Jews have historically used Hebrew patronymicnames. In the Jewish patronymic system the first name is followed by either "ben-" or "bat-" ("son of" and "daughter of," respectively), and then the father's name. ("Bar-", "son of" in Aramaic, is also seen). Permanent family surnames exist today but only gained popularity among Sephardic Jewsin Iberia and elsewhere as early as the 10th or 11th century and did not spread widely to the Ashkenazic Jewsof Germanyor Eastern Europeuntil much later. While Jews now have permanent surnames for everyday life, the patronymic form is still used in religious life. It is used in synagogueand in documents in Jewish law such as the ketubah(marriage contract). Many Sephardic Jews used the Arabic "ibn" instead of "bat" or "ben" when it was the norm. The Spanish family Ibn Ezrais one example.
Many immigrants to modern Israel change their names to Hebrew names, to erase remnants of "galuti" (exiled) life still surviving in family names from other languages. This phenomenon was especially common among Ashkenazic Jewish immigrants to Israel, because most of their names were taken later and some were imposed by the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires.
A popular form to create a new family name using Jewish patronymics sometimes related to poetic Zionist themes, such as "ben Ami" ("son of my people"), or "ben Artzi" ("son of my country"), and sometimes related to the Israeli landscape, such as "bar Ilan" ("son of the trees"). Others have create Hebrew names based on phonetic similarity with their original family name: "Golda Meyersohn" became
Golda Meir. Another famous person who used a false patronymic was the first Israeli Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, whose original family name was Grün but adopted the name "Ben-Gurion" ("son of the lioncub"), not "Ben-Avigdor" (his father's name).
As has been seen, surnames were not unknown among the Jews of the Middle Ages, and as Jews began to mingle more with their fellow citizens, the practice of using or adopting civic surnames in addition to the "sacred" name, used only in religious connections, grew commensurately. Of course, among the
Sephardimthis practice was common almost from the time of the exile from Spain, and probably became still more common as a result of the example of the Marranos, who on adopting Christianityaccepted in most cases the family names of their godfathers. Among the Ashkenazim, whose isolation from their fellow citizens was more complete, the use of surnames only started to become common in the eighteenth century.
Austrian Empirean order was issued in 1787 which compelled the Jews to adopt surnames, though their choice of given names was restricted mainly to Biblical ones. [A list of permitted first names is given in Kropatschat's "Gesetzsammlung" (xiv. 539-567), the names marked in black letters being those reserved for Jews.] Commissions of officers were appointed to register all the Jewish inhabitants under such names. If a Jew refused to select a name the commission was empowered to force one upon him. This led to a wholesale creation of artificial surnames, of which Jewish nomenclature bears the traces to the present day. Among the latter class are the following, mentioned by Karl Emil Franzos: Bettelarm(destitute), Diamant(diamond), Drachenblut(dragon's blood), Durst(thirst), Edelstein(gemstone), Elephant, Eselskopf(donkey's head), Fresser(glutton), Galgenstrick(sl. for rogue), Galgenvogel(gallows bird), Geldschrank(safe, as in: for money), Goldader(gold vein), Gottlos(godless), Groberklotz(clumsy clod), Hinterkopfor Hinterkop(back of the head), Hunger(hunger), Karfunkel(carbuncle), Küssemich(kiss me), Ladstockschwinger(ramrod swinger), Lumpe(crook, rag), Maizel, Maulthier(mule), Maulwurf(mole), Nachtkäfer(night beetle), Nashorn(rhinoceros), Nothleider(being needy), Ochsenschwanz(ox tail), Pferd(horse), Pulverbestandtheil(powder component), Rindskopf(cow's head), Säuger(infant; lit. suckler), Saumagen(stomach of a sow), Schmetterling(butterfly), Schnapser, Singmirwas(sing me something), Smaragd(emerald), Stinker(bad smelling), Taschengreifer(pickpocketer), Temperaturwechsel(change of temperature), Todtschläger(cudgel / manslayer), Trinker(drinker), Veilchenduft(violet's fragrance), Wanzenknicker(bug killer), Weinglas(wineglass), Wohlgeruch(good smelling). Napoleonalso, in a decree of July 20, 1808, insisted upon the Jews adopting fixed names ["L'Univers Israélite", lvii. 472] While various governments thus forced the Jews to adopt surnames, they were at the same time inclined to limit their freedom in the selection of given names. In Bohemiathe provisions of the law which was passed in 1787 restricting them to Biblical names were not rescinded until August 11, 1836. The Prussian government in the same year attempted to introduce a similar restriction in that state, which led to Leopold Zunzproducing his classical monograph, "Die Namen der Juden",Leopold Zuns: "Namen der Juden. Eine geschichtliche Untersuchung". Leipzig 1837. Reprint, Hildesheim: Gerstenberg, 1971] in which he showed, from examples taken from all periods, that the Jews had freely adopted the current and popular names of their neighbors in all parts of the globe. Owing mainly to this "tour de force" the enactment was not pressed. Similar rules have been passed by the Russian government from time to time, but without producing much effect.
A recent investigation into
Berlinprænomens shows that modern Jews of that city adopt the ordinary given names of their neighbors, but that they tend to keep a certain number of names, though not of Biblical origin, popular among themselves. Thus Harryis mainly Jewish, and the same may be said of Isidore, Jacques, James, and Sigbert. Almost all the Moritzes are Jewish, as well as the majority of Ludwigs, and Juliusis almost equally popular among the BerlinJews. The following popular names in most places represent the accompanying Biblical names: "Isidore", "Isaac"; "Jacques" and "James", "Jacob"; "Ludwig", Levi; "Moritz", Moses. Bennois used for "Benjamin", and in one case Dagobertfor "David". Among Jewish girls Reginaand Rosaare popular names.Nathan Pulvermacher: "Berliner Vornamen. Eine statistische Untersuchung". Berlin: Programm Berlin Lessing-Gymnasium, 1902/1903] Notwithstanding this permission to adopt arbitrary surnames, there was still a tendency, at any rate among German-speaking Jews, to adapt these from Biblical names in one or other of their variant forms.
In Spain and Portugal
The use of surnames thus became common among the Arabic-speaking Jews, who naturally carried the custom into
Spain. Among Spanish Jews are found such names as Abeldano, corresponding to "Ibn el-Danan"; Abencabre, corresponding to "Ibn Zabara"; Avinbruch, corresponding to "Ibn Baruch", Hacencorresponding to Hassanor Hazan; and the like. Biblical names often take curious forms in the Spanish records, "Isaac" appearing as Acaz, "Cohen" as Coffenor Coffe, "Yom-Ṭob" as Bondia, "Ẓemaḥ" as Crescasor Cresquez. The "Ḥen" family appears to have adopted a translation of the name of their home-village, Gracia, near Barcelona(Loeb, in "R. E. J." iv. 73). Indeed, among the Spaniards the tendency to adopt family names from localities is largely developed; hence were derived such names as Espinosa, Gerondi, Cavalleria, Delmonti, Lousada, and Villa Real. The name "Sasportas" deserves special attention, as it is really the Balearicdialectal form of La Porta. Also, some family, specially among "marranos" (Jewish converts to Christianity) took Spanish family names, sometimes using translation ("Vidal" or "De Vidas" for "Hayyim", "Lobos" for "Zev", "De Paz" for "Salom", and so on) or phonetic similarity, in a "kinnui"-like system, sometimes choosing between already existing ones ("Pizarro"/"Pissarro", "Mendes", "Fonseca", "Rodríguez" and so on).
In France, England and Germany
Francethe use of Biblical names appears to have been more extended, judging by the elaborate lists at the end of Gross's "Gallia Judaica." True surnames occurred, especially in the south, like "Abigdor", "Farissol", "Bonet", "Barron", "Lafitte"; but as a rule local distinctions were popular, as "Samson of Sens", etc.
The early Jews of
England, who spoke French throughout their stay, also used Biblical names; the most popular name, in the twelfth century at least, being "Isaac", next to which came Joseph. On both sides of the British Channel there was a tendency to translate Biblical names into French, as Deulesaltfor "Isaiah", Serfdeufor "Obadiah", Deudonefor Elhanan, but the ordinary popular names were adopted also, as Beleasez, Fleurdelis, and Murielfor Jewesses, or Amiot, Bonevie, Bonenfaund, Bonfil, among men. Deulacresand "Crescas" both occur (probably corresponding to "Solomon" or "Gedaliah").
Germanythe tendency to adopt Christian names was perhaps most marked, such names as Bernhard, Bero, Eberhard, Falk, Gumprecht, Knoblauch, Liebreich, Manzand Manswhich both constitute the Alemannic/Swabian short form of the personal name "Mangold", Süsskind, Weiss, and Wolfbeing among those noticed in the early Middle Ages. Especially popular were compounds with "-mann" or "-man", as Feldmann, Kaufmann, Lieberman, Lipman, and Seligman.
Local names form, perhaps, the larger number of surnames among modern Jews, though no one locally derived name occurs so frequently as the least common Biblical one. Besides general names like
Hollander, Deutsch, Frank, Franco, Frankel, almost every European country has contributed its quota. The Netherlandshas contributed Leuwarden, Neumegen, Limburg, van Thal, and various other vans, as van Ryn, ( Rhine), etc.
Germany, of course, has contributed the largest number. Besides such well-known cities as
Posen(hence Posner), Berlin(hence Berlinerand Berlinsky), Bingen, Cassel (cf. David Cassel), Treves(hence, according to some authorities, originated the very popular Alsatianname of Dreyfus), Dresden, Fulda(hence Foulde), and Oppenheim, less familiar towns, like Auerbach, Behrendt, Bischoffsheim, Flatau(hence Flath, and Flathow), Hildesheim( Hildesheimer), Landshuth, Sulzberg, have contributed their share.
A certain number of names which might at first sight seem to be derived artificially are merely names of towns after which they were taken, like
Birnbaum(translated into " Peartree"), Rosenberg, Sommerfeld, Grünberg(hence Greenberg), Goldberg, and Rubenstein.
Crawcour(cf. Siegfied Kracauer) comes from Cracow, while "Van Praagah" is the name of a Praguefamily that settled in the Netherlandsbefore going over to England. The name Meitner(or Maitner, Majtner) has origin in the village of Majetín(in German Majetein) near the city of Olomouc. The name Gordonmay in some cases be derived be from the Russian GrodnoFact|date=September 2008. From Polandhave come names such as Polano, Pollock, Polack, Polak, Pollak, Poole, Pool, and Polk. Sephardic surnames, as already mentioned, are almost invariably local, as Almanzi, Castro, Carvajal, Leon, Navarro, Robles, Sevilla(Spanish), and Almeida, Carvallo, Miranda, and Pieba(Portuguese). Many Italian names are also of this class, as Alatino, Genovese(from Genoa), Meldola, Montefiore, Mortara, Pisa, Rizzolo, Romanelli(with its variants Romanin, Romain, Romayne, and Romanel), Vitalis (from Jaimor Chaimand its variants Vidal, Vidale and Vidas); Paradisoan anagram for the word Diaspora (dispersion). Even in the East there are names of these last two classes, Behar(from Bejar), Barron(from BarOn), Behar(from Bejar), Galante, Veneziani, though there are a few Arabic names like Alfandariand Ḥaggis; Greek, as Galipapaand Pappo; and a few Turkish, as Jamila, Bilbil, and Sabad. [ Franco, "Histoire des Israélites de l'Empire Ottoman"',' pp. 284-285.]
Going still farther east, the curious custom which prevails among the
Bene Israelmay be mentioned of changing Biblical names to similar Hindunames with the addition of "-jee", thus Benjamininto Benmajee, Abrahaminto Abrajee, Davidinto Dawoodjee, Jacobinto Akkoobjee. Before dismissing the local names, the names Altschulor Altschuler, derived from the "Altschul" ("old school/synagogue") of Prague, should be mentioned. To the signs of the " Frankfurter Judengasse" are due the names of some of the best known of Jewish families: Rothschild ("red shield"), Schwarzschild("black shield"), Adler("eagle"), Ganzor Gans (" goose"), Schiff("ship"), Strauss(" ostrich"), and Ochs("ox"). Schudtgives a list of these signs. ["Schudt1"Jüdische Merkwürdigkeiten. Vorstellende, was sich Curieuses ... mit denen ... Juden zugetragen". Franckfurt und Leipzig 1714-18. Reprint Berlin: Lamm, 1922; p. 151-154.]
Official names and nicknames
Turning to the next great source from which have been derived the surnames used in ordinary nomenclature—trades and occupations—such names as
Kaufmannand Marchant("merchant") become prominent. Others of the same kind are: Banks(Surname) Spielmann("player"); Steinschneider("engraver"); Schuster, Schneider, Schneiders, and Snyders("tailor"; in Hebrew " Ḥayyat"; hence " Chayet"); Wechsler("money-changer"). But there are others that are more distinctively Jewish: "Parnass" and "Gabbay", from the synagogue officials who were so called; Singer, Cantor, Voorsanger, Chazan, Cantarini, from the singers of Israel; Shochet, Schaechter, Schechter, from the ritual slaughterer; Ballin, a bath-keeper; Shadkun, a marriage-broker; MorenoFact|date=April 2007, Rabe, Rabinowitz, Rabinovich, Rabinowicz, and Rabbinovitz, rabbis; Benmohel, son of one who performed circumcision, the sacred rite of Abraham. [see a more extensive list of [http://www.geocities.com/teflonivan/1names.htm name meanings] ] A number of Arabic names are of similar origin: Al-Fakhkhar, a potter; Mocatta, a mason or possibly a soldier (" Al-Muḳatil"). [For the various forms of "Cohen" see Jew. Encyc. iv. 144.]
Descriptive titles, again, are mainly derived from modern languages, and are sometimes translated into Hebrew: thus,
Azariah dei Rossiis known as "Azariah Min ha-Adummim"; or sometimes the Hebrew name is translated into the current languages: thus Jafeh/ Yaffe/ Yoffe("beautiful") is translated into Schön, Schöndel, Schandel, Bonfet. In Aramaic, "beautiful" is "shapir", which, perhaps merged with the town-name Speyer, yielded Shapiro. Nicknames seem not to be so frequently adopted as surnames among Jews, though so usual among them in the ordinary life of the ghetto. Yom-Toband Purimare possibly to be included in this class, and it is said that the various forms of " Kaiser" and "King" are derived from players of that part in the Purim plays(" purimshpil"). Instead of nicknames, modern Jews use contractions of Hebrew descriptive names; thus, Shönrepresents " Sheliaḥ Ne'eman", and Schatz, " Sheliach tzibbur"; Katz("cat") represents " KohnẒedeḳ"; Goetz(in English, " Yates") equals " Ger Ẓedeḳ"; Sackis used for a member of the "Zera' Qodesh", or "holy posterity", and it is said that when an "-s" is attached this reference is to the fraternity of that name at Speyer. Bran, Braun, or Brownis said to represent "Ben Rabbi Nachman"; while Bril, Brill represents "Ben Rabbi Judah Löb".
A few miscellaneous names may be referred to:
Speranza, which is used as a woman's name, occurs in the form of Sprinzerin Russia; Margolisand Margoliothare variations of Margaret; and Marguerite(" pearl") finds equivalents in Pereland Perles. The Wahls claim to descend from Saul Wahl, who was king of Polandfor one day. Schöntheilis supposed to be a translation of Bonaparte, and Stiebelis derived from the little room kept for the " bachur" in rich Jews' houses.
List of Jewish nobility
Family name etymology
German family name etymology
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