Aloin


Aloin

Drugbox
IUPAC_name = Aloin A: (10S)-10-Glucopyranosyl-1,8-dihydroxy-
3-(hydroxymethyl)-9(10H)-anthracenoneAloin B: (10R)-10-Glucopyranosyl-1,8-dihydroxy-
3-(hydroxymethyl)-9(10H)-anthracenone






CAS_number = 8015-61-0
ATC_prefix =
ATC_suffix =
PubChem = 313325
DrugBank =
chemical_formula = | C = 21 | H = 22 | O = 9
molecular_weight = 418.39
melting_point = 148
melting_notes = (70-80 °C for monohydrate)
solubility =
bioavailability =
protein_bound =
metabolism =
elimination_half-life =
excretion =
pregnancy_AU =
pregnancy_US =
pregnancy_category=
legal_AU =
legal_CA =
legal_UK =
legal_US =
legal_status =
routes_of_administration = Oral

Aloin is a bitter, lemon-yellow-colored compound isolated from the aloe plant. It is used as a stimulant-laxative, treating constipation by inducing bowel movements. [The Merck Index, 12th Edition. 314] The compound is present in the yellow aloe latex that exudes from under the surface of the plant's leaves, and is not found in the gel commonly used to treat skin conditions.

In May 2002, the US FDA issued a ruling that aloe laxatives are no longer generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and effective, meaning that aloin-containing products are no longer available over-the-counter in the United States. [ [http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/98fr/050902a.htm FDA docket] Sec. 310.545 (a)(12)(iv)(c)]

tructure and preparation

Aloin extracted from natural sources is a mixture of two diastereomers, termed aloin A (also called barbaloin) and aloin B (or isobarbaloin), which have similar chemical properties. Aloin is an anthraquinone glycoside, meaning that its anthraquinone skeleton has been modified by the addition of a sugar molecule. Anthraquinones are a common family of naturally occurring yellow, orange, and red pigments of which many have cathartic properties, attributes shared by aloin. Aloin is related to aloe emodin, which lacks a sugar group but shares aloin's biological properties. [cite journal |last=Grün |first=M |coauthors=G. Franz |year=1981 |month=October |title=In vitro biosynthesis of the C-glycosidic bond in aloin |journal=Planta |volume=152 |issue=6 |pages=562–564 |issn=0032-0935 |doi=10.1007/BF00380828]

Aloin is usually prepared by extraction from aloe latex, the bitter yellow exudate that seeps out from just underneath the skin of aloe leaves. The latex, also called 'aloe juice', is then dried and powdered to make the final product, often made into tablets or a beverage, though aloin does not have good stability in aqueous solutions. Products derived from the gel of the aloe plant do not contain appreciable amounts of aloin, and have not been proven effective for any disease or condition when taken orally.cite web| url=http://www.quackwatch.com/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/DSH/aloe.html | title=Some notes on Aloe Vera | author=Lulinski, B. R.D. |coauthor=Cathy Kapica, Ph.D., R.D.| accessdate=2007-11-12]

Effects

Once ingested, aloin increases peristaltic contractions in the colon, which induces bowel movements. Aloin also prevents the colon from re-absorbing water from the gastrointestinal tract, which leads to softer stools. This effect is caused by aloin's opening of chloride channels of the colonic membrane. In higher doses, these effects may lead to electrolyte imbalance, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, which are common side-effects of the drug. Because aloin can potentially cause uterine contractions, pregnant women should avoid ingesting aloe products. [cite journal |last=Teske |first=Sabine |year=2006 |month=July |title=Adding Product Crunch |journal=Asia Food Journal |pages=26–27 |accessdate= 2007-11-12| url=http://www.burdockgroup.com/downloads/Publications/JUL06_Asia%20Food%20Journal_Adding%20Product%20Crunch_ST.pdf ]

Legal status

Plant-derived remedies containing aloin and other anthraquinones have been used as traditional medicines since antiquity, [cite journal |last=Wamer |first=WG |coauthors= Vath, P; Falvey, DE |year=2003 |month=Jan |title=In vitro studies on the photobiological properties of aloe emodin and aloin A |journal=Free Radic Biol Med. |volume=34 |issue=2 |pages=233–42 |pmid=12521605 |accessdate= 2007-11-12 |doi=10.1016/S0891-5849(02)01242-X] but harsh side effects make aloin generally unsuitable for household or daily use. In 2002, the US FDA mandated that manufacturers reformulate or stop manufacturing over-the-counter products containing aloe because the agency did not receive necessary safety data. [cite web |url=http://nccam.nih.gov/health/aloevera/ |title=Herbs at a glance: Aloe Vera ("text is public domain") |accessdate=2008-06-25 |author=NCCAM |date=December 2006] [ [http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/98fr/050902a.htm FDA docket] Sec. 310.545 (a)(12)(iv)(c)]

References

External links

* [http://www.sciencelab.com/xMSDS-Aloin-9922841 Aloin MSDS]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Aloin — Al o*in, n. (Chem.) A bitter purgative principle in aloes. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Aloïn — (Pharm.), so v.w. Aloëbitter 1) …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Aloīn — Aloīn, s. Aloe …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Aloin — Porté dans la Saône et Loire et les départements voisins, c est un nom de personne germanique, Alawin selon M. T. Morlet (ala = tout + win = ami), éventuellement Adalwin (adal = noble). Variantes : Alloin, Alloing, Alloingt, Allouin, Alouin …   Noms de famille

  • aloin — [al′ō in΄] n. a bitter, crystalline cathartic prepared from the aloe …   English World dictionary

  • Aloin-a — Strukturformel Allgemeines Name Barbaloin Andere Namen Aloin A 10 (1 ,5 Anhydroglucosyl)aloe emodin 9 anthron 1,8 Dihydroxy 3 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Aloin — Strukturformel Allgemeines Name Aloin Andere Namen Aloin A …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • aloin — /al oh in/, n. Pharm. an intensely bitter, crystalline, water soluble powder composed of the active principles of and obtained from aloe, used chiefly as a purgative. [1835 45; ALOE + INE2] * * * …   Universalium

  • aloin — noun A glycoside derivative of anthracene, found in aloe, that is used as a laxative …   Wiktionary

  • aloin — A yellow crystalline principle made up of aloe emodin and glucose, obtained from aloe; used as a laxative. SYN: aloetin, barbaloin. * * * al·o·in al ə wən n a bitter yellow crystalline cathartic obtained from the aloe and containing one or more… …   Medical dictionary


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