Autonomous area


Autonomous area

An autonomous area is an area of a country that has a degree of autonomy, or freedom from an external authority. Typically it is either geographically distinct from the country or is populated by a national minority. Countries that include autonomous areas are often federacies. Autonomous areas can be divided into territorial autonomies, subregional territorial autonomies and local autonomies.

The Meaning of Autonomy

Autonomy is independence or freedom, as of the will or one's actions: the autonomy of the individual.

For a list of autonomous areas, see List of autonomous areas by country and List of territorial autonomies.

Contemporary

Many autonomous areas lie within two of the world's largest countries, People's Republic of China and Russia.

Iraq

Iraqi Kurdistan is the only region which has gained official recognition internationally as an autonomous federal entity.

China

China (PRC) has five types of autonomous area.

Autonomous banner

Found only as divisions of Inner Mongolia. In effect, these are autonomous counties (see below).

Autonomous county

The most numerous type of autonomous area in China, found both within and outside the larger autonomous prefectures and regions.

Autonomous prefecture

China has 30 prefectures that are autonomous, mostly in the periphery of the country.

Autonomous region

A first-level administrative subdivision of China. There are five ARs in China. They are Inner Mongolia AR, Tibet AR, Ningxia Hui AR, Xinjiang Uyghur AR, and Guangxi Zhuang AR. Regardless of the names, these regions are in fact less autonomous than a "standard" region of China.

pecial administrative region

Although not autonomous in name, in practice China's special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau) enjoy a high degree of autonomy.

Russia

Apart from its republics, which by definition have a degree of autonomy, Russia has two types of autonomies:

Autonomous okrug

"Okrug" is a transliterated Slavic loanword usually translated as "district". The sizes of okrugs, however, vary more widely than other areas commonly identified as "districts", from large first-level divisions to third-level divisions within cities. As of 2008, Russia has four autonomous okrugs.

Autonomous oblast

"Oblast" is a transliterated Slavic loanword usually understood to mean "province". , one autonomous oblast exists: the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.

Other countries

The other types of autonomous area to be found in the world are:

Autonomous city

Four cities are formally designated by their countries as autonomous: the capital of Uzbekistan, Tashkent;the capital of Belgium Brussels; the Spanish exclaves of Ceuta and Melilla; and the Argentinian capital, Buenos Aires. Another Argentinian city that has been pressing for autonomous status is Rosario, a city of around one million inhabitants that receives less subsidy than the smaller provincial capital Santa Fe.

Autonomous commune

Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, is described as an autonomous commune ("commune autonome").

Autonomous community

The region-like areas into which Spain's provinces are grouped are known as autonomous communities ("comunidades autónomas"), as are the three atolls constituting the New Zealand territory of Tokelau.

Autonomous province

Six countries formally designate areas of their territory as autonomous provinces:
* The Åland Islands, a part of Finland.
* The two provinces of Trento (or Trentino) and Bolzano (or South Tyrol) in Italy.
* The Bougainville province in Papua New Guinea.
* Jeju-do, a South Korean offshore island.
* Vojvodina in Serbia (Kosovo is also regarded an autonomous province by Serbia although it declared unilaterally its independence in 2008)

Autonomous region

In addition to the autonomous regions of China mentioned above, various other areas of the world are formally described as autonomous regions:
* the Faroe Islands and Greenland [Also described as a "self-governing territory"Fact|date=May 2007.] , two autonomous regions within the Kingdom of Denmark.
* Rodrigues, an autonomous dependency within the Republic of Mauritius.
* the six autonomous regions of India.
* the five "autonomous regions with special statute" in Italy: Sicily, Sardinia, Aosta Valley, Trentino-Alto Adige and Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
* the two autonomous regions of Portugal (the Azores and Madeira).
* Mount Athos in Greece.
* Zelaya in Nicaragua.
* the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, within the Philippines.
* the five municipalities, or caracoles in Chiapas, in the southeast of Mexico.
* Nunatsiavut, a self-governing region of Labrador Inuit in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
* The Nisga'a of British Columbia and Tli Cho of the Northwest Territories have self-government as a result of treaties.

Autonomous republic

In addition to the Russian republics mentioned above, areas known as "autonomous republics" exist within some of the countries established following the end of the Soviet Union:
* the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic within Azerbaijan.
* Abkhazia and the Autonomous Republic of Adjaria within Georgia.
* the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province within Tajikistan.
* the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine.
* the Karakalpakstan Republic within Uzbekistan.
* the Palestinian Authority within Israel exercises certain sovereign powers within its borders, but is not a fully independent government. The PA-administrated territories are internationally recognized as occupied by Israel, and not a proper part of that country.

Autonomous sector

The Bissau Region, in which Guinea-Bissau's capital Bissau is found, is described as an "autonomous sector" ("sector autónomo").

Historical

* Bantustans of apartheid-era South Africa and Namibia.
* Subcarpathian Ruthenia and Slovakia within Czechoslovakia (1938-1939).
* Grand Duchy of Finland.
* Hungarian Autonomous Province.

Other

Other areas that are autonomous in nature but not in name are areas designated for indigenous peoples, such as those of the Americas:
* "Indian" (First Nation or Native American) reserves and reservations, in, respectively, Canada and the United States.
* the five "comarcas indígenas" ("indigenous regions") of Panama.

If elected, the Action démocratique du Québec party, now the official opposition in the Canadian province of Quebec, promises to work to make Quebec an autonomous region within the Canadian confederation.

Notes

ee also

* List of autonomous areas by country
* Country subdivision
* Personal union
* List of autonomous regions leaders

Bibliography

* M. Weller and S. Wolff (eds), Autonomy, Self-governance and Conflict Resolution: Innovative Approaches to Institutional Design in Divided Societies. Abingdon, Routledge, 2005
* [http://www.minorityrights.org/admin/Download/pdf/NicaraguaMicro2007.pdf From Conflict to Autonomy in Nicaragua: Lessons Learnt] , report by Minority Rights Group International
* P.M. Olausson, Autonomy and Islands, A Global Study of the Factors that determine Island Autonomy. Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press, 2007.


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