Food technology

Food technology, or Food tech for short is the application of food science to the selection, preservation, processing, packaging, distribution, and use of safe, nutritious, and wholesome food.

Food scientists and food technologists study the physical, microbiological, and chemical makeup of food. Depending on their area of specialization, food scientists may develop ways to process, preserve, package, or store food, according to industry and government specifications and regulations. Consumers seldom think of the vast array of foods and the research and development that has resulted in the means to deliver tasty, nutritious, safe, and convenient foods.

In some schools, food technology is part of the curriculum and teaches, alongside "how" to cook, nutrition and the food manufacturing process.

Early history of food technology

Research in the field now known as food technology has been conducted for decades. Nicolas Appert’s development in 1810 of the canning process was a decisive event. The process wasn’t called canning then and Appert did not really know the principle on which his process worked, but canning has had a major impact on food preservation techniques.

Louis Pasteur's research on the spoilage of wine and his description of how to avoid spoilage in 1864 was an early attempt to put food technology on a scientific basis. Besides research into wine spoilage, Pasteur did research on the production of alcohol, vinegar, wines and beer, and the souring of milk. He developed pasteurization—the process of heating milk and milk products to destroy food spoilage and disease-producing organisms. In his research into food technology, Pasteur became the pioneer into bacteriology and of modern preventive medicine.

By 1940's to 1950's, the original four departments that had taught the subject under different names (including those at the University of Massachusetts and the University of California) had been retitled "food science", "food science and technology", or a similar variant.

Developments in food technology

Several companies in the food industry have played a role in the development of food technology. These developments have contributed greatly to the food supply. Some of these developments are:

*Instantized Milk Powder - D.D. Peebles (U.S. patent 2,835,586) developed the first instant milk powder, which has become the basis for a variety of new products that are rehydratable in cold water or milk. This process increases the surface area of the powdered product by partially rehydrating spray-dried milk powder.

*Freeze Drying - The first application of freeze drying was most likely in the pharmaceutical industry; however, a successful large-scale industrial application of the process was the development of continuous freeze drying of coffee.

*High-Temperature Short Time Processing - These processes for the most part are characterized by rapid heating and cooling, holding for a short time at a relatively high temperature and filling aseptically into sterile containers.

*Decaffeination of Coffee and Tea - Decaffeinated coffee and tea was first developed on a commercial basis in Europe around 1900. The process is described in U.S. patent 897,763. Green coffee beans are treated with steam or water to around 20% moisture. The added water and heat separate the caffeine from the bean to its surface. Solvents are then used to remove the caffeine from the beans. In the 1980s, new non-organic solvent techniques have been developed for the decaffeination of coffee and tea. Carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions is one of these new techniques. U.S. patent 4,820,537 was issued to General Foods Corp. for a CO2 decaffeination process.

*Process optimization- Food Technology now allows production of foods to be more efficient, Oil saving technologies are now available on different forms. Production methods and methodology have also become increasingly sophisticated.

External links

* [ Food Science Central] International Food Information Service (IFIS).
* [ Institute of Food Technologists] Professional non-profit society for food technology and food science.
* [ Food processing technology] Worldwide food processing industry organisations and projects.
* [ Food-Info] Largest consumer oriented information on food science and technology in many languages
* [ Food processing technology knowledge portal] Big knowledge base on the food processing industry in Europe.
* [ S-4 Nanoball] Applications of Nanotechnology on Food Production for Deep Frying
* [ European Federation of Food Science and Technology]
* [ Food Science Programme] Food Science research at the Bragg Institute in Australia
* [] Industrial food ingredients search engine, especially meant for food technologists

Food Technology journals

Drying Technology []
* [ LWT - Food Science and Technology] , ISSN: 0023-6438, Elsevier
* [ Trends in Food Science & Technology] , ISSN: 0924-2244, Elsevier

Food Science and Technology Study Programmes

* [ Wageningen University] , the Netherlands
* [ European Masters Degree in Food Studies] , 4 countries
* [ Brigham Young University] , USA
* [ Cornell University] , USA
* [ Iowa State University] , USA
* [ Kansas State University] , USA
* [ Louisiana State University ] , USA>
* [ Michigan State University] , USA
* [ Mississippi State University] , USA
* [ North Carolina State University ] , USA
* [ North Dakota State University] , USA
* [ Ohio State University ] , USA
* [ Oregon State University] , USA
* [ Pennsylvania State University] , USA
* [ Purdue University] , USA
* [ Rutgers University] , USA
* [ Texas A&M University] , USA
* [ University of Arkansas] , USA
* [ University of California Davis] , USA
* [ University of Florida] , USA
* [ University of Georgia] , USA
* [ University of Illinois] , USA
* [ University of Kentucky] , USA
* [ University of Leeds] , United Kingdom
* [ University of Leeds] , USA
* [ University of Maryland] , USA>
* [ University of Massachusetts] , USA
* [ University of Maine] , USA>
* [ University of Minnesota] , USA
* [ University of Missouri (Columbia)] , USA
* [http://www. University of Reading] , UK
* [ University of Nebraska] , USA
* [ University of Tennessee ] , USA
* [ University of Wisconsin (Madison)] , USA
* [ University of Wisconsin (River Falls)] , USA
* [ Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University] , USA
* [ Washington State University] , USA
* [" Wayne State University] , USA
* [ University of the Philippines Diliman - College of Home Economics] , Philippines
* [ University of Santo Tomas] , Philippines
* [ Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Philippines
* [ IIT Kharagpur, India
* [, Dept Food and Agric. Product Tech. Gadjah Mada Univ Jogjakarta, Indonesia
* [] ,INDIA
* [ Warsaw University of Life Sciences SGGW, Poland

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