West Africa Campaign (World War II)

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=West Africa Campaign
partof=African Campaigns, World War II


caption=
date=July 10 – November 12, 1940
place=French West Africa, French Equatorial Africa
result=• Vichy victory in French West Africa
• Allied victory in French Equatorial Africa
combatant1=flagicon|United Kingdom United Kingdom
flagicon|Australia Australia
flagicon|France|free Free France
flagicon|Netherlands Netherlands
combatant2=
commander1=flagicon|United Kingdom Andrew Cunningham
flagicon|France|free Charles De Gaulle
commander2=
strength1=
strength2=
casualties1=
casualties2=

The name West African campaign refers to two battles during World War II: the Battle of Dakar (also known as Operation Menace) and the Battle of Gabon, both of which were in late 1940. The actions involved Allied forces attacking Vichy French forces in French overseas territories in West Africa.

Following the capture of Gabon, Free French forces controlled French Equatorial Africa, while French West Africa remained under Vichy control, until the Allied landings in North Africa (Operation Torch) in November 1942.

Course of the campaign

Anti-British sentiment in Africa had run high after the French battleship "Richelieu" had been hit in the port of Dakar, Senegal, in French West Africa. This event happened on July 10 1940. cite web
title=The Second World War in the French Overseas Empire
url=http://worldatwar.net/timeline/france/empire40-45.html
accessdate=2006-02-27
] In August, Free French General Charles de Gaulle suggested an overland campaign, landing at Conakry, French Guinea. He anticipated that popular support for the Free French movement would be built in a drive on Dakar. But de Gaulle's suggestion was overruled by British desires to move swiftly.

On 18 September, three French light cruisers, the "Georges Leygues", the "Gloire", and the "Montcalm" were intercepted by Allied ships en route to Libreville. The intercepting Allied ships included the heavy cruiser HMAS "Australia". The three French light cruisers were forced to retreat.

French West Africa

The resistance stiffened as a result of the attacks on the French ships. From 5 September to September 1940, the Battle of Dakar was fought when the Allied forces failed to persuade the Vichy French defenders of Dakar to allow them to peacefully enter the city. The Allied forces first tried to persuade the Vichy forces by means of propaganda. They then attempted to take Dakar by force of arms. Both attempts ended in defeat. Allied hopes to take French West Africa were put aside and strategic considerations shifted to French Equatorial Africa instead.

French Equatorial Africa

This battle, fought between 8 November and 12 November, resulted in the capture of Libreville and the liberation of French Equatorial Africa from Vichy control.

Outcome

Free French Forces consolidated their gains in French Equatorial Africa, and were able to assist in other campaigns, including the East AfricanFact|Free French forces fought in East Africa but is there any support that these forces came from the French colonies or French forces in West Africa|date=September 2008 and North African Campaigns. However, French West Africa did not capitulate or join the Allied cause until the November 1942 landings of Operation Torch.

References

External links

* http://users.swing.be/baten/bat/910.html
* http://www.ahoy.tk-jk.net/macslog/OperationMenace.September.html
* http://history1900s.about.com/library/prm/blwaugh2.htm
* http://www.navy.gov.au/HMAS_Australia_%28II%29
* http://stonebooks.com/archives/960425.shtml


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