended to incorporate within itself oral forms such as spirituals, sermons, gospel music, bluesand rap. ["To Shatter Innocence: Teaching African American Poetry" by Jerry W. Ward, Jr, from "Teaching African American Literature" by M. Graham, Routledge, 1998, page 146.]
As African Americans' place in American society has changed over the centuries, so, too, have the foci of African American literature. Before the
American Civil War, African American literature primarily focused on the issue of slavery, as indicated by the subgenre of slave narratives. At the turn of the 20th century, books by authors such as W.E.B. DuBoisand Booker T. Washingtondebated whether to confront or appease racist attitudes in the United States. During the American Civil Rights movement, authors such as Richard Wright and Gwendolyn Brookswrote about issues of racial segregationand black nationalism. Today, African American literature has become accepted as an integral part of American literature, with books such as "" by Alex Haley, " The Color Purple" by Alice Walker, and "Beloved" by Toni Morrison achieving both best-selling and award-winning status.
Characteristics and themes
In broad terms, African American literature can be defined as writings by people of African descent living in the United States of America. However, just as African American history and life is extremely varied, so too is African American literature. ["The Columbia Guide to Contemporary African American Fiction" by Darryl Dickson-Carr, Columbia University Press, 2005, pages 10 to 11.] That said, African American literature has generally focused on themes of particular interest to Negros in the United States, such as the role of African Americans within the larger American society and what it means to be an American."A Rip in the Tent: Teaching African American Literature" by Katherine Driscoll Coon, from "Teaching African American Literature" by M. Graham, Routledge, 1998, page 32.] As
Princeton Universityprofessor Albert J. Raboteauhas said, all African-American studies, including African American literature, "speaks to the deeper meaning of the African-American presence in this nation. This presence has always been a test case of the nation's claims to freedom, democracy, equality, the inclusiveness of all." As such, it can be said that African American Literature explores the very issues of freedom and equality which were long denied to Negros in the United States, along with further themes such as African American culture, racism, religion, slavery, a sense of home. ["Burnin' Down the House: Home in African American Literature" by Valerie Sweeney Prince, Columbia University Press, 2005.] and more.
African American literature constitutes a vital branch of the literature of the
African diaspora, with African American literature both being influenced by the great African diasporic heritage ["The Columbia Guide to Contemporary African American Fiction (The Columbia Guides to Literature Since 1945)" by Darryl Dickson-Carr, Columbia University Press, 2005, page 73.] and in turn influencing African diasporic writings in many countries. In addition, African American literature exists within the larger realm of post-colonial literature, even though scholars draw a distinctive line between the two by stating that "African American literature differs from most post-colonial literature in that it is written by members of a minority community who reside within a nation of vast wealth and economic power." ["English Postcoloniality: Literatures from Around the World" by Radhika Mohanram and Gita Rajan, Greenwood Press, 1996, page 135.]
African American oral culture is rich in poetry, including spirituals, African American
gospel music, bluesand rap. This oral poetry also appears in the African American tradition of Christian sermons, which make use of deliberate repetition, cadence and alliteration. African American literature—especially written poetry, but also prose—has a strong tradition of incorporating all of these forms of oral poetry. ["To Shatter Innocence: Teaching African American Poetry" by Jerry W. Ward, Jr., from "Teaching African American Literature" by M. Graham, Routledge, 1998, page 146.]
However, while these characteristics and themes exist on many levels of African American literature, they are not the exclusive definition of the genre and don't exist within all works within the genre. In addition, there is resistance to using Western literary theory to analyze African American literature. As
Henry Louis Gates, Jr., one of the most important African American literary scholars, once said, "My desire has been to allow the black tradition to speak for itself about its nature and various functions, rather than to read it, or analyze it, in terms of literary theories borrowed whole from other traditions, appropriated from without." ["The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African American Literary Criticism" by Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Oxford, 1988, page xix.]
Early African American literature
African American historypredates the emergence of the United States as an independent country, so too does African American literature have similarly deep roots.
Lucy Terry is the author of the oldest piece of African American literature known which was "Bars Fight", 1746. This poem was not published until 1855 in Josiah Holland's "History of Western Massachusetts".Also, Briton Hammon's "The Narrative of the Uncommon Sufferings and Surprising Deliverence of Briton Hammon, A Negro Man", 1760. Poet
Phillis Wheatley(1753–84), who published her book "Poems on Various Subjects" in 1773, three years before American independence. Born in Senegal, Africa, Wheatley was captured and sold into slaveryat the age of seven. Brought to America, she was owned by a Boston merchant. Even though she initially spoke no English, by the time she was sixteen she had mastered the language. Her poetry was praised by many of the leading figures of the American Revolution, including George Washington, who personally thanked her for a poem she wrote in his honor. Despite this, many white people found it hard to believe that a Black woman could be so intelligent as to write poetry. As a result, Wheatley had to defend herself in court by proving she actually wrote her own poetry. Some critics cite Wheatley's successful defense as the first recognition of African American literature.Ellis Cashmore, review of " [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FQP/is_n4331_v126/ai_19997743 The Norton Anthology of African-American Literature] ", Nellie Y. McKay and Henry Louis Gates, eds., "New Statesman", April 25, 1997 (accessed July 6, 2005).]
Another early African American author was
Jupiter Hammon(1711–1806?). Hammon, considered the first published Black writer in America, published his poem "An Evening Thought: Salvation by Christ with Penitential Cries" as a broadside in early 1761. In 1778 he wrote an odeto Phillis Wheatley, in which he discussed their shared humanity and common bonds. In 1786, Hammon gave his well-known Address to the Negroes of the State of New York. Hammon wrote the speech at age seventy-six after a lifetime of slaveryand it contains his famous quote, "If we should ever get to Heaven, we shall find nobody to reproach us for being black, or for being slaves." Hammon's speech also promoted the idea of a gradual emancipation as a way of ending slavery. [ [http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/readex/20400.html An address to the Negroes in the state of New-York,] by Jupiter Hammon, servant of John Lloyd, Jun, Esq; of the manor of Queen's Village, Long-Island. 1778.] It is thought that Hammon stated this plan because he knew that slavery was so entrenched in American society that an immediate emancipation of all slaves would be difficult to achieve. Hammon apparently remained a slave until his death. His speech was later reprinted by several groups opposed to slavery. William Wells Brown(1814–84) and Victor Séjour(1817–74) produced the earliest works of fiction by African American writers. Séjour was born free in New Orleansand moved to France at the age of 19. There he published his short story" Le Mulâtre" ("The Mulatto") in 1837; the story represents the first known fiction by an African American, but written in French and published in a French journal, it had apparently no influence on later American literature. Séjour never returned to African American themes in his subsequent works. Brown, on the other hand, was a prominent abolitionist, lecturer, novelist, playwright, and historian. Born into slavery in the Southern United States, Brown escaped to the North, where he worked for abolitionist causes and was a prolific writer. Brown wrote what is considered to be the first novel by an African American, "Clotel; or, The President's Daughter" (1853). The novel is based on what was at that time considered to be a rumor about Thomas Jeffersonfathering a daughter with his slave, Sally Hemings.
However, because the novel was published in England, the book is not considered the first African American novel published in the United States. This honor instead goes to
Harriet Wilson, whose novel "Our Nig" (1859) details the difficult lives of Northern free Blacks.
A subgenre of African American literature which began in the middle of the 19th century is the slave narrative. At the time, the controversy over
slaveryled to impassioned literature on both sides of the issue, with books like Uncle Tom's Cabin(1852) representing the abolitionist view of the evils of slavery, while the so-called Anti-Tom literatureby white, southern writers like William Gilmore Simmsrepresented the pro-slavery viewpoint.
To present the true reality of slavery, a number of former slaves such as
Harriet Jacobsand Frederick Douglasswrote slave narratives, which soon became a mainstay of African American literature. Some six thousand former slaves from North America and the Caribbeanwrote accounts of their lives, with about 150 of these published as separate books or pamphlets.
Slave narratives can be broadly categorized into three distinct forms: tales of religious redemption, tales to inspire the abolitionist struggle, and tales of progress. The tales written to inspire the abolitionist struggle are the most famous because they tend to have a strong autobiographical motif. Many of them are now recognized as the most literary of all 19th-century writings by African Americans, with two of the best-known being Frederick Douglass's autobiography and "
Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl" by Harriet Jacobs(1861).
While Frederick Douglass (c. 1818–95) first came to public attention as an orator and as the author of his autobiographical slave narrative, he eventually became the most prominent African American of his time and one of the most influential lecturers and authors in American history.
Born into slavery in Maryland, Douglass eventually escaped and worked for numerous abolitionist causes. He also edited a number of newspapers. Douglass' best-known work is his autobiography, "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave", which was published in 1845. At the time some critics attacked the book, not believing that a black man could have written such an eloquent work. Despite this, the book was an immediate
Douglas later revised and expanded his autobiography, which was republished as "My Bondage and My Freedom" (1855). In addition to serving in a number of political posts during his life, he also wrote numerous influential articles and essays.
After the end of slavery and the American Civil War, a number of African American authors continued to write nonfiction works about the condition of African Americans in the country.
Among the most prominent of these writers is
W.E.B. Du Bois(1868–1963), one of the original founders of the NAACP. At the turn of the century, Du Bois published a highly influential collection of essays titled The Souls of Black Folk. The book's essays on race were groundbreaking and drew from DuBois's personal experiences to describe how African Americans lived in American society. The book contains Du Bois's famous quote: "The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color-line." Du Bois believed that African Americans should, because of their common interests, work together to battle prejudice and inequity.
Another prominent author of this time period is
Booker T. Washington(1856–1915), who in many ways represented opposite views from Du Bois. Washington was an educator and the founder of the Tuskegee Institute, a Black college in Alabama. Among his published works are "Up From Slavery" (1901), "The Future of the American Negro" (1899), "Tuskegee and Its People" (1905), and "My Larger Education" (1911). In contrast to Du Bois, who adopted a more confrontational attitude toward ending racial strife in America, Washington believed that Blacks should first lift themselves up and prove themselves the equal of whites before asking for an end to racism. While this viewpoint was popular among some Blacks (and many whites) at the time, Washington's political views would later fall out of fashion.
A third writer who gained attention during this period in the US, though not a
US citizen, was the Jamaican Marcus Garvey(1887–1940), a newspaper publisher, journalist, and crusader for Pan Africanismthrough his organization the UNIA. He encouraged people of African ancestry to look favorably upon their ancestral homeland. He wrote a number of essays published as editorials in the UNIA house organ the " Negro World" newspaper. Some of his lecture material and other writings were compiled and published as nonfiction books by his second wife Amy Jacques Garveyas the "Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey Or, Africa for the Africans" (1924) and "More Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey" (1977). Paul Laurence Dunbar, who often wrote in the rural, black dialect of the day, was the first African American poet to gain national prominence. His first book of poetry, "Oak and Ivy", was published in 1893. Much of Dunbar's work, such as "When Malindy Sings" (1906), which includes photographs taken by the Hampton InstituteCamera Club, and "Joggin' Erlong" (1906) provide revealing glimpses into the lives of rural African-Americans of the day. Though Dunbar died young, he was a prolific poet, essayist, novelist (among them "The Uncalled", 1898 and "The Fanatics", 1901) and short story writer.
Even though Du Bois, Washington, and Garvey were the leading African American intellectuals and authors of their time, other African American writers also rose to prominence. Among these is
Charles W. Chesnutt, a well-known essayist.
Harlem Renaissancefrom 1920 to 1940 brought new attention to African American literature. While the Harlem Renaissance, based in the African American community in Harlem in New York City, existed as a larger flowering of social thought and culture—with numerous Black artists, musicians, and others producing classic works in fields from jazz to theater—the renaissance is perhaps best known for the literature that came out of it.
Among the most famous writers of the renaissance is poet
Langston Hughes. Hughes first received attention in the 1922 poetry collection, "The Book of American Negro Poetry". This book, edited by James Weldon Johnson, featured the work of the period's most talented poets (including, among others, Claude McKay, who also published three novels, "Home to Harlem", "Banjo" and "Banana Bottom" and a collection of short stories). In 1926, Hughes published a collection of poetry, "The Weary Blues", and in 1930 a novel, "Not Without Laughter". Perhaps, Hughes' most famous poem is "The Negro Speaks of Rivers," which he wrote as a young teen. His single, most recognized character is Jesse B. Simple, a plainspoken, pragmatic Harlemite whose comedic observations appeared in Hughes's columns for the " Chicago Defender" and the " New York Post". "Simple Speaks His Mind" (1950) is, perhaps, the best-known collection of Simple stories published in book form. Until his death in 1967, Hughes published nine volumes of poetry, eight books of short stories, two novels, and a number of plays, children's books, and translations.
Another famous writer of the renaissance is novelist
Zora Neale Hurston, author of the classic novel " Their Eyes Were Watching God" (1937). Altogether, Hurston wrote 14 books which ranged from anthropologyto short storiesto novel-length fiction. Because of Hurston's gender and the fact that her work was not seen as socially or politically relevant, her writings fell into obscurity for decades. Hurston's work was rediscovered in the 1970s in a famous essay by Alice Walker, who found in Hurston a role model for all female African American writers.
While Hurston and Hughes are the two most influential writers to come out of the Harlem Renaissance, a number of other writers also became well known during this period. They include
Jean Toomer, who wrote "Cane", a famous collection of stories, poems, and sketches about rural and urban Black life, and Dorothy West, author of the novel "The Living is Easy", which examined the life of an upper-classBlack family. Another popular renaissance writer is Countee Cullen, who described everyday black life in his poems (such as a trip he made to Baltimore, which was ruined by a racial insult). Cullen's books include the poetry collections "Color" (1925), "Copper Sun" (1927), and "The Ballad of the Brown Girl" (1927). Frank Marshall Davis's poetry collections "Black Man's Verse" (1935) and "I am the American Negro" (1937), published by Black Cat Press, earned him critical acclaim. Author Wallace Thurmanalso made an impact with his novel "The Blacker the Berry: A Novel of Negro Life" (1929), which focused on intraracial prejudice between lighter-skinned and darker-skinned African Americans.
The Harlem Renaissance marked a turning point for African American literature. Prior to this time, books by African Americans were primarily read by other Black people. With the renaissance, though, African American literature—as well as black fine art and performance art—began to be absorbed into mainstream American culture.
Civil Rights Movement era
A large migration of African Americans began during
World War I, hitting its high point during World War II. During this Great Migration, Black people left the racism and lack of opportunities in the American South and settled in northern cities like Chicago, where they found work in factories and other sectors of the economy. [David M. Katzman, " [http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_010500_blackmigrati.htm Black Migration] ," in "The Reader's Companion to American History", Houghton Mifflin Co. (accessed July 6, 2005); James Grossman, " [http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/1996/iht329633.html Chicago and the 'Great Migration'] ," "Illinois History Teacher" 3, no. 2 (1996), (accessed July 6, 2005).]
This migration produced a new sense of independence in the Black community and contributed to the vibrant Black urban culture seen during the Harlem Renaissance. The migration also empowered the growing
American Civil Rights movement, which made a powerful impression on Black writers during the 1940s, '50s and '60s. Just as Black activists were pushing to end segregation and racism and create a new sense of Black nationalism, so too were Black authors attempting to address these issues with their writings.
One of the first writers to do so was James Baldwin, whose work addressed issues of race and sexuality. Baldwin, who is best known for his novel "Go Tell It on the Mountain", wrote deeply personal stories and essays while examining what it was like to be both Black and homosexual at a time when neither of these identities was accepted by American culture. In all, Baldwin wrote nearly 20 books, including such classics as "Another Country" and "
The Fire Next Time".
Baldwin's idol and friend was author Richard Wright, whom Baldwin called "the greatest Black writer in the world for me". Wright is best known for his novel "
Native Son" (1940), which tells the story of Bigger Thomas, a Black man struggling for acceptance in Chicago. Baldwin was so impressed by the novel that he titled a collection of his own essays " Notes of a Native Son", in reference to Wright's novel. However, their friendship fell apart due to one of the book's essays, "Everybody's Protest Novel," which criticized "Native Son" for lacking credible characters and psychological complexity. Among Wright's other books are the autobiographical novel " Black Boy" (1945), " The Outsider" (1953), and "White Man, Listen!" (1957).
The other great novelist of this period is
Ralph Ellison, best known for his novel "Invisible Man" (1952), which won the National Book Awardin 1953. Even though Ellison did not complete another novel during his lifetime, "Invisible Man" was so influential that it secured his place in literary history. After Ellison's death in 1994, a second novel, "Juneteenth" (1999), was pieced together from the 2,000-plus pages he had written over 40 years. A fuller version of the manuscript will be published as " Three Days Before the Shooting" (2008).Jones, Edward " The Known World", 2003Carter Stephen, "New England White" 2007Wright W.D. "Crisis of the Black Intellectual",2007
The Civil Rights time period also saw the rise of female Black poets, most notably
Gwendolyn Brooks, who became the first African American to win the Pulitzer Prizewhen it was awarded for her 1949 book of poetry, "Annie Allen". Along with Brooks, other female poets who became well known during the 1950s and '60s are Nikki Giovanniand Sonia Sanchez.
During this time, a number of playwrights also came to national attention, notably
Lorraine Hansberry, whose play " A Raisin in the Sun" focuses on a poor Black family living in Chicago. The play won the 1959 New York Drama Critics' Circle Award. Another playwright who gained attention was Amiri Baraka, who wrote controversial off-Broadway plays. In more recent years, Baraka has become known for his poetry and music criticism.
It is also worth noting that a number of important essays and books about human rights were written by the leaders of the Civil Rights Movement. One of the leading examples of these is
Martin Luther King, Jr's " Letter from Birmingham Jail".
Beginning in the 1970s, African American literature reached the mainstream as books by Black writers continually achieved best-selling and award-winning status. This was also the time when the work of African American writers began to be accepted by academia as a legitimate genre of American literature. [Ronald Roach, " [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DXK/is_n15_v14/ai_20318388 Powerful pages—unprecedented public impact of W.W. Norton and Co's Norton Anthology of African American Literature] ," "Black Issues in Higher Education", September 18, 1997 (accessed July 6, 2005).]
As part of the larger
Black Arts Movement, which was inspired by the Civil Rights and Black PowerMovements, African American literature began to be defined and analyzed. A number of scholars and writers are generally credited with helping to promote and define African American literature as a genre during this time period, including fiction writers Toni Morrison and Alice Walker and poet James Emanuel. James Emanueltook a major step toward defining African American literature when he edited (with Theodore Gross) "Dark Symphony: Negro Literature in America," the first collection of black writings released by a major publisher. [ [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/mss/eadxmlmss/eadpdfmss/2003/ms003041.pdf James A. Emanuel: A Register of His Papers in the Library of Congress] , prepared by T. Michael Womack, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 2000. Accessed May 6, 2006.] This anthology, and Emanuel's work as an educator at the City College of New York(where he is credited with introducing the study of African-American poetry), heavily influenced the birth of the genre. [ [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/mss/eadxmlmss/eadpdfmss/2003/ms003041.pdf James A. Emanuel: A Register of His Papers in the Library of Congress] , prepared by T. Michael Womack, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 2000. Accessed May 6, 2006.] Other influential African American anthologies of this time included "Black Fire: An Anthology of Afro-American Writing", edited by LeRoi Jones(now known as Amiri Baraka) and Larry Neal in 1968 and "The Negro Caravan", co-edited by Sterling Brown, Arthur P. Davisand Ulysses Leein 1969. Toni Morrison, meanwhile, helped promote Black literature and authors when she worked as an editor for Random Housein the 1960s and '70s, where she edited books by such authors as Toni Cade Bambaraand Gayl Jones. Morrison herself would later emerge as one of the most important African American writers of the 20th century. Her first novel, "The Bluest Eye", was published in 1970. Among her most famous novels is "Beloved", which won the Pulitzer Prize for Fictionin 1988. This story describes a slave who found freedom but killed her infant daughter to save her from a life of slavery. Another important novel is "Song of Solomon", a tale about materialismand brotherhood. Morrison is the first African American woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.
In the 1970s novelist and poet
Alice Walkerwrote a famous essay that brought Zora Neale Hurstonand her classic novel " Their Eyes Were Watching God" back to the attention of the literary world. In 1982, Walker won both the Pulitzer Prizeand the American Book Awardfor her novel " The Color Purple". An epistolary novel(a book written in the form of letters), "The Color Purple" tells the story of Celie, a young woman who is sexually abused by her stepfather and then is forced to marry a man who physically abuses her. The novel was later made into a film by Steven Spielberg.
The 1970s also saw African American books topping the bestseller lists. Among the first books to do so was "" by
Alex Haley. The book, a fictionalized account of Haley's family history—beginning with the kidnapping of Haley's ancestor Kunta Kintein Gambia through his life as a slave in the United States—won the Pulitzer Prizeand became a popular television miniseries. Haley also wrote " The Autobiography of Malcolm X" in 1965.
Other important writers in recent years include
literary fictionwriters Gayl Jones, Rasheed Clark, Ishmael Reed, Jamaica Kincaid, Randall Kenan, and John Edgar Wideman. African American poets have also garnered attention. Maya Angelouread a poem at Bill Clinton's inauguration, Rita Dovewon a Pulitzer Prize and served as Poet Laureateof the United States from 1993 to 1995, and Cyrus Cassells's "Soul Make a Path through Shouting" was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize in 1994. Cassells is a recipient of the William Carlos Williams Award. Lesser-known poets like Thylias Moss, and Natasha Trethewey also have been praised for their innovative work. Notable black playwrights include Ntozake Shange, who wrote " For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide When the Rainbow Is Enuf"; Ed Bullins; Suzan-Lori Parks; and the prolific August Wilson, who won two Pulitzer Prizes for his plays. Most recently, Edward P. Joneswon the 2004 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for " The Known World", his novel about a black slaveholder in the antebellum South.
Young African American novelists include
Edwidge Danticat, David Anthony Durham, Tayari Jones, Mat Johnson, ZZ Packerand Colson Whitehead, just to name a few. African American literature has also crossed over to genre fiction. A pioneer in this area is Chester Himes, who in the 1950s and '60s wrote a series of pulp fiction detective novels featuring "Coffin" Ed Johnson and "Gravedigger" Jones, two New York City police detectives. Himes paved the way for the later crime novels of Walter Mosleyand Hugh Holton. African Americans are also represented in the genres of science fiction, fantasy and horror, with Samuel R. Delany, Octavia E. Butler, Steven Barnes, Tananarive Due, Robert Fleming, Brandon Massey, Charles R. Saunders, John Ridley, John M. Faucette, Sheree Thomasand Nalo Hopkinsonbeing just a few of the well-known authors.
Finally, African American literature has gained added attention through the work of talk show host
Oprah Winfrey, who repeatedly has leveraged her fame to promote literature through the medium of her Oprah's Book Club. At times, she has brought African American writers a far broader audience than they otherwise might have received.
While African American literature is well accepted in the United States, there are numerous views on its significance, traditions, and theories. To the genre's supporters, African American literature arose out of the experience of Blacks in the United States, especially with regards to historic racism and discrimination, and is an attempt to refute the dominant culture's literature and power. In addition, supporters see the literature existing both within and outside
American literatureand as helping to revitalize the country's writing. To critics, African American literature is part of a Balkanizationof American literature. In addition, there are some within the African American community who do not like how their own literature sometimes showcases Black people.
Refuting the dominant literary culture
Throughout American history, African Americans have been discriminated against and subject to racist attitudes. This experience inspired some Black writers, at least during the early years of African American literature, to prove they were the equals of European American authors. As Henry Louis Gates, Jr, has said, "it is fair to describe the subtext of the history of black letters as this urge to refute the claim that because blacks had no written traditions they were bearers of an inferior culture.""The Other Ghost in Beloved: The Specter of the Scarlet Letter" by Jan Stryz from "The New Romanticism: a collection of critical essays" by Eberhard Alsen, page 140.]
However, by refuting the claims of the dominant culture, African American writers weren't simply "proving their worth"—they were also attempting to subvert the literary and power traditions of the United States. Scholars expressing this view assert that writing has traditionally been seen as "something defined by the dominant culture as a white male activity." This means that, in American society, literary acceptance has traditionally been intimately tied in with the very power dynamics which perpetrated such evils as racial discrimination. By borrowing from and incorporating the non-written oral traditions and folk life of the
African diaspora, African American literature thereby broke "the mystique of connection between literary authority and patriarchalpower." [Quote from Marjorie Pryse in "The Other Ghost in Beloved: The Specter of the Scarlet Letter" by Jan Stryz from "The New Romanticism: a collection of critical essays" by Eberhard Alsen, page 140.] This view of African American literature as a tool in the struggle for Black political and cultural liberation has been stated for decades, perhaps most famously by W.E.B DuBois.Mason, " [http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/hopkins_guide_to_literary_theory/free/african-american_theory_and_criticism-_1.html African-American Theory and Criticism] " (accessed July 6, 2005).]
Existing both inside and outside American literature
James Madison UniversityEnglish professor Joanne Gabbin, African American literature exists both inside and outside American literature. "Somehow African American literature has been relegated to a different level, outside American literature, yet it is an integral part," she says. [" [http://www.jmu.edu/monty/FuriousFlower.shtml Coup of the Century] ", James Madison University (accessed July 6, 2005).]
This view of African American literature is grounded in the experience of Black people in the United States. Even though African Americans have long claimed an American identity, during most of United States history they were not accepted as full citizens and were actively discriminated against. As a result, they were part of America while also outside it.
The same can be said for African American literature. While it exists fully within the framework of a larger American literature, it also exists as its own entity. As a result, new styles of storytelling and unique voices are created in isolation. The benefit of this is that these new styles and voices can leave their isolation and help revitalize the larger literary world (McKay, 2004). This artistic pattern has held true with many aspects of
African American cultureover the last century, with jazzand hip hop being just two artistic examples that developed in isolation within the Black community before reaching a larger audience and eventually revitalizing American culture.
Whether African American literature will keep to this pattern in the coming years remains to be seen. Since the genre is already popular with mainstream audiences, it is possible that its ability to develop new styles and voices—or to remain "authentic," in the words of some critics—may be a thing of the past.
Balkanization of American literature?
Despite these views, some conservative academics and intellectuals argue that African American literature only exists as part of a
balkanizationof literature over the last few decades or as an extension of the culture warsinto the field of literature. [Theodore Dalrymple, " [http://www.newcriterion.com/archive/23/may05/dalrymple.htm An imaginary 'scandal'] ," "The New Criterion" 23, no. 9 (May 2005); Richard H. Brodhead, " [http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/pubs/A20/brodhead2.html On the Debate Over Multiculturalism] ," "On Common Ground ", no. 7 (Fall 1996), (accessed July 6, 2005).] According to these critics, literature is splitting into distinct and separate groupings because of the rise of identity politicsin the United States and other parts of the world. These critics reject bringing identity politics into literature because this would mean that "only women could write about women for women, and only Blacks about Blacks for Blacks." [Dalrymple, " [http://www.newcriterion.com/archive/23/may05/dalrymple.htm imaginary 'scandal'] ." (accessed July 6, 2005).]
People opposed to this group-based approach to writing say that it limits the ability of literature to explore the overall human condition and, more importantly, judges ethnic writers merely on the basis of their race. These critics reject this judgment and say it defies the meaning of works like Ralph Ellison's "Invisible Man", in which Ellison's main character is invisible because people see him as nothing more than a Black man. [Paul Greenberg, " [http://www.townhall.com/columnists/paulgreenberg/pg20050615.shtml I hate that (The rise of identity journalism)] ," townhall.com, June 15, 2005 (accessed July 6, 2005).] Others criticize special treatment of any ethnic-based genre of literature. For example,
Robert Hayden, the first African-American Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, once said (paraphrasing the comment by the black composer Duke Ellingtonabout jazz and music), "There is no such thing as Black literature. There's good literature and bad. And that's all." [ [http://www.eiu.edu/~eng1002/authors/hayden/haydenbio.html Biography of Robert Hayden] (accessed August 25, 2005).]
Proponents counter that the exploration of group and ethnic dynamics through writing actually deepens human understanding and that, previously, entire groups of people were ignored or neglected by American literature. [Theodore O. Mason, Jr., " [http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/hopkins_guide_to_literary_theory/free/african-american_theory_and_criticism-_1.html African-American Theory and Criticism] ," "Johns Hopkins Guide Literary Theory & Criticism"; [http://soe.csusb.edu/preintern/Engprep/Amlit/introduction.html American Literature] , College of Education, Cal State San Bernardino; Stephanie Y. Mitchem, " [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2096/is_1_53/ai_102979438 No longer nailed to the floor] ," "Cross Currents", Spring 2003; Cashmore, review of " [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FQP/is_n4331_v126/ai_19997743 The Norton Anthology of African-American Literature] " (accessed July 6, 2005).] (Jay, 1997)
The general consensus view appears to be that American literature is not breaking apart because of new genres like African American literature. Instead, American literature is simply reflecting the increasing diversity of the United States and showing more signs of diversity than ever before in its history (Andrews, 1997; McKay, 2004). This view is supported by the fact that many African American authors—and writers representing other minority groups—consistently reach the tops of the best-seller lists. If their literature only appealed to their individual ethnic groups, this would not be possible.
African American criticism
Some of the criticism of African American literature over the years has come from within the African American community; some argue that Black literature sometimes does not portray Black people in a positive light.
This clash of
aestheticsand racial politics has its beginnings in comments made by W.E.B DuBois in the NAACP publication "The Crisis". For example, in 1921 he wrote, "We want everything that is said about us to tell of the best and highest and noblest in us. We insist that our Art and Propaganda be one." He added to this in 1926 by saying, "All Art is propaganda and ever must be, despite the wailing of the purists." DuBois and the editors of "The Crisis" consistently stated that literature was a tool in the struggle for African American political liberation.
DuBois's belief in the propaganda value of art showed most clearly when he clashed in 1928 with African American author
Claude McKayover McKay's best-selling novel "Home to Harlem". To DuBois, the novel's frank depictions of sexuality and the nightlife in Harlem only appealed to the "prurient demand [s] " of white readers and publishers looking for portrayals of Black "licentiousness." DuBois also said, "Home to Harlem" ... for the most part nauseates me, and after the dirtier parts of its filth I feel distinctly like taking a bath." [John Lowney, " [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2838/is_3_34/ai_67413397 Haiti and Black Transnationalism: Remapping the Migrant Geography of Home to Harlem] ," "African American Review", Fall 2000 (accessed July 6, 2005).] This criticism was repeated by others in the Black community when author Wallace Thurmanpublished his novel "The Blacker the Berry" in 1929. This novel, which focused on intraracial prejudice between lighter-skinned and darker-skinned Blacks, infuriated many African Americans, who did not like such a public airing of their culture's "dirty laundry." [Frederick B. Hudson, " [http://www.wbai.org/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=5546&Itemid=2 Black and Gay? A Painter Explores Historical Roots] ," "The Black World Today", April 25, 2005; Daniel M. Scott, " [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2278/is_3-4_29/ai_n9488832 Harlem shadows: re-evaluating Wallace Thurman's "The Blacker the Berry"] ," "MELUS", Fall–Winter 2004 (accessed July 6, 2005).]
Naturally, many African American writers did not agree with the viewpoint that all Black literature should be propaganda, and instead stated that literature should present the truth about life and people.
Langston Hughesarticulated this view in his essay "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain" (1926), when he said that Black artists intended to express themselves freely no matter what the Black public or white public thought.
A more recent occurrence of this Black-on-Black criticism arose in charges by some critics that
Alice Walker's novel " The Color Purple" unfairly attacked Black men. [Michael E. Muellero, [http://www.galegroup.com/free_resources/bhm/bio/walker_a.htm Biography of Alice Walker] , "Contemporary Black Biography" 1; Jen Crispin, review of " [http://www.bookslut.com/hundred_books/2003_12_001160.php The Color Purple] ", by Alice Walker. (accessed July 6, 2005).] In addition, African American author Charles R. Johnson, in the updated 1995 introduction to his novel "Oxherding Tale", criticized Walker's novel for its negative portrayal of African-American males, adding "I leave it to readers to decide which book pushes harder at the boundaries of convention, and inhabits most confidently the space where fiction and philosophy meet." Walker later refuted these charges in her book "The Same River Twice: Honoring the Difficult".
African American culture
African American history
Black sermonic tradition
List of African-American writers
The Callaloo Journal
* Andrews, W., Foster, F., and Harris, T. (Editors)."The Oxford Companion to African American Literature". Oxford, 1997.
* Brodhead, R. "An Anatomy of Multiculturalism". "Yale Alumni Magazine", April 1994. Excerpted [http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/pubs/A20/brodhead2.html here] .
* Cashmore, E. " [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FQP/is_n4331_v126/ai_19997743 Review of the Norton Anthology of African-American Literature] " "New Statesman", April 25, 1997.
* Dalrymple, T. " [http://www.newcriterion.com/archive/23/may05/dalrymple.htm An Imaginary 'Scandal'] " "The New Criterion", May 2005.
* Davis, M., Graham, M., and Pineault-Burke, S. (Editors). "Teaching African American Literature: Theory and Practice". Routledge, 1998.
* Gates, H. "The Trials of Phillis Wheatley: America's First Black Poet and Her Encounters With the Founding Fathers" Basic Civitas Books, 2003
* Gilyard, K., and Wardi, A. "African American Literature". Penguin, 2004.
* Greenberg, P. " [http://www.townhall.com/columnists/paulgreenberg/pg20050615.shtml I hate that (The rise of identity journalism)] ". Townhall.com, June 15, 2005.
* Groden, M., and Krieswirth, M. (Editors). " [http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/hopkins_guide_to_literary_theory/free/african-american_theory_and_criticism-_1.html African-American Theory and Criticism] " from the "Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism".
* Grossman, J. " [http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/1996/iht329633.html Historical Research and Narrative of Chicago and the Great Migration] ".
* Hamilton, K. " [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DXK/is_19_20/ai_111112027 Writers' Retreat: Despite the proliferation of Black authors and titles in today's marketplace, many look to literary journals to carry on the torch for the written word] ". Black Issues in Higher Education, November 6, 2003.
* Jay, G. "American Literature and the Culture Wars". Cornell University Press, 1997. Excerpted [http://www.uwm.edu/~gjay/book/intro.htm here] .
* Lowney, J. " [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2838/is_3_34/ai_67413397 Haiti and Black Transnationalism: Remapping the Migrant Geography of Home to Harlem] " "African American Review", Fall, 2000.
* McKay, N., and Gates, H. (Editors). "The Norton Anthology of African American Literature, Second Edition". W. W. Norton & Company, 2004.
* Mitchem, S. " [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2096/is_1_53/ai_102979438 No Longer Nailed to the Floor] ". "Cross Currents", spring, 2003.
* Nishikawa, K. "African American Critical Theory." "The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Multiethnic American Literature". Ed. Emmanuel S. Nelson. 5 vols. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005. 36-41.
* Nishikawa, K. "Crime and Mystery Fiction." "The Greenwood Encyclopedia of African American Literature". Ed. Hans Ostrom and J. David Macey, Jr. 5 vols. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005. 360-67.
* Roach, R. " [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DXK/is_n15_v14/ai_20318388 Powerful pages: Unprecedented Public Impact of W.W. Norton and Co's Norton Anthology of African American Literature] ". Black Issues in Higher Education, September 18, 1997.
* Scott, D. " [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2278/is_3-4_29/ai_n9488832 Harlem shadows: Re-evaluating Wallace Thurman's The Blacker the Berry] ". "MELUS", fall-winter, 2004.
* John Callahan, Ph.D., "In the African-American Grain: Call and Response in Twentieth-Century Black Fiction", University of Illinois Press, reprint ed., 2001. ISBN 025206982X
*Dorson, Richard M., editor
**"Negro Folktales in Michigan", Harvard University Press, 1956.
**"Negro Tales from Pine Bluff, Arkansas, and Calvin, Michigan", 1958.
**"American Negro Folktales", 1967.
*Piacentino, Ed. " [http://www.southernspaces.org/contents/2007/piacentino/1a.htm Seeds of Rebellion in Plantation Fiction: Victor Séjour's "The Mulatto"] ". "Southern Spaces". August 28, 2007.
* [http://blackliterature.com BlackLiterature.com]
* [http://xroads.virginia.edu/~hyper/wpa/wpahome.html American Slave Narratives: An Online Anthology]
* [http://www.accd.edu/sac/english/bailey/aframlit.htm A Brief Chronology of African American Literature]
* [http://digital.nypl.org/schomburg/writers_aa19/toc.html African American Women Writers of the 19th Century]
* [http://aalbc.com/ African American Literature Book Club]
* [http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/sites/aframdocs.html Complete text of classic African American books and essays]
* [http://www.ctadams.com/famous1.html "Famous Writers Section", Mr. Africa Poetry Lounge]
* [http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/texts.html North American Slave Narratives]
* [http://www.blackauthorsconnect.com BlackAuthorsConnect.com]
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